We investigated how different ways of interviewing, i.e., free recall (FR), free recall with context reinstatement (CR), asking misleading questions (Q), or interviewing with open-ended questions (O) affect children's eyewitness reports and their subsequent memory of a viewed event. Participants were 249 eight and ten year-old children. Children were shown a video, and then were interviewed using either FR, CR, Q, or O, followed by an immediate recognition test, and a delayed recall and recognition tests several days later about the event. Results showed that O interviews elicited a greater amount of accurate information than FR, CR, and Q interviews. For older children, CR interviews elicited more accurate information than FR and Q interviews without eliciting inaccurate information. However, for younger children, the subsequent recognition memory for the event was more accurate for children who were interviewed using FR and O. These results suggest that O is the most effective way of conducting investigative interviews with children not only to elicit accurate information but also to keep their memories relatively intact.
Although it is generally believed that frequent lateness might lead to absenteeism, the evidence for this has not been ascertained. We investigated the relationship between earlier lateness and subsequent absenteeism in a three-year longitudinal study in a public junior high school in Japan. The participants were 263 students (124 males, 139 females) whose school records were available for three consecutive academic years. Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that students who had been late for 30 or more days during their 1st year of junior high school were significantly more likely to show absenteeism during 2nd and 3rd year than students who had been late less than 30 days. Cox's proportional hazards regression model confirmed that frequent lateness was the only significant predictor, after controlling socio-demographics and psychosocial variables including stressors at school and stress responses. The substantial linkage of frequent lateness to absenteeism found in this study suggests the necessity of paying more attention to lateness for the prevention of absenteeism.
The effects of false memories on polygraph examinations with the Concealed Information Test (CIT) were investigated by using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, which allows participants to evoke false memories. Physiological responses to questions consisting of learned, lure, and unlearned items were measured and recorded. The results indicated that responses to lure questions showed critical responses to questions about learned items. These responses included repression of respiration, an increase in electrodermal activity, and a drop in heart rate. These results suggest that critical response patterns are generated in the peripheral nervous system by true and false memories.
A Japanese version of the Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-J) had been developed, but needed improvement especially with respect to the number of items. This study was designed to develop and evaluate a short version of the SIRI-J (SIRI-JS). Study 1 used factor analysis, which revealed that the SIRI-J included two components. On the basis of these results, we extracted five items from each component, added three items to represent practical crisis-intervention situations, and drafted the SIRI-JS with 13 items. We also confirmed a strong correlation between the original subscales and those of the short version. Study 2 reconfirmed the validity and reliability of the new measure. In summary, we demonstrated that the SIRI-JS is suitable for assessing the effects of suicide-prevention training.
We have developed a group Stroop Color-Word Test that measures both Stroop and reverse-Stroop interference. In this test, the participants had to match a pertinent word with a color patch from among the choices printed on paper. The purpose of this study was to investigate the life-span development of Stroop and reverse-Stroop interference as measured by this test. A total of 1 945 participants (age 7─86 years old) completed this test. We found that Stroop interference was greatest among children, then decreased with age to adulthood, and finally increased among the older people. These results correspond with the findings of previous developmental studies conducted using verbal responses. The reverse-Stroop interference was found to be smallest among children, increased with age to adulthood, and then remained constant even among older adults. These results suggest that Stroop interference and reverse Stroop interference reflect different cognitive processes.
This study developed the Japanese version of the Multidimensional School Anger Inventory (MSAI; Smith & Furlong, 1998). The MSAI was devised to assess anger in the school context from a multidimensional perspective, which includes Anger Experience (affective component), Cynical Attitude (cognitive component), Destructive Expression and Positive Coping (behavioral component). The responses of 3 443 students from elementary to high school, age 10 to 17 on the Japanese version of the MSAI were used in the analyses. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis identified that the four-factor structure of the J-MSAI was the same as for the original MSAI. The reliability of the scale was supported by internal consistency and test-retest stability for the subscales. The construct validity of the scale was supported by cross-instrument correlations. Furthermore, the results showed that junior high and high school students had higher scores for Cynical Attitude than elementary school students, whereas developmental level had little effect on Anger Experience and Destructive Expression.
It is known that a directionally ambiguous test stimulus is perceived to move in the same direction as a brief preceding priming stimulus when both stimuli are presented at the same retinal location (visual motion priming). To examine the spatial properties of visual motion priming under different retinal illuminance, we manipulated the distance between the priming and test stimuli. Participants judged the perceived direction of 180 deg phase-shifted, thus directionally ambiguous, sine-wave gratings (test stimulus) displayed immediately after the offset of a smoothly drifting priming stimulus. The distance between priming and test stimuli was varied from 0 to 10 deg in visual angle. Since the spatial summation area broadens under low retinal illuminance, we predicted that visual motion priming would be more conspicuous under mesopic vision than under photopic vision. Contrary to this prediction, as the retinal illuminance decreased and the distance between the primer and the test stimulus increased, the test stimulus was perceived to move in the direction opposite to the priming stimulus. We speculate that different motion integration systems are functioning depending on the retinal illuminance.
This research investigated how to overcome temptations and protect high-order goals while pursuing a goal. We hypothesized that in order to promote self-regulation, individuals non-cousciously engage in asymmetric evaluative responses to goal-relevant and temptation-relevant stimuli. In an experiment, we manipulated either diet goal or academic goal. Then, we measured evaluations of either sugary drinks (e.g., Coke, Fanta) or healthy drinks (e.g., Healthya Green Tea, Black Oolong Tea). The results showed that participants who activated a diet goal had significantly more positive evaluations of healthy drinks than sugary drinks. In addition, this tendency was moderated by the means of dieting (i.e., only participants who cut down on sweets when going on a diet). The role of non-consious asymmetric evaluations for self-regulation is discussed.