The main purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship among generation effect, level-of-processing effect, and modality effect in explicit memory. In Experiment 1, the results in the category-name cued recall task showed generation effect. The results in the word-fragment cued recall task showed equal performance level in both read condition and generate condition. In Experiment 2, level-of-processing effect and modality effect were investigated in the word-fragment cued recall task. The results showed the level-of-processing effect, but did not show the modality effect. In Experiment 3, construction of materials and the way of presentation of study list were manipulated in the word-fragment cued recall task. The results showed generation effect, and suggested that the blocked presentation of a study list enhanced conceptually-driven processing. The results of these three experiments were discussed from the following four points: relationship among generation effect, level-of-processing effect, and modality effect in explicit memory tasks; classification of memory tasks; comparison between word-fragment cued recall task and category-name cued recall task; and conceptually driven processing in explicit memory tasks.
This report concerns with the recognition memory and the confidence rating. The hit ratio was correlated to the confidence ratings, while the correct rejection (CR) ratio was not correlated to the confidence ratings. Especially, in case of short presentation of target items, negative coefficient was observed between CR and its confidence rating. This is because there were no memory traces of new items, so subjects used supplementary information about those items that had no relations to experimental learning episodes, and the subjects used that information as clue in recognition judgement. Although the base of the confidence rating was relpaced by the plausibility of such information, the subjects could not monitor the source of confidence.
We investigated the effect of presentation time and background size on texture segregation in a large visual field. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to detect a target texture embedded in a large background texture. Texture displays were presented for 68ms, 119ms or 221ms. In Experiment 2, background texture size was made smaller than that in Experiment 1, and the presentation time was 119ms. The detection rate for the target increased as the presentation time increased. Upright Ts in tilted Ts and tilted Ts in upright Ts were segregated easily in central area, but the detection rate decreased in the periphery area for all the presentation times studied. Upright Ts in Ls and Ls in upright Ts were detected better in the periphery than in the central area on 119ms condition of Experiment 1. On the other hand, there was no difference in detection rate between the central area and the periphery with smaller backgrounds on Experiment 2. Discriminability for Ts and Ls was not determined only by the retinal position, but it was also affected by distribution of participants' attention in their visual fields.
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to a bias against returning visual attention to a location that has been previously attended to. Two experiments examined the functional representations of IOR. In the localization task (Experiment 1B), there was IOR based on both object-bound and retinal coordinate representations, but no IOR for the identification task (Experiment 1A) or temporal feature (stimulus orientation or location) matching tasks (Experiments 2A and 2B). The selective occurrence of IOR in the localization task suggests that IOR may be an adaptive bias in the visual control of action. The neural basis of IOR is discussed in terms of two distinct functional pathways (perception and action) of visual system.
Two experiments were designed to examine the way Chinese characters (Kanji) are identified. In the first experiment, subjects reported whether the stimulus was a correct character or a pseudo-character. The decision latencies were longer when parts of characters (Bushu) were rotated than when whole characters were rotated. If whole-shape cues of Chinese characters contribute to identification, distortions of these shapes by partial rotation should have negative effects on the recognizability of characters. The results of the first experiment supported this expectation. In the second experiment, subjects reported whether the stimulus was a two-letter-word or a nonword. In this case, the latencies when the whole stimulus was rotated did not differ from the latencies when only one character was rotated. These results suggested that identification of words written in Chinese characters did not rely on word-shape cues.
Experimental and clinical evidence indicates that the right hemisphere plays a special role in the processing of non-verbal emotional material. The possibility that verbal material may also be similarly processed in the hemisphere was investigated with a reading aloud task, with unilateral tachistoscopic presentation of emotional and non-emotional kanji words. Right-handed subjects, both male and female, participated in Experiment 1 and right- and left-handed subjects of both sexes in Experiment 2. Results of Experiment 1 showed that responses to non-emotional kanji words were more accurate in the right visual field than in the left, but no difference was found for emotional words. Results of Experiment 2 showed the word-emotionality by visual-field interaction effect on accuracy of both right- and left-handed subjects, but the effect was more pronounced for the right-handed. The results suggest that the right hemisphere processes emotional kanji words just as well as the left.
The relation between recognition of butterfly pictures involving feature changes (additions, deletions, or no change) and discordance to expectation for those pictures was examined. The addition or deletion of features was applied to original butterfly photographs to generate changed pictures. Forty subjects were asked to rate the discordance of these pictures to expected butterflies. Other subjects were shown original pictures and then given a recognition test of original pictures and changed pictures with features added or deleted. The results showed that (a) additions or deletions increased discordance more markedly than no changes; (b) additions were easier to correctly rejected than deletions; and (c) recognition performance was not dependent on discordance. It was concluded that addition superiority over deletion was not mediated by the factor of discordance to expectation.
This article reviewed the development of clinical approaches to psychological study of family. Five relevant issues were discussed: Viewpoints, paradoxical approach, family system, school system, and prevention. First, epistemological bases for clinical family psychology were discussed. Then, some of paradoxical approaches in psychotherapy and family therapy were reviewed. An innovative approach to family system was introduced to exemplify the collaboration of clinical practitioners and basic researchers. Also, clinical approaches to school-system reform were reviewed in the context of systemic intervention. Finally, the future direction of clinical approaches in prevention research was suggested. It was also argued that complementary development of clinical and basic research in psychological study should attract much more attention of psychologists in every field.