The present paper is a critical evaluation of the many different theories of the self or ego which have been increasingly proposed in connection with its experimantal psychological study. I For the clarification of the concept it is proposed that attention be paid to the following three points. (1) Is the self or ego under contemplation the self as the subject or the self as the object? (2) Is it the self that appears in the conscious experience of a person as the subject, that is, the self that subject become conscious of, or the self that is postulated or inferred as the subject of a behavior? (3) Is it the self that is grasped either in connection with, or with an eye on, various physical or mental functions or states of a person ; or in opposition to the other or society, or in connection with the mode of its relation, interaction or reaction? II The above three cirteria have been applied to the eight concepts of the self as enumerated by G. W. Allport, so that the meanining of each concept may be clarified. III What is the primary fundamental self that gives the common name to many different ideas of the self? The idea of the “Bewustseins-Ich” as expounded by Th. Lipps as an attempt to give an answer to the question is not adequate enough to explain the processes by which various selves branch out from it. For it is postulated to accompany every conscious experience, hence the Bewust-seins-Ich itself is regarded as a very vague ex-perience. The “psychological self” as subject as expounded by P. A. Bertocci can well explain the processes by which various kinds of the self as the object branch out from the subject, but the concept of the psychological self has a defect in that the self as the knower and the self as the fighter for ends are regarded as one and the same. Revising the idea of the fighter for ends the present writer has adopted the idea of the subject of action, i.e., the subject that initiates an action, and tries to argue that the self that is at once the knower and the initiator of action is the primary fundamental self. IV The writer has tried to show how various ideas of self are derived from this primary fundamental self, citing, as an example, the manner how the ego or self, according to P. M. Symonds, or the Ego, according to Sheriff and Cantril, branch out into various kinds of self or ego.
Problem. The purposes of this study are (1) to measure the social attitude of Japanese students and to estimate their attitude valuse and (2) to explain by the method of factor analysis the factorial orientation of those various social attitudes in the personality. We are going to take up (1) in this paper. Procedure. The attitude scales of fifteen kinds prepared by L. L. Thurstone's equalappearing interval method were used. They include the following scales : (a) American (b) Russian (c) Chinese (d) Korean (e) war-A-form (f) war B-form (g) Criminal punishment A-form (h) Criminal punishment B-form (i) Capital punishment (j) Friendly relations between man and woman (k) Prohibition (l) Sports (m) Movie (n) Marxism, and (p) Christianity. Measurement. 781 students (385 males and 396 females) were randomly selected from fourteen universities and one high school. About one hour was allowed them to answer a queationnaire of 15 sheets. The period of this investigation was from October, 1949 to March, 1950. Results and interpretation. A. The examination of the attitude scale. The discrimination power in each item of each scale was examined by the method of bi-searial correlation and was found to be statistically significant. B. The mean attitude values and the standard deviation of all subjects. C. The differences in the attitude values in the following groups. 1. The differences between the male students and the female students.: The differences of the mean attitude values between the male students and the female students were statistically significant except for (d) Korean, (k) Prohibition, (m) Movie, and (n) Marxism. The male students were more favorable for (j) Friendly relations between man and woman (l) Sports. The female students were favorable for (a) American, (e) (f) War. And the choice ratio in each item was compared. 2. The differences between urban and rural districts.: All subjects were divided into two groups, the urban and the rural. And their mean attitude values were compared. But the differences between them except for (m) Movie were not significant. 3. The differences in ages. The subjects were divided into three groups : A group (under 19 years old), B group (from 20 years old to 23 years old), C group (above 24 years old). The differences were found to be statistically significant between B and C group and A group for (b) Russion. B and C groups were more unfavorable than A group. Such a tendency was also found for (k) Prohibition and (1) Sports ; but for (n) Marxism, the reverse tendency was found.
Problem : The purpose of our investigation was to study the following four questions in order to confirm the main results of H. J. Leavitt's experiment (1). (1) Can we find out any difference in the method of problem-solving between groups in problem situation by changing their respsctive group structure successivevly? (2) Is there also any difference in communication frequency according to the change of group structure in the problem situation? (3) Is there any change in each group-member's position by the change of group structure in problem-solving situstion? (4) Do the member positions in each group pattern have any differential effects on the degree of their participation? Of each question, which centered on the problem of communication, we examined the time required for group problem-solving from the point of view of group as a whole, and secondly analysed communication frequency from that of individual member difference. Procedure : Experimental subjects were 20 boys of average chronological age 14.7, who were students of a junior high school in Kyoto. Experimental procedure and materials were mostly the same as which Leavitt used (cf. Fig. 1, 2.). We composed, however, only 4 groups and each group was successively put through all of 4 structural patterns (circle, chain, wheel and Y), according to Latin Square design which secured genuine pattern differences as distinguished from those of group indiveduality. As we see in fig. 3, each group was tested once a week and the experiment took 4 weeks for each group (cf. Fig. 3). Results : From our experiment the following results were deived ; (1) By means of analysis of variance on Latin Square design described above, we analysed the difference of time required for group problem-solving of groups in each pattern but we could not find out any significant statistical differeces in both patterns and groups. But we found that the total sum of time required for problem-solving in a group seemed to decrease with the increase of trails (cf. Table 1). (2) Also we found out no time differences by patterns both in the shortest and the longest time of the problem-solving through all trails (cf. Table 2). (3) On the communication frequency, i.e. the number of messages sent out, there was no statistical difference in patterns, but the number seemed to decrease with the increase of trials (cf. Table 3). (4) As for the positional effects in each group, significant statistical differences were found in problem-solving time among 5 positions in all groups except 2 or 3 in 16 group-pattern combinations (cf. Table 4). (5) Comparing the differences of commnunication frequency between positions of all groups in the 1st week, we found the clear positional differences between central and peripheral positions in Wheel and Y, but no differences in Circle and Chian (cf. Fig. 4) (6) By the analysis of the questionnaires after the experiment. we found that, the leader of a group tended to emerge in the most central position (cf. Table 7). (7) For each group, we computed Group Participation Indices which were rations of each position to the most Central one, C, on the time required for sending one unit of comunication. And we are led suppose that when any of these approsches I, the corresponding position-member tends to have almost the same degree of activity as the central one in each group (cf. Table 6).
Purpose : This paper deals with the results of our experiments which were conducted to examine how the following three factors would determine the amount of figural after-effects. They were the length of the inspection time, the intensity of light stimulus comprising the inspection figure (I. F.) and the brightness of the field where the stimulus figures were presented. Method and Conditions : The distance between the subject and the fixation point was lm. The number of subjects was no less than 4 in any experiment. As soon as the inspection period had elapsed, the subject was asked to judge immediately which one of the two figures, the method of complete series. In the tables, plus sign indicates the increase in the apparent size or the overstimation of the standard T. F. and minus sign the shrinkage or the underestimation of it. All the experiments were performed in the dark room and the standard brightness of the field where the stimulus figures were presented was kept to be 1350 lux. Results : 1. When the size of the I. F. was half as large as that on the standard T. F., The latter figure appeared expanded immediately after the inspection time, the amount of effect increased with the increase in the length of the inspection time. When the I. F. coincided completely with the standard T. F. or when the size of the I. F. was two times as large as that of the standard T. F., the standard T. F. appeared shrinked immediately after the inspection time and the amount of the effect also increased with the increase in the length of the inspection time. (See Table 1, A, and Fig. 1.) Concerning the factor of the inspection time upon the amount of figural after-effects, the above mentioned results were statistically significant when the method of analysis of variance was applied to these results. (See Table 1, B.) 2. Changes in the intesity of the 1. F. by using the achromatic papers of different brightness did not cause any differnce in the amount of figural after-effects. (See Table 3, A. and B.) 3. However, in the experiment in which the light stimulus was used, the amount of figural after-effects increase with the increase in the intensity of the I. F. This result was also statistically significant. (See Table 4, A and B and Fig. 2) 4. Differences in the brightness of the field where the stimulus figures were presented did not case any change in the amount of figural after-effects. (See Table 5)