The effects of anonymity on self-disclosure were investigated in a CMC (computer-mediated communication) situation by separately manipulating the anonymity of the self and the other. It was hypothesized that anonymity of the self would enhance disclosure, whereas anonymity of the other would decrease it. Female undergraduate students (n=60) were randomly assigned to a 2 (self: anonymous or non-anonymous)×2 (other: anonymous or non-anonymous) experimental design. The anonymity of the self and the other was manipulated in the profile, such as the photo, name, and sex of the self or the other, on the computer screen. The results indicated that anonymity of the self decreased the feeling of anxiety, but had no effect on disclosure, whereas anonymity of the other decreased the feeling of closeness and decreased the intimacy of disclosure.
Previous studies investigated the effects of interpersonal relationships on facial expressions by comparing friends with strangers. This study examined facial expressions in the course of relationship formation. Twenty pairs of female strangers met once a week for three weeks watching film clips aimed to elicit a positive emotions. We measured smiles and gazes during and after presentation of the film clips. Subjective emotions and social motives were also measured. Smiling increased from Week one to Week two, but did not change from Week two to three. The results support the theory of Berg & Clark's (1986) that relationships are differentiated very early on. The score for “concern about partner's evaluation” on the social motive questionnaire decreased from Week one to two suggesting that decreasing avoidant social motives facilitates the expressions of smiles in the course of relationship formation.
A hierarchical data analysis was conducted using data from couples to examine how self-reports of interactions between partners in romantic relationships predict the quality of the relationships. Whereas the social exchange theory has elucidated the quality of relationships from the individual level of subjectivity, this study focused on the structure of interactions between the partners (i. e., the frequency, strength, and diversity) through a process of inter-subjectivity at the couple level. A multilevel covariance structure analysis of 194 university students involved in romantic relationships revealed that the quality of relationships was mainly related to the strength and the diversity of interactions at the couple level, rather than the strength of interactions at the individual level. These results indicate that the inter-subjective process in romantic relationships may primarily explain the quality of relationships.
Visual context, such as an association between a target location and a distractor configuration, has been shown to be implicitly learned through repeated experiences in a visual search task, and facilitates the search performance (contextual cueing effect). In the present study, we examined whether the whole layout or only the local half-layout contributed to contextual cueing. In a training session, the whole layout or the local half-layout including the target location was repeated. Then in a test session, half of the layout including the target location was presented while the remaining half of the layout was randomly changed. The results showed that the search performance in the repeated whole layout condition was equivalent to the condition where only half of the layout was repeated throughout both the training and the test sessions. This suggests that the local layout around the target location was selectively learned and used for contextual cueing even if the whole layout was repeated.
In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure, false recall of a word that was not presented (the critical-lure) can be produced when participants study a list of associative words related to the critical-lure. Recently, some studies using the DRM procedure showed that young children did not produce false recall. The present study hypothesized that the children did not produce false recall in those studies because the lists of words did not reflect the children's associative knowledge. To test this possibility, the present study developed lists that reflect the associative knowledge of five-year-old children and examined false recall using the DRM procedure. The results showed that children falsely recalled the critical-lure after studying the lists that reflected the children's associative knowledge, while they did not recall the critical-lure after studying the lists that reflected adults' associative knowledge. The results indicate that children produce false recall when the lists of words reflect those children's associative knowledge. The present finding suggests that the structuring of semantic knowledge that mediates false recall of the critical-lure has developed five years of age.
Simultaneity is important in cross-modal information processing. However, it is still unclear how simultaneity is perceived between different sensory modalities. Various factors such as spatial location or attention are known to affect simultaneity judgments. In the present study, we focused on the simultaneity judgments of dynamic events, and investigated what kinds of dynamic properties affect these judgments. We presented the deformation of a virtual object in vision and haptics with various stimulus onset asynchronies. Participants judged whether the deformation occurred simultaneously. We measured the effects of duration, velocity, and the amount of deformation on the visual-haptic simultaneity judgments. The results showed that the point of subjective simultaneity changed depending on the duration of deformation. For a shorter duration (400ms), the visual deformation needed to precede the haptic one to be judged as simultaneous, while for a longer duration (800ms, 1200ms), the asymmetry was diminished, suggesting that information relevant to the duration of the event was used for the vision-haptics simultaneity judgments of dynamic events.
Research has shown that individual with a high level of paranoia use more avoidant coping strategies (Ellett, Lopes, & Chadwick, 2003). The present study examines coping strategies in 141 college students with lower or higher levels of paranoid ideation using the Paranoia Scale (Fenigstein & Vanable, 1992) and the Interpersonal Stress Coping Inventory (ISI; Kato, 2000). Participants were first required to complete the ISI for paranoid ideation (ISI-pre). They were then asked to complete ISI again (ISI-post) on the assumption that the previous coping strategies (ISI-pre) did not work well. The results showed that people with a higher level of paranoid ideation reported more negative relationship-oriented strategies on both the ISI-pre and ISI-post. The ISI-pre was higher than ISI post for positive relationship-oriented strategies among the participants with a higher level of paranoid ideation. These results suggested that people with paranoid ideation keep using the negative relationship-oriented strategies and reduce positive relationship-oriented strategies, if the primary coping strategies do not work well.
This study aimed to clarify the influence of laterality on interference effects for global precedence, and to examine the mechanism of these effects. In most previous studies, the neutral condition was excluded from the consistency factor and the difference of latencies between the consistent and inconsistent conditions was regarded as the interference score, which may not be accurate. In this study, the difference of latencies between the neutral and the inconsistent condition was regarded as the interference score. The results of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) for latencies showed that interference effects influenced only right visual field-left hemisphere (RVFLH), and facilitation effects influenced only left visual field-right hemisphere (LVF-RH) in the local condition. These findings indicate that it does not matter how optimal processing influenced interference effects on suboptimal processing in each hemisphere, for example how global processing influenced local processing in the right hemisphere, but rather how each hemisphere controlled optimal processing.