An experiment was conducted to investigate social implications of false consensus effect (what results will occurred at the group level when individuals act on their false consensus) in a “selective-play” situation, The results demonstrated that, under specified situations (in the selective-play situation, derived from Orbell and Dawes, 1993, and in the situation where it is difficult to predict partners' action, derived from Yamagishi and Yamagishi (1994)), the behavior of subjects who acted on their false consensus changed the situation such that their expectations about partners' cooperativeness was no longer “false.” This is because cooperative subjects were able to find other cooperative subjects in the selective-play situation. The results further suggested that having a false consensus about partners' cooperativeness provided an advantage in the one-shot prisoner's dilemma situation.
This article is concerned with determining the bias in Lord's (1974) procedure for estimating the ability parameter in item response theory model. Lord's procedure is one of the methods of dealing with omitted responses for dichotomously scored multiple choice test data. This study highlights the bias inherent in Lord's procedure and how to reduce it. Theoretical justification and a simulation study are presented for the estimates obtained by the bias reduction method of this study. The results of the simulation study show that the bias reduction method has a higher efficiency than Lord's procedure in mean squared error. This study also takes notice of the appropriateness of Lord's formula of asymptotic variance of estimates of ability parameter.
Although the concept of the term ‘riding comfort’ is ambiguous, in the present paper it means a perceptual experience derived from the vibrational factors of a running railway vehicle. When we regard riding comfort evaluation as a perceptual judgment process, we must consider that what is perceived is dependent not only on the physical properties of the stimuli, but also on the frame of reference. The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of the frame on the judgments of vibration intensity in the anchoring effect paradigm. Using the four-axis vibration apparatus, we conducted experiments for eighty subjects, in which frequencies and lateral accelerations of vibrations were changed. As the result, we found a clear anchoring effect. This suggests that we must take into consideration effects of frame of reference in terms of riding comfort criterion of railway vehicles.
Experimental gaming researchers have recently realized that a larger context is important in which dyadic prisoner's dilemma (PD) relations are embedded. The main purpose of this study was to examine whether people facing a “selective-play” situation spontaneously adopt the out-for-tat strategy (OFT), which previous studies found the most effective in such a situation. OFT proscribes to (1) always cooperate, (2) keep playing with the current player as long as he/she cooperates, and (3) desert the partner as soon as he/she stops cooperating. Results of an experiment with 90 students, of groups of six or eight, showed that subjects who faced a high level of social uncertainty in fact spontaneously adopted the strategy, interacting with the same partner as long as he/she cooperated, and exiting from the relation when the partner defected. Subjects who faced a low level of social uncertainty kept only the third part of the strategy, leaving the relation with a defector, but not necessarily keeping interaction with a cooperative partner.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate H statistic, proposed by Linville (1985, 1987), as an index for cognitive complexity of the self. Linville asserted that high self-complexity would act as a buffer against life stress or depression. One hundred and eighty-seven undergraduates sorted 40 personality-trait adjectives into as many categories as necessary in order to describe themselves. In addition, 126 participants filled out several scales including self-consciousness and esteem. Main findings were as follows: (a) H statistic was not significantly associated with any variable related to the self-ratings, and showed no stress-buffering effect. (b) On the other hand, participants who had high cognitive complexity for the negative aspects of the self, as operationalized by Woolfolk, Novalany, Gara, Allen, and Polino (1995), were low in self-esteem and high in public self-consciousness. The results suggest that cognitive complexity of the negative self may indicate a predisposition for depression or neurosis. (c) Also, women scored significantly higher than men on cognitive complexity of the negative self.
This study attempted to construct Male Apathy Inventory (MAI), Female Apathy Inventory (FAI), and Obsession Scale (OS), and investigate the relations among apathy, obsession, self-consciousness, and self-image. Forty-seven original items for MAI and FAI, 13 original items for OS, Sugawara's self-consciousness scale (1984), and Murase and Murase's self-image scale (1966) were administered to 508 university students. Principal component analysis and factor analysis were used to select 24, 32, and 9 items for MAI, FAI, OS, respectively. Students high on OS tended to be higher on private self-consciousness, and male students who were low on both apathy and obsession had the lowest public self-consciousness. Self-images of the students high on apathy tended to be negative. Also, high obsession scores seemed beneficial for the adjustment of female students.
A number of useful methods for analyzing covariance structure have been proposed in the studies of human behavior genetics, reflecting the fact that the behavior genetic studies are one of the main origins of covariance structure model. In this paper, I review recent progress on methodology for behavior genetic studies of twins and families from the standpoint of the structural equation modeling. Especially, genetic ACE (additive genetic, common environment and random environment) model, multivariate ACE model, genetic factor analysis model and twin-parent model are focused upon. This review also discusses how to construct applied structural equation models which are useful for psychological research.