The domestic horse (Equus caballus) have the large symmetrical guttural pouches (the auditory tube diverticulum) formed by saccate bulge of the auditory tube. In this study, CT examination was carried out in the head of Przewalski&rsque;s horse (Equus przewalskii), the only true wild horse living at present. As results of the examination, Przewalski&rsque;s horse possessed the large symmetrical guttural pouches divided into medial and lateral compartments by the stylohyoid bone. Moreover, the right and left guttural pouches meet each other at the median part to form a thin septum. As CT sections get close to the part of the occipital condyle, the lateral compartment disappeared, and the medial compartment gradually became small toward the base of the skull. These results indicate that the nuchal-basal part of the medial compartment is not well-developed as compared with the domestic horse.
Geographical variation was examined morphologically in the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis) in some Indochinese and Malayan regions. Osteometrical examination and principal component analysis elucidated the morphological differences among various populations. The populations from southern and western Thailand were distinguished morphologically from the other populations. Variation in males from south Thailand and Kuala Lumpur suggests that the Isthmus of Kra may have an influence on the variation of skull morphology. However, the Isthmus of Kra was not completely considered as a factor of geographical separation in this species, because we could not confirm the separation in skull size and shape between the localities at least in females. While, the Kanchanaburi population in western Thailand was significantly smaller than the other population in skull size, and constituted the morphologically separable group in our study.
Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) was diagnosed in an umbrella cockatoo (Cacatua alba) with severe feather dystrophy and loss. Electron microscopically, the intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies observed by light microscopy were composed of viral particles forming paracrystalline arrays, whorls, semicircles or concentric circles. Recovered viral particles from the skin and feather follicle tracts were icosahedral and 15 to 20 nm in diameter.
Erysipelothrix strains were isolated from the tonsils of 46 (15.0%) of 307 apparently healthy slaughter pigs in Thailand during the period of August to September, 1997. A total of 27 of the 46 Erysipelothrix isolates could be classified into 5 serovars but the remaining 19 were untypable in this study. Of the 25 isolates serologically identified as Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, 20, 4, and 1 isolates belonged to serovars 2, 12, and 17, respectively. Only 2 isolates from the tonsils belonged to Erysipelothrix tonsillarum and represented either serovar 7 or 10. Although the periods and the districts of the survey were limited, the information obtained in the present investigation demonstrates the presence of a variety of serovars in pigs in Thailand. Of 29 selected isolates belonging to serovars 2, 7, 10, 12, 17, and untypable, only 5 (17.2%) were virulent for both mice and pigs. Five of these virulent isolates belonging to serovars 2 and 12 killed less than 30% of mice immunized with a swine erysipelas bacterin commercially available in Thailand, suggesting that the vaccine elicited a sufficient immunity to these field isolates.
Twelve strains of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) recovered from hospitalized dogs were analyzed for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence, and were genetically characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Antibiotic susceptibility test showed that nearly all isolates were resistant to β-lactam antibiotics tested and all the strains were fully susceptible to glycopeptides. There were no inhibitory activities among the aminoglycosides. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) was determined by intraperitoneal injection of cell suspensions and estimated by the Spearman-Kärber method. The mouse lethality of MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) was not significantly different in both normal and cyclophosphamide-treated mice (p>0.05), indicating that they were equally virulent. There was a great difference in the incidence of toxin production between the MRSA and MSSA group; 83.3% (10 of 12) of the MRSA and 14.3% (1 of 7) of the MSSA were toxin producers. The predominant types produced by MRSA was B. All the MRSA strains were capsular type 5 producers, while of 7 MSSA strains, four were type 5, one for type 8, and two were nontypeable. Based on the PFGE analysis, the 12 MRSA isolates generated 9 to 11 fragments in the size range of <48.5 to 630.5 kb, and yielded 6 different patterns. The results indicated that production of toxin and capsule type do not play a role in the pathogenicity to mouse and PFGE is a valuable tool for the characterization of MRSA. This report is the first such cases in the veterinary literature in Korea and may indicate the frequent emergence of MRSA in veterinary clinic hereafter.
This study was conducted to evaluate the antibody levels of alpha-toxin, capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and fibronectin-binding protein (FnBP) in rabbits immunized with an experimental vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus and to develop the bovine mastitis subunit vaccine in the future. Enzyme immunoassay was used for detection of IgG antibodies against staphylococcal CPS, alpha-toxin and FnBP. The levels of specific antibodies against CPS, alpha-toxin and FnBP in immunized rabbits were significantly increased after first immunization compared with control animals (p<0.05). Of three antigen used in vaccine, immunogenicity of CPS was relatively lower, compared with those of alpha toxin and fibronectin binding protein. Numbers of S. aureus in blood of immunized groups were lower than those of control group after bacterial challenge. But the bacterial numbers among immunized groups were not significantly different. S. aureus counts in excised organs were significantly lower in all immunized rabbits than in PBS-control group (p<0.05). The present study showed that alpha-toxin, capsular polysaccharide and fibronectin binding protein included in a subunit vaccine were protective.
This study concerns the establishment of a simple testing method for breath concentration of hydrogen and methane in horses. Twenty-eight healthy thoroughbreds and 24 Arabians were used. Breath samples were collected using one-minute closed circulatory respiration through an aluminum bag filled with 10 liters of pure oxygen, which was mounted on the subjects by means of a face mask. Breath samples obtained, were analyzed by gas chromatography. A significant correlation in both hydrogen and methane levels was observed for samples collected at separate times. These findings confirmed the usefulness of our approach for testing breath concentrations of hydrogen and methane in horses.
Balloon dilation was performed on a dog with tetralogy of Fallot. Immediately following ballon dilation, the peak systolic pressure gradient across the pulmonic valve declined from 97 to 63 mmHg. Doppler echocardiography following balloon dilation revealed increased pulmonary blood flow. Clinical symptoms obviously improved and the dog&rsque;s improved condition was maintained for 4 months. There were no serious complications in performing the procedure. It was concluded that balloon dilation was a safe and effective treatment for a dog case with tetralogy of Fallot. Long-term follow-up studies will be required to identify the exact indications of balloon dilation for tetralogy of Fallot.
Twenty-eight field isolated Theileria parasite DNAs obtained from dairy and beef cattle in distinct geographical areas of Thailand were characterized by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with six sets of oligonucleotide primers. Three sets of them were modified from two genes of immunodominant major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) coding for 32 kDa (p32) of T. sergenti and 33/34 kDa (p33/34) of T. buffeli, and MPSP of Theileria spp.(Thai-isolate). The other three sets of primers were basically generated from three alleles of MPSP which were specific for Japanese T. sergenti-Ikeda stock (I-type), Japanese T. sergenti-Chitose stock (C-type) and Australian T. buffeli-Warwick stock (B1-type), respectively. The results indicated that 14 out of 28 isolates were amplified by the Thai-specific primer whereas 6 isolates were amplified by the p32 specific primer and the other 5 isolates were amplified by the p32 and Thai-specific primers. In addition, by using the allele-specific PCR, 14 out of 28 isolates contained C-type MPSP whereas 3 isolates contained B1 type parasites. Interestingly, 20 out of 28 isolates could be amplified by the Thai-specific primer. The majority of Theileria parasites distributed in Thailand contained Thai type parasites, whereas C-type parasites showed the mixed population with B1 and Thai type parasites. No I type parasite was detected.
In the winter of 1997-1998, we collected parasitological data from 60 wild carnivora in the north-western part of Tohoku region, Japan. These included 7 foxes (Vulpes vulpes japonica), 20 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), 29 martens (Martes melampus melampus), 3 weasels (two Mustela sibirica itatsi and one M. nivalis namiyei), and one Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma). Roundworms (Toxocara canis in foxes and Toxocara tanuki in raccoon dogs), hookworms (Ancylostoma kusimaense and Arthrostoma miyazakiense) and Molineus sp. in the small intestine were the most prevalent in foxes and raccoon dogs. In martens, Aonchotheca putorii in the stomach, Concinnum ten in the pancreatic duct, Molineus sp. and Euryhelmis costaricensis in the small intestine were the most prevalent. Collected parasites include some new helminth species for this region or Japan; the strobilar stage of Taenia polyacantha from foxes, Pygidiopsis summa from a raccoon dog, Eucoleus aerophilus, A. putorii, and Soboliphyme baturini from martens.
Effects of halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane on laryngeal drive receptor activity were studied in the afferent activity of the superior laryngeal nerve in anesthetized spontaneously breathing dogs. Of 40 single units recorded, most of them (65%) responded to the volatile anesthetics applied to the isolated larynx at a concentration of 5%. The exposure to the anesthetics resulted in either an inspiratory increase (15%), both inspiratory and expiratory decrease (54%), or both inspiratory increase and expiratory decrease (31%) responses. The average discharge frequency of the receptors tended to be decreased on inhalation of the anesthetics, where significant decreases were observed in both respiratory phases for halothane and at expiration for isoflurane, but in neither respiratory phase for sevoflurane. These results support an advantage of sevoflurane over halothane and isoflurane for induction of anesthesia to minimize the influence of the activity of laryngeal drive receptors on the breathing pattern and airway stability.
We measured ovarian lipid peroxide (LP) levels and plasma progestins, progesterone (P4) and 20α-dihydroprogesterone, throughout pseudopregnancy in gonadotropin-primed immature rats. Plasma P4 fluctuated, with two peaks on days 5 (PSP5) and 8 of pseudopregnancy, and then declined to the basal level by PSP12. Ovarian LP increased from PSP1 to PSP4, decreased temporarily until PSP8, and then rose gradually until PSP14. From PSP1 through PSP7, ovarian LP was positively correlated with total progestins according to the Spearman ranked correlation coefficient (r=+0.829, p<0.05). In contrast, a negative correlation between ovarian LP and plasma P4 was apparent (r=-0.816, p<0.05) from PSP8 to PSP14. These results show the biphasic correlation of LP with luteal progestational activity depending on the luteal stage.
In smooth muscle tissue, two smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms (SM1, SM2) and two non-muscle MHC isoforms (NMA, NMB) have been identified. The purpose of our study was to clarify whether smooth muscle MHC mRNA expression reflects the physiological and functional state of the muscle. We studied the expression pattern of MHC mRNAs, using the S1-nuclease mapping procedure, in functionally and morphologically changeable organs; the ductus arteriosus (DA) during development (25 and 29 days of gestation, and from 3-day-old neonates) and uteri from virgin, day-10 pregnant (P10) and day-29 pregnant (P29) rabbits. The results demonstrated that SM2 expression was greater in the fetal DA than in the fetal aortic and pulmonary arteries, but that it decreased significantly following closure of DA. In the gravid uterus, SM1 expression was significantly (P<0.05) strong compared to other MHC mRNAs from virgin to P10 rabbits. During pregnancy, NMB expression showed a tendency to increase until P10, and after P10, SM2 expression increased dramatically and NMB expression decreased to give almost a mirror image of the SM2 expression. Smooth muscle type (SM1, SM2) was significantly (P<0.05) strong compared to non-muscle type expression (NMA, NMB) at P29. These data suggest that smooth muscle MHC mRNA, especially SM2 expression reflects the physiological and functional state of the smooth muscle.
A 6-year-old female mongrel dog weighing 9.0 kg was presented ananastatic, with clouding of consciousness, bilateral loss of hearing and depressed reactivity of the eyes to light. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination showed that the calvaria was markedly thickened with compression to the cerebrum and cerebellum. The case of a dog with thickened calvaria with compression of the cerebrum and cerebellum which could not be diagnosed by conventional measures was amenable to diagnosis by MRI. With increased application of MRI examination, such canine cases might increase in number.
An observational cohort study was conducted using a producer group of 33 farms selected based on their completeness of reproduction data, including dates of birth, entry to a herd, and removal. Average lifetime pig production and parity at removal in a cohort of 2, 265 females born in 1990 were 67.2 pigs born alive and 5.6 parities, respectively. Approximately 90% of farrowings occurred from the second through the fourth year from birth. Farrowing rates between parities of 2 and 4 were higher than other parities, and pigs born alive from parities 3 to 5 were the greatest among parities. The 10th and 90th percentiles of age at first conception were 227 and 322 days. Increasing the age at first mating was associated with low farrowing rate (P< 0.01) in parity 0. Older age at first conception was associated with lower parity at removal, shorter reproductive herd life, and fewer lifetime pigs born alive (P< 0.01). Of the 2, 265 breeding females, 253 (11.2%) were re-mated at parity 0 and farrowed. These sows with a record re-mating at parity 0 had lower parity at removal, less lifetime pig production and lower lifetime productivity than those with no re-mating at parity 0 (P<0.01). It is recommended that unbred gilts 230 days of age or older should be mated soon.
The N-terminal unique polypeptide region of the capsid precursor protein of feline calicivirus (FCV) and the protein encoded by ORF3 of FCV were expressed as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase to analyze the expressed products in FCV-infected cells. Immunoblot analysis using a serum from a cat experimentally infected with FCV indicated relatively high immunogenicity of the N-terminal polypeptide in FCV-infected cats, as compared with the ORF3 protein. Specific antisera were prepared by immunization to mice with the fused proteins and used in immunoblot analysis. A 14 kD product corresponding to the N-terminal polypeptide and a 10 kD polypeptide of the ORF3 product were identified in the FCV-infected cells but not detected in the purified particles. No neutralization activity against FCV was detected in these antisera. The proteins identified as polypeptides of 14 kD and 10 kD in this study may have functions as non-structural proteins.
Fecal samples were examined for viruses participated in gastrointestinal disorders of cats, especially focusing on feline coronavirus (FCoV) by a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay. It was found that a primary viral pathogen was feline panleukopenia parvovirus (FPLV; 28.5% of the positive rate) and the secondary was FCoV (10.7%). Commonly reported clinical signs of cats of which feces were FCoV-positive were vomiting, diarrhea and dehydration with an exception of one serious case with concurrent FPLV infection.