Leukocyte populations present in the discrete Peyer's patches (PP) of the pig were characterized from birth (Day 0) to day 35 after birth by immunohistochemistry and image analysis. Immediately after birth, cell membrane expression of CD2 and CD3, major histocompatibilty complex (MHC) class II (both SLA (swine leukocyte antigen) -DQ+ and SLA-DR+), CD21, 74-22-15 and surface immunoglobulin (sIg) were all demonstrable. Computer assisted morphometric techniques were used to confirm the significant expansion of these cell populations from birth onwards. The distribution of the cell types was not random but suggested a preferential retention of cells at specific sites. This implies a degree of organization of immunological cells within the discrete PP, enhancing the potential to mount immune responses in the most efficient manner.
Mycoplasma alkalescens, M. bovigenitalium, M. bovirhinis and M. bovis were directly detected from milk specimens by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) when milk specimens were centrifuged and treated with mycoplasmal lysis buffer. The sensitivity of this PCR method was 110 to 1,400 colony forming units (CFU). This method was useful for the detection of mycoplasmas in milk specimens from cows at an early stage of mycoplasmal mastitis since a small amount of mycoplasma could be detect in milk without culture. The results were available within 12 hr, which is faster than conventional culture techniques. M. bovirhinis was detected in more than 70% of mastitic milk specimens when mycoplasmas were detected in milk specimens from 30 cows with mastitis by this PCR method.
Apolipoprotein (apo) C-III is a low-molecular-mass protein mainly distributed in the high-density lipoprotein fraction in cattle serum. We have recently shown that the apoC-III concentration is decreased in cows with fatty liver, ketosis, left displacement of the abomasum, retained placenta and milk fever. The decrease was most distinct in milk fever, thereby suggesting that apoC-III is particularly relevant to the development of milk fever and also that apoC-III is a candidate diagnostic marker for this disease. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the apoC-III concentration in healthy cows is altered during the peripartum period, to assess the usefulness of apoC-III as a marker for milk fever. ApoC-III concentrations in 17 cows were monitored during the peripartum period (-48 to +12 days from parturition). Of the 17 cows, 14 were apparently healthy during the period. The apoC-III concentrations in the 14 healthy cows were unaltered during the period from -48 to -21 days, but thereafter showed individual variations. Compared with values during the period from -48 to -21 days, the apoC-III concentration was increased (137%) in 5 cows during the period from +1 to +12 days, whereas it decreased (60.7%) in 9 cows. Three cows suffered from milk fever at -3 to +10 days. Decreased apoC-III concentrations in diseased cows (15 to 37% of controls) were more distinct than in the 9 healthy cows. The apoC-III concentration was correlated with lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity in cows with milk fever, but not in healthy cows. Correlation analysis also indicated that apoC-III and apoB-100 concentrations were negatively correlated in 5 healthy cows with increased apoC-III concentrations, but positively in 9 healthy cows with decreased concentrations and cows with milk fever. Determination of the apoC-III concentration during the peripartum period is suggested to be helpful in diagnosing milk fever. The possible relevance of apoC-III and apoB-100 in the development of milk fever is also implied.
Abomasal disorders of calves with total vagotomy, operated on at 1 week old, were investigated with radiography and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 immunohistochemistry. Radiographic findings indicated abomasal atony with dilatation in all calves 2 weeks after vagotomy, while 4 weeks after vagotomy abomasal dilatation was detected in 2 calves and another 2 calves showed dilatation and impaction. The densities of PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerves in the tunica muscularis decreased significantly in the corpus region of the greater curvature 2 weeks after vagotomy and in the pyloric region of the lesser curvature 4 weeks after vagotomy, and it was at its lowest 4 weeks after vagotomy in all regions examined. In conclusion, abomasal dilatation and/or impaction in vagotomized calves confirmed by radiography were related with a decreased frequency of nerves in the tunica muscularis of the abomasum.
The effects of pharmacological manipulation on the extinction process of fear-induced ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which are considered distress calls related to anxiety, were investigated. Male Wistar rats were conditioned to emit USVs by being given repeated electrical foot-shocks while in a chamber. After 10 sessions of conditioning, the animals started to emit USVs upon mere exposure to the shock chamber without being shocked. Using these animals, the extinction process of the USVs was examined. With repeated exposure to the chamber without shocks, the USVs first increased and then gradually decreased, i.e., the extinction burst was observed. Daily intraperitoneal injections of a benzodiazepine-GABA receptor agonist diazepam (DZP; 1.0 mg/kg) or a tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine (CLM; 20 mg/kg) inhibited this extinction burst. Moreover, CLM, but not DZP, shortened the period required for extinction as compared with the vehicle-treated animals. Following the extinction phase, the emission of USVs was enhanced by the cessation of both drug treatments. These results suggest that CLM would be useful for reducing anxiety-related behaviors in the extinction process, as long as withdrawal symptoms after long-term drug treatments are taken into consideration.
To investigate the predominance of Malassezia pachydermatis (M. pachydermatis) as a causative agent of canine otitis externa, ear cerumen samples were observed for adhesion of M. pachydermatis to the cornified epithelial cells by light and electron microscopes. The yeasts appeared not to adhere to the cornified epithelial cells directly, but they seemed to exist in the proximity of the epithelial cells with an electron opaque halo-like space around them. Polysaccharide and lipid staining techniques were conducted to identify the substances existing in that space. Lipid substances, not saccharides, were observed around the yeasts and the cornified epithelial cells. These results suggested that in the canine ear canal malassezia yeast attachment to the cornified epithelial cells is mediated by lipids.
Changes in the activities of serum cytokines and in acute phase response were observed in dairy cows with naturally occurring coliform mastitis. Seven cows with severe mastitis showed systemic and mammary inflammatory response throughout the observation period, and 11 cows with mild mastitis recovered and were able to be milked within 3 days of onset of mastitis. Serum interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activities were higher in the severe group than in the mild group at the first appearance of symptoms. Elevated IL-1 activity was evident in the severe group throughout the observation period. Serum α-1-acidglycoprotein (α1AG) concentration began to rise with the beginning of mastitis in the severe group, and peaked at 9 days. Serum haptoglobin (Hp) concentrations peaked at 3 days, and decreased gradually after 3 days in the severe group. These results showed that there are dynamic changes in serum IL-1 activity and in serum α1AG and Hp concentrations in cows with severe coliform mastitis.
Changes in activities of enzymes related to the malate-aspartate shuttle were measured in leukocytes (WBC) from dogs given food supplemented with 2 mg/kg of herb powder, Echevaria glauca, every day for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of glucose, immunoreactive insulin, free fatty acids and triglyceride between dogs given food with or without the herb supplementation. Activities of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the malate-aspartate shuttle increased remarkably in mitochondria of WBC from dogs fed the herb supplementation. It is suggested that Echevaria glauca herb supplementation might activate NADH shuttle systems and mitochondrial energy metabolism in dogs.
The lung produces many vasoactive substances originating from its vascular endothelium and plays an important part in various pathose. The present study was carried out to clarify pulmonary atherosclerosis and pulmonary arterial pressure, and to elucidate a part of the pulmonary pathosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding the animals a cholesterol-rich diet. When the rabbits were fed the cholesterol-enriched diets for 15 weeks, the grade of the atherosclerosis was severer than in 8W-feeding rabbits. The lesions of 8W-feeding rabbits were mainly composed of foam cells and fibrous components, whereas in 15W-feeding rabbits, the aggregation of foam cells beneath the endothelium of the vessel was infiltrating the media and severe stenose of the lumen was observed. In the entire pulmonary arterial system, the severe obstructive vascular lesions were localized and not diffused. The pulmonary arterial pressures of the rabbits increased slightly with time and the mean pressures were 11.3 ± 0.9 (control group), 11.8 ± 1.0 (8W group) and 13.7 ± 1.5 mmHg (15W group) respectively. A significant difference existed in the mean pressure between the control group and 15W-feeding group, but there were no significant differences in the systolic and diastolic pressures among the three groups. In conclusion, we could induce pulmonary atherosclerosis in rabbits by feeding them a hyper-cholesterol diet but not overt pulmonary hypertension.
In various human tumors, a metal binding protein, metallothionein (MT) is reported to play an important role in carcinogenesis. In the present preliminary study, MT expression and tumor growth were investigated in transplantable pregnancy-independent mammary tumors (TPIMT) derived from pregnancy-independent mammary tumors (PIMT) in GR/A mice, in order to study the possible role of MT in mammary carcinogenesis. TPIMT as well as PIMT showed MT expression in tumor cells in all of the successive transplantations. A negative correlation was observed between MT expression in transplanted tumor tissues and their growth in the hosts (r=-0.53, p<0.05). The present study indicates that MT is a useful marker of tumor progression in TPIMT.
Antigens were identified from the third-stage larvae (L3) and lung-stage larvae of Ascaris suum by two-dimensional immunoblot method with antisera obtained from pigs that received chemically abbreviated Ascaris suum larval infections. Forty-seven and 13 spots were recognized as antigens from the L3 and lung-stage larvae, respectively. Their apparent molecular weight ranged from 20 to 101 kDa and their isoelectric point from 3.6 to 8.0. The present study provides a framework for further molecular cloning of those antigens and consequently leads to the development of recombinant peptide vaccines against A. suum.
Spatial expression of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for osteoblastic marker in drill hole defect healing of adult male rats was analyzed by in situ hybridization. The defect was filled with hematoma 3 days after surgery, expressing Type I collagen mRNA. Hematoma was replaced with fibrous tissue on day 7, and then with new trabecular bone on day 10, originated from the intra-medullary space, respectively. mRNA for Type I collagen, parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were expressed in the same cell population of fibrous tissue adjacent to newly-formed trabecular bone, and in osteoblasts lining the newly-formed trabecular bone. Hematopoietic marrow with osteoclasts subsequently invaded the region, also from the intra-medullary space, replacing all the new trabecular bone by day 21, except for a thin sub-periosteal layer. mRNA for Type I collagen, PTH1R and ALP was expressed on the periosteal surface of thin layer. Although cartilage formation was not histologically visible, mRNA for Type II collagen was weakly detected in the majority of osteoblasts lining the newly-formed trabecular bone.
Two pheasants maintained in outdoor closed pen died within several days after having a history of depression. On necropsy, the spleens from both pheasants were enlarged about 3 times of their normal size and appeared mottled in color varying white to red. Histopathologically, there were diffuse severe follicular necrosis in the spleen and congestion and edema in the lung. Intranuclear basophilic inclusion bodies, which are strongly positive to group II avian adenovirus with immunohistochemistry, were noted in the spleen.
Mechanisms of anti-hantaviral activities of bovine lactoferrin (LF) and ribavirin (Rbv) were investigated. Hantavirus focus formation at 48 hr was 15% of the control in cells treated with 400 μg/ml LF for 1 hr at 37°C prior to viral infection. Post infection treatment with 100 μg/m l Rbv also inhibited the focus formation to 2.5% of the control. Combined LF pre- and Rbv post-infection treatment completely inhibited focus formation. Viral glycoprotein (G2) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) syntheses were delayed in LF pretreated cells up to 24 hr post infection (hpi) but became comparable to the control by 48 hpi. Further, LF inhibited viral shedding at 24 hpi but did not inhibit shedding after 48 hpi. However, Rbv was able to inhibit synthesis of viral proteins, (+) and (-) strand RNAs also inhibited viral shedding after 24 hr. These results suggest that LF inhibits viral adsorption to cells, while Rbv inhibits viral RNA synthesis. For in vivo trials of LF and Rbv, LF pre- and Rbv post-treatment were evaluated in suckling mice infected with hantavirus, of which 7% survived. LF concentrations of 40 and 160 mg/kg administered prior to viral challenge improved survival rates to 15% and 70%, respectively for single administration and 85% and 94%, respectively, for double administration. Rbv concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/kg gave survival rates of 68% and 81%, respectively. This suggests that both LF and Rbv are efficacious in hantavirus infection in vivo.
Two groups of mouse preantral follicles with diameters of 125-150 and 151-175 μm were cultured individually for 6 days in a medium supplemented with FSH and fetal calf serum to determine their in vitro growth characteristics. Their oocyte capacity for maturation and development to the blastocyst stage following in vitro fertilization was also assessed. Antral formation rate at the end of culture was higher in the follicles of 151-175 μm (89%) than 125-150 μm (76%). The timing of antrum formation was different between the two follicle categories: most 151-175 μm follicles formed antra earlier than 125-150 μm follicles (days 4 and 5 vs. 5 and 6). However, follicle diameters at the time of antrum formation were the same regardless of the initial size and the culture period. Maturation rates of the oocytes derived from both categories of in vitro grown follicles (70 and 62%) were not different from those of oocytes from in vivo grown follicles (74%). The in vitro derived oocytes, however, showed less cleavage (30 and 35%) than the in vivo derived oocytes (89%). Although the oocytes from both follicle categories developed to the morula stage after in vitro fertilization, blastocysts were only obtained from oocytes derived from the 151-175 μm category. These results demonstrate that an individual follicle culture system using a medium with FSH and fetal calf serum supports in vitro growth of mouse preantral follicles with diameters of 151-175 μm to the preovulatory stage, and that their oocytes have the capability to develop to the blastocyst stage.
To find definitive RFLP sites for canine sex determination, DNA segments corresponding to parts of the canine ZFX and ZFY genes were amplified by PCR and were directly sequenced. According to the newly defined sequence data, the combination of HaeIII and Cfr13I sites was found to be useful for not only identifying the sex of the canine DNA samples but also distinguishing them from the human DNA. Conveniently, these two enzymes worked simultaneously in the same single buffer. The double-digestion of the ZFX/ZFY PCR products with HaeIII and Cfr13I showed banding patterns unique to males and females in Canis familialis. This PCR/RFLP method was confirmed to be applicable to various breeds of dog.
A major capsid protein (MCP) gene homologue of porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) was identified. Sequence analysis indicated that the PCMV MCP gene is 4,026 nucleotides in length encoding a protein of 1,341 amino acid residues. The predicted molecular weight of the PCMV MCP is 151,456 Da, equivalent to those of other herpesvirus MCP counterparts. Phylogenetic analysis using herpesviral MCP gene sequences confirmed that PCMV is a betaherpesvirus with higher homology with human herpesvirus-6 and -7 than human and mouse cytomegaloviruses. The serum of pig experimentally infected with PCMV did not react with bacterially expressed MCP, suggesting that the PCMV MCP may not be related to the humoral immune response in the course of PCMV infection. Also, we established polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols using primers corresponding to MCP gene sequences for detection of PCMV infection. The PCR protocol would be effective for the diagnosis of slow-growing PCMV infection, for which traditional methods involving virus-isolation are not useful.
The effects of hyperimmune cow colostrum (HCC) on experimentally induced porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) were investigated in piglets. In experiment 1, four 2-day-old piglets fed HCC containing an antibody titer of 1:512 and another four piglets fed unimmune cow colostrum (UCC) were orally inoculated with 10LD50 of PED virus. The piglets were given colostrum three times a day at 4 hr intervals. Half of the piglets fed HCC showed diarrhea and recovered, and all piglets survived. In contrast, all piglets fed UCC developed diarrhea and three of them died. In experiment 2, 2-day-old piglets fed HCC containing antibody titers of 1:512, 1:128 and 1:32, and UCC were inoculated with PED virus, and survival rates after challenge were 100, 75, 50 and 0 %, respectively. In experiment 3, 1-day-old piglets fed HCC with 1:512 antibody titer or UCC were inoculated and necropsied at 24, 48 and 72 hr after the inoculation for pathological examination. Piglets fed HCC remained healthy and PED virus antigen was not detected in the epithelial cells of the small intestine, and the length of the villi in small intestine was normal. On the other hand, in piglets fed UCC, villous atrophy and PED virus antigen were observed in epithelial cells of the jejunum and ileum from 24 hr. It was concluded that oral administration of HCC to piglets was effective in preventing PED virus infection and reduced their mortality.
In an attempt to produce a DNA vaccine to prevent Aujeszky's disease, the induction of immune responses against Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) gD was investigated in mice. The plasmid was constructed by placing ADV gD gene downstream of murine cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter of expression vector pMYK, which was injected twice on the skin of mice by using a gene-gun. All mice showed neutralizing antibodies against ADV gD at 4 weeks after immunization. The induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and splenic natural killer cells was also observed at 6 weeks post immunization. These results indicate that ADV gD gene in the form of DNA vaccine may induce specific as well as non-specific immune responses in vivo.
TT virus (TTV) is not only an infectious agent of worldwide distribution but has also been demonstrated in various non-human primates in addition to humans. In the present study, we subjected the sera of 67 gibbons to PCR and nucleotide sequencing, with subsequent phylogenetic analysis to determine the nature of the relationship between TTV found in humans and non-human primates. We discovered the virus in 9/67 (13.4%) of the gibbon sera and subjected 6 of those to direct sequencing. The phylogenetic tree constructed encompassed all TTV species known to date, revealing a close proximity between the gibbon virus and those detected in Thai individuals, whereas the chimpanzee strains were phylogenetically more remote.