Chylomicrons from villous columnar epithelial cells are generally known to be transported only by central lymph vessels (CLV), whereas antigenic particulates derived from the intestinal lumen can also be transported by subepithelial blood capillaries (sBCs) in rat intestinal villi. The possibility of chylomicron absorption by sBCs was histoplanimetrically studied in the rat jejunum under a transmission electron microscope. The chylomicrons more abundantly presented in villous venules than in arterioles. The most frequent size (MFS) of chylomicrons was 75 to 90 nm in diameter in the areas near sBCs, while it was 45 to 60 nm in the epithelial intercellular spaces just above sBCs or the intermediate areas between sBCs. The MFS of chylomicrons was 45 to 60 nm in the intermediate areas between sBCs and in the epithelial intercellular spaces just above these areas. The MFS of chylomicrons in CLV was intermediate between that in the area adjacent to sBCs and that in the intermediate areas between sBCs. Chylomicrons were found in small vesicles in the endothelial cytoplasms of sBCs. No chylomicrons larger than 600 nm were observed in the lamina propria. These findings suggest that some of the chylomicrons smaller than 75 nm, which are probable intestinal very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), are directly transported to the liver by hepatic portal blood in addition to CLV and that epithelial fat droplets larger than 600 nm are not discharged into lamina propria in rat jejunum under physiological conditions.
Clostridium botulinum produces a large toxin complex (L-TC) that increases paracellular permeability in intestinal epithelial cells by a mechanism that remains unclear. Here, we show that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in this permeability increase. Paracellular permeability was measured by FITC-dextran flux through a monolayer of rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells, and MAPK activation was estimated from western blots. L-TC of C. botulinum serotype D strain 4947 increased paracellular dextran flux and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in IEC-6 cells. The permeability increase induced by L-TC was abrogated by the p38 inhibitor SB203580. These results indicate that L-TC increases paracellular permeability by activating p38, but not JNK and ERK.
In 2008, 102 rodents and 24 stray cats from the areas around 9 pig farms in northeast South Korea were used to determine the prevalence of the following selected swine pathogens: ten viral pathogens [porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), rotavirus, classical swine fever virus (CSFV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine parvovirus (PPV), pseudorabies virus (PRV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)] and four bacterial pathogens (Brucella, Leptospira, Salmonella and Lawsonia intracellularis). In total, 1,260 tissue samples from 102 rodents and 24 stray cats were examined by specific PCR and RT-PCR assays, including tissue samples of the brain, tonsils, lungs, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, small intestine, large intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes. The percentages of PCR-positive rodents for the porcine pathogens were as follows: 63.7% for Leptospira, 39.2% for Brucella, 6.8% for Salmonella, 15.7% for L. intracellularis, 14.7% for PCV2 and 3.9% for EMCV. The percentages of PCR-positive stray cats for the swine pathogens were as follows: 62.5% for Leptospira, 25% for Brucella, 12.5% for Salmonella, 12.5% for L. intracellularis and 4.2% for PEDV. These results may be helpful for developing control measures to prevent the spread of infectious diseases of pigs.
We evaluated diurnal variation and hyperferritinemia as factors that influence the values of serum iron concentration in dogs, using the International Committee for Standardization in Hematology (ICSH) colorimetric method. Serum iron levels were significantly higher in the morning than in the evening in 6 clinically healthy beagle dogs, and the maximum decrease in serum iron concentration was 47.3%. Moreover, the change in serum iron concentrations in 22 clinical canine cases with various serum ferritin levels was evaluated by immunoprecipitation of ferritin. The rate of decline in the serum iron concentrations positively correlated with serum ferritin levels (r=0.48, P=0.024). These results show that it is necessary to consider the sampling time and serum ferritin level for accurate interpretation of serum iron concentrations in dogs.
Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis) has a serious impact on aquaculture and fisheries. There is known to be a significant difference among ayu strains with regard to mortality caused by BCWD. In this study, the immune response of different ayu strains against Flavobacterium psychrophilum infection was observed. One strain was resistant to infection by F. psychrophilum, and the other was susceptible to infection by the same bacteria. The number of bacteria in the body was observed in each ayu strain, and the change in bacterial counts was similar. However, there was a significant difference in bacterial count in the spleen between the two strains on days 6, 9, 12 and 15 after exposure. To observe the immune response against F. psychrophilum, agglutination assay using serum was performed. An agglutination reaction in the resistant ayu strain was observed in 4 out of 6 ayu on day 6 after exposure, while no reactions in the susceptible ayu strain were observed in any sampled fish until day 12. However, some reactions in the susceptible ayu strain were observed in surviving ayu. These results indicate that there is a correlation between the presence of bacterial multiplication and agglutination reaction against F. psychrophilum.
Quantitative contrast enhanced ultrasound is a major breakthrough for ultrasound imaging in recent years. However, contrast enhancement of the pancreas is brief with bolus injection. To assess if continuous infusion of Sonazoid® can prolong the duration of pancreatic enhancement over bolus injections, eight adult dogs received bolus injection and continuous infusion of Sonazoid® on separate days. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of the pancreatic parenchyma and proximal descending duodenum was performed, and time intensity curves reflecting tissue perfusions were generated. Perfusion parameters- time to initial upslope, peak time, time to wash-out and peak intensity were calculated and evaluated. Fast wash-in to intense peak, followed by rapid wash-out was observed for time intensity curves of bolus injection. With continuous infusion, contrast wash-in to peak intensity was gradual, followed by long plateau and slow wash-out. Median contrast enhancement durations of the pancreas and duodenum were significantly prolonged by continuous infusion from 11 sec (range, 10 to 23 sec) and 16 sec (range, 3 to 43 sec) at bolus injection to 205 sec (range, 170 to 264 sec, P<0.01) and 193 sec (range, 169 to 216 sec, P<0.05), respectively. Median peak intensity of the pancreas was 100.9 MPV (range, 80.2 to 124.3 MPV) at bolus injection and 77.6 MPV (range, 58.2 to 99.5 MPV, P<0.05) at continuous infusion. Prolonged continuous imaging is afforded by continuous infusion of contrast agent. Peak intensity of the pancreas was slightly diminished in continuous infusion, but offered adequate imaging subjectively.
Topical administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is generally considered safer than oral administration, although the former can occasionally induce cutaneous irritation. We hypothesized that the cutaneous irritation by topical NSAIDs might be suppressed by trehalose, which has protective effects on biological membranes. Using the three-dimensional cultured human skin model, Living Skin Equivalent-high, we found that cutaneous damage due to NSAIDs was reduced by concomitant use of trehalose and that this effect of trehalose was reinforced by co-lyophilization of NSAIDs with trehalose. The anti-inflammatory effect of co-lyophilized NSAIDs with trehalose was comparable to that seen with NSAIDs alone in a rat model. Our results suggest that co-lyophilization of NSAIDs with trehalose might be a novel procedure that can help prevent NSAIDs-induced skin irritation.
A 13-year-old female Labrador Retriever presented with chronic regurgitation. Radiography and computed tomography (CT) revealed nodules in the caudal esophagus. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy followed by histopathological examination revealed esophageal granulomas caused by Spirocerca lupi. The infection was treated with milbemycin oxime. The therapy was successful, and a remarkable reduction in granulomas was observed. This case report describes the diagnostic imaging findings and treatment outcome of a dog with S. lupi infection in Japan.
A 4-year-old female Maltese (case 1), a 9-year-old castrated male shih tzu (case 2) and 2-year-old female Pomeranian (case 3) presented with neurological signs, such as head tilt, ataxia, circling and paresis. The three cases were tentatively diagnosed as having meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology based on computed tomography scan and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. All patients were managed with cyclosporine plus prednisolone therapy. The survival times of the three patients were 170, 70 and 21 days, respectively. After the cases died, we performed necropsy and histopathological examination for definitive diagnosis. Based on the necropsy, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations, cases 1, 2 and 3 were definitely diagnosed as having necrotizing meningoencephalitis, necrotizing leukoencephalitis and granulomatous meningoencephalitis, respectively. This case report demonstrated the clinical findings, brain CT characteristics and histopathological and immunohistochemical features of NME, NLE and GME in dogs and discussed the reason for the relatively short survival times under cyclosporine plus prednisolone therapy.
We investigated the effect of supplemental vitamin E on antibody titer against bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) in Japanese Black calves after vaccination with modified live virus. Thirty calves kept at the same farm were studied. They were divided into two groups; fifteen calves received 300 IU/day of vitamin E orally from 1 to 3 months of age (VE Group), and the other fifteen calves did not receive vitamin E supplement (Control Group). BHV-1 modified live vaccine was injected twice to all calves when they were 2 and 3 months of age. Following the vaccination, serum vitamin E concentration and neutralizing antibody titer to BHV-1 were measured over time. VE Group showed higher serum vitamin E at 2, 3 and 4 months of age compared to Control Group (P<0.05). The antibody titer in Control Group was the highest at 1 month of age, and it gradually decreased until 4 months of age. VE Group showed increase in antibody titer at 4 months of age resulting in significant difference (P<0.01) from Control Group. This study demonstrated that vitamin E supplementation to Japanese Black calves could increase antibody production after the second modified live BHV-1 vaccination.
We investigated the dynamics and duration of antibody titer against Mannheimia haemolytica in Japanese Black calves. Twenty unvaccinated calves from two Japanese Black breeding farms in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, were studied. The antibody titer against M. haemolytica reached the lowest level at 8 weeks of age after birth. Calves began producing antibody against M. haemolytica by themselves between 8 and 12 weeks of age. The results of this study might help designing a vaccination program against M. haemolytica for Japanese Black calves.
The Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat, an animal model of human Wilson’s disease, spontaneously develops fulminant hepatitis associated with severe jaundice at about 4 months of age. In this study, we examined the changes in gene expression during progression of acute hepatic injury. When levels of gene expression in the liver of LEC rats at 13 weeks of age were compared to those in rats at 4 weeks of age using oligonucleotide arrays, 1,620 genes out of 7,700 genes analyzed showed more than 2-fold differences. Expression levels of 11 of 29 genes related to stress-activating protein kinase (SAPK) changed by more than 2-fold in the liver of LEC rats, but none of the SAPK-related genes showed changes in expression levels in the liver of control rats. Activity of p38 mapk in the liver of LEC rats at 13 weeks of age was about 8.1-fold higher than that in rats at 4 weeks of age. When LEC rats were administered SB203580, a p38 mapk-specific inhibitor, by s.c. injection twice a week from 10 to 13 weeks of age, activities of p38 mapk in the liver, activities of AST and ALT and concentrations of bilirubin in sera of rats administered SB203580 significantly decreased compared to those in rats not administered. These results showed that the increase in activities of p38 mapk was related to the occurrence of acute hepatic injury in LEC rats.
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is used as a non-human primate laboratory animal. Marmoset wasting syndrome (MWS) is a disease endemic to captive colonies, and the pathogenesis is unclear. In the present study, marmosets with chronic bloody high-viscosity diarrhea, which is a contributing factor to MWS, were evaluated, and inflammation in the colon was found. Calprotectin is a surrogate marker of intestinal inflammation and induces apoptosis. Marmosets with chronic diarrhea exhibited higher levels of fecal calprotectin. Histochemical analyses showed high expression of calprotectin in the extravascular neutrophils and apoptosis in the chronic colitis lesions. No internal microbiological diseases were identified. Although the cause of chronic colitis was not identified, the marmoset could be a useful model of inflammatory bowel disease.
Infection with Moniezia benedeni is sometimes found in confined cattle in Japan. Between October 2011 and January 2013, we monitored the fecal egg prevalence at a confined cattle farm in Miyazaki prefecture where continuous M. benedeni infection has been recognized for years to evaluate the possible infection routes. Fecal egg prevalence changed seasonally with the highest in October 2011 (27.3%: 9/33). This was followed by a gradual decrease until July 2012 (9.4%: 3/32) and then an increase between August to December 2012 when new egg-excreting cases were observed. The pattern of seasonal changes was similar to that reported previously for cattle kept in a barn with an outside playing yard. Although M. benedeni-infected mites were not found, we constantly detected an oribatid mite, Oribatula sakamorii Aoki, 1970, in the litter of cattle bedding from May to October 2012. This species belongs to a genus which has been reported to be a suitable intermediate host for M. benedeni, suggesting that M. benedeni infection may have been autonomously maintained at the farm via oribatid mites living in the cowshed. When infected cattle were treated with praziquantel, it was found that a single oral inoculation with a dose of 5 mg/kg was effective for deworming.
This study surveyed the Toxoplasma (T.) gondii infection prevalence in the Korean rabbit population. Rabbits (n=142) were obtained from two breeding farms in the Gongju area, Chungnam Province, and in the Kochang area, Junbuk Province, Korea. Of 142 sera samples analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 15 (10.6%) exhibited T. gondii-specific IgG antibodies, and 1 (0.7%) rabbit harbored T. gondii-specific IgM. Female rabbits (9/84; 10.7%) had a similar T. gondii prevalence to males (6/58; 10.3%). When stratified by age, rabbits aged >1 year had a similar prevalence of T. gondii infection (7/66; 10.6%) to rabbits aged <1 year (8/76; 10.5%). Immunoblotting detected 6 major antigenic bands corresponding to T. gondii-positive sera at 20, 28, 30, 35, 63 and 77 kDa. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of whole-blood samples detected the T. gondii B1 gene in 23 rabbits (16.2%). All PCR-positive samples corresponded to partial T. gondii B1 gene sequences with 99% homology to a T. gondii sequence deposited in GenBank (accession number EU340874). Female rabbits (13/84; 15.5%) harbored a similar prevalence of T. gondii DNA to males (10/58; 17.2%). Rabbits aged >1 year had a similar prevalence (12/66; 18.2%) of T. gondii infection to rabbits aged <1 year (11/76; 14.5%). No statistically significant differences were observed regarding the prevalences of infection according to sex or age using molecular or serological tests. This study is the first survey using serological tests and nested PCR to analyze the T. gondii prevalence in rabbits in Korea.
A three-and-a-half year-old female Rahmani ewe was presented suffering from nervous symptoms. Grossly, a large cyst measuring 7 × 4 cm and weighing 145 g occupied the dilated left lateral ventricle. The overlying cerebral tissue was thin, atrophied and congested. It tore easily, and the cyst was evacuated spontaneously. Microscopically, liquefactive necrosis surrounded by aggregations of macrophages, eosinophils, lymphocytes, fibroblasts and giant cells was predominantly observed. Hyperplasia and severe necrosis of the ependymal cell lining of the lateral ventricle were observed. Extensive subependymal inflammatory cell infiltrations, accompanied by neovascularization and fibroblastic proliferation, were seen. Based on the gross and histopathological lesions and cyst morphology and location, the cyst was diagnosed as Coenurus cerebralis. This report describes a rare case of coenurus cyst in the left lateral cerebral ventricle of a ewe and the associated lesion.
In Rhinocerotidae, there are very few reports of tumors and no reports of a mixed tumor. This paper reports the case of a male 33-year-old southern white rhinoceros. Grossly, there were two masses in the coelomic cavity and solid nodules in the liver. Histologically, all tumors had a biphasic pattern that consisted of malignant epithelial cells (cytokeratin- and E-cadherin-positive) and non-epithelial cells (vimentin-positive) with cartilage. In this case, the prostate could not be identified, and instead, the largest tumor mass was present at that site. Furthermore, since structures regarded as the prostate duct remained in this tumor, we considered that this tumor was very likely to be of prostate gland origin. This case is the first report of carcinosarcoma in Rhinocerotidae.
A 10-year-old female sea otter exhibited convulsions, arrhythmia, hyperthermia, forced breathing and anorexia and died after a week. Histopathological examination revealed neoplastic proliferation of small round cells with scant cytoplasm and round or oval nuclei distributed mainly in the thalamus. The proliferation of neoplastic cells was observed in the cerebral parenchyma and perivascular areas. The neoplastic cells were immunopositive for CD3, but not CD20. No neoplastic proliferation of T-cells was found in other organs. Taken together, we diagnosed this case as a primary cerebral T-cell lymphoma. To our knowledge, this is the first case of primary cerebral T-cell lymphoma in a sea otter.
WBN/Kob-Leprfa (fa/fa) rats have been identified as a new animal model of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), as they are characterized by impaired pancreatic insulin secretion and severe insulin resistance. Our previous study demonstrated impaired insulin secretion and its involvement in hyperglycemia in fa/fa rats. The present study was aimed at elucidating the role of insulin resistance in the development and progression of diabetes in these animals. Troglitazone (TGZ) was used as an insulin sensitizer. Insulin resistance and insulin secretory capacity were measured by a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and the area under the blood concentration–time curve for plasma insulin levels after intravenous glucose tolerance testing, respectively. The fa/fa rats exhibited marked insulin resistance between 5 and 11 weeks of age, compared with age-matched Wistar rats. The insulin secretory capacity of fa/fa rats was higher than that of Wistar rats at 5 weeks of age, but decreased by 50% between 9 and 11 weeks of age. The fa/fa rats were fed a standard diet, with or without 0.2% w/w TGZ, for 4 weeks. Treatment with TGZ significantly improved insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in both prophylactic and therapeutic study groups. These results suggest that insulin resistance is markedly involved in the development and progression of T2DM in fa/fa rats.
The effect of treatment for anestrus in buffaloes with a PGF2α or GnRH injection and vitamin-mineral (Vit-M) supplementation for 1 to 2 months and some factors influencing the treatment effect were studied. In anestrus buffaloes with CL, an injection of PGF2α tended to show higher estrus detection and pregnancy rates within 17 days after treatment than Vit-M supplementation (P<0.10). In those with inactive ovaries, effect of GnRH and Vit-M did not differ. Body condition score of the animals before treatment affected pregnancy rate within 17 days after treatment (P<0.05). Pregnancy rate within 4 months after treatment was adversely influenced by low serum concentrations of calcium (P<0.01) and gastrointestinal parasitic infection before treatment (P<0.05).
We investigated the sensitivity of human rotavirus rapid antigen detection (RAD) kits, RT-PCR and next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) for detection of bovine group A rotavirus (RVA). The Dipstick ‘Eiken’ Rota (Dipstick) showed the highest sensitivity out of the seven RAD kits against all selected strains in limited dilution analyses, which was consistent with the results for equine rotavirus previously reported. RT-PCR had 100–103-fold higher sensitivity than the Dipstick. NGS using thirteen RT-PCR-negative fecal samples revealed that all samples yielded RVA reads and especially that two of them covered all 11 genome segments. Moreover, mapping reads to reference sequences allowed genotyping. The NGS would be sensitive and useful for analysis of less dependent on specific primers and screening of genotypes.
There are two arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) isoforms in birds, AhR1 and AhR2. The varying sensitivity of AhR is reported to be related to two critical amino acids at positions 325 and 381 in the AhR1 ligand-binding domain. In this study, seven avian species whose in vivo dioxin sensitivity was known, and 13 species with no data regarding their in vivo dioxin sensitivity were examined. The two critical amino acids in the ligand-binding domain were investigated in avian species, and the results were compared with the taxonomy or phylogenetic trees for the bird AhR proteins. We found that the two critical amino acids did not correlate with the taxonomy or phylogeny of these proteins, suggesting that dioxin sensitivity was independent of taxonomy.
The initial goal of this study was to determine the minimum anesthetic concentration (MAC) for isoflurane (ISO) and sevoflurane (SEVO) for the crested serpent eagle. Next, we compared the anesthetic effects of each on the physiological effects, hematocrit, plasma chemistry values and behavior in spontaneously breathing captive adult crested serpent eagles. Sixteen eagles were randomly allocated to two groups for anesthesia with ISO (n=8) or SEVO (n=8). First, we measured the MAC values of ISO and SEVO, and four weeks later, we investigated the effect of each on the physiological effects, hematocrit (HCT) and plasma chemistry values. The MAC values of ISO and SEVO for crested serpent eagles were 1.46 ± 0.30 and 2.03 ± 0.32%, respectively. The results revealed no significant differences between the two anesthetics in induction time, while time of extubation to recovery was significantly shorter with SEVO. A time-related increase in end-tidal CO2 and decreases in body temperature and respiratory rates were observed during anesthesia with each anesthetic. There were no significant differences between the effect of the two anesthetics on heart rate, hematocrit, plasma chemistry values or respiration, although each caused minor respiration depression. We concluded that SEVO is a more effective inhalant agent than ISO for use in eagles, showing the most rapidest induction and recovery from anesthesia.