Worldwide use of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) for rodents control has frequently led to secondary poisoning of non-target animals, especially raptors. In spite of the occurrence of many incidents of primary or secondary AR-exposure and poisoning of non-target animals, these incidents have been reported only for individual countries, and there has been no comprehensive worldwide study or review. Furthermore, the AR exposure pathway in raptors has not yet been clearly identified. The aim of this review is therefore to comprehensively analyze the global incidence of primary and secondary AR-exposure in non-target animals, and to explore the exposure pathways. We reviewed the published literature, which reported AR residues in the non-target animals between 1998 and 2015, indicated that various raptor species had over 60% AR- detection rate and have a risk of AR poisoning. According to several papers studied on diets of raptor species, although rodents are the most common diets of raptors, some raptor species prey mainly on non-rodents. Therefore, preying on targeted rodents does not necessarily explain all causes of secondary AR-exposure of raptors. Since AR residue-detection was also reported in non-target mammals, birds, reptiles and invertebrates, which are the dominant prey of some raptors, AR residues in these animals, as well as in target rodents, could be the exposure source of ARs to raptors.
This study examined and compared the branching pattern of the aortic arch (AA) and its major branches in the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) on Jeju Island (Jeju roe deer [JRD]) with those in the roe deer of the Korean peninsula (mainland roe deer [MRD]). Seven of the nine expected types was observed in the arterial silicone casts of 29 deer (10 males, 19 females). The JRD was identical to the MRD in that absence of the typical pattern; however, the main three pattern types differed between the two. This difference resulted from differences in the branching patterns of the right subclavian artery and costocervical trunk. In conclusion, the JRD has different type of AA from the MRD.
Several manufacturers recommend to feed mixture comprising equal amounts of oral rehydration salt (ORS) solution and milk for diarrheic calves after milk withdrawal. Such a feeding method is expected to supply more nutrients and energy compared to feeding only the ORS solution. However, little is known about the effects of feeding milk diluted with ORS solution on calves’ digestive process. This study examined the abomasal contents, volumes, and emptying rates in calves fed whole milk, milk diluted by 50% with ORS solution (50% ORS-milk), and ORS solution. Ultrasonography identified curds in the milk-fed calves, but not in the 50% ORS-milk-fed or the ORS-fed calves. The abomasal fluid of the 50% ORS-milk-fed calves contained not only β-lactoglobulin but also α-casein (CN), β-CN, and κ-CN, which were used for curd formation and undetectable in the milk-fed calves. Abomasal pH was relatively higher in the 50% ORS-milk-fed than that in the milk-fed calves. Abomasal emptying rates were significantly faster in the ORS-fed than in the 50% ORS-milk-fed and the milk-fed calves. These data indicate that the formation of abomasal curd is inhibited in the 50% ORS-milk-fed calves due to the resultant high abomasal pH and low κ-CN concentration. The 50% ORS-milk may not provide rehydration as quickly as the ORS solution. In conclusion, we do not recommend feeding 50% ORS-milk to calves.
Cardiac biomarkers are important tools for monitoring disease progress and can monitor progression of therapy. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been studied for its use as a cardiac biomarker in human and small animal medicine while in horses with cardiac disease it has not been evaluated yet. The objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of plasma ET-1 in healthy horses and compare it with ET-1 concentration in horses with cardiac disease during rest and after exercise. Fifty four horses admitted to the Equine Clinic of Free University of Berlin were used in the present study, of which 15 horses were clinically healthy with no evidence of cardiac disease (Group 1), 22 horses suffered from cardiac disease with normal heart dimensions (Group 2) and 17 horses with cardiac disease and enlarged heart diameters (Group 3). Clinical examination, electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed. Endothelin-1 concentration was determined using ET-1 ELISA kit. The concentration of plasma ET-1 was significantly increased in horses with cardiac disease and normal cardiac dimensions (Group 2) and in horses with cardiac disease and enlargement of the left atrium (Group 3) compared to its concentration in clinically healthy horses (Group 1). In addition, the concentration of plasma ET-1 after exercise was significantly increased in diseased horses compared to its concentration at rest. Detection of ET-1 plasma concentration in horses at rest may be useful for detecting horses with changes in left atrial cardiac dimensions.
The aim of the present study was to measure changes in the serum concentrations of some elements in endotoxin-challenged calves using a particle-induced X-ray emission analysis and to screen for elements useful as diagnostic markers. The results obtained revealed that serum Zn concentrations were more accurate diagnostic markers for detecting endotoxin shock in calves than other elements. Serum Zn level in endotoxin-challenged calve was significantly lower from 8 to 12 hr after the endotoxin challenge than pre-challenge values. In addition, serum Zn concentrations in calves from 4 to 24 hr after endotoxin challenges were significantly lower than those of control. Our results indicate that serum Zn concentration has potential as diagnostic markers for detecting inflammation in calves with endotoxin shock.
Grass awns commonly cause respiratory disease in dogs; when located in the trachea or bronchi, they cause severe bronchial inflammation and sepsis. The interplay of cough, bronchoconstriction, and mucus secretion can result in a less effective expulsive cough phase, especially when the causal factor persists. The bronchial exudate could consequently become trapped in the upper respiratory tracts of dogs with bronchial vegetal foreign bodies. We retrospectively reviewed endoscopic findings of the upper respiratory tract in dogs that underwent bronchoscopy in our hospital and correlated these findings with the presence of bronchial grass awns. Muco-purulent exudate in the ventral larynx region, between the vocal cords and laryngeal ventricles, was frequently associated with the presence of bronchial grass awns. This laryngeal finding could be secondary to an altered response to grass awn localization in the bronchi. These results should be carefully considered, particularly in countries where grass awns are commonly found.
Infections with gastrointestinal nematodes provoke immune and inflammatory responses mediated by cytokines released from T-helper type-2 (Th2) cells. Infections with Trichinella species have been reported to differ by the host species. Previously, in rats, we observed acute liver inflammation in response to infection with Trichinella spiralis, and the rat hosts showed a series of biochemical changes characterized by a decrease in serum paraoxonase (PON) 1 activity associated with the down-regulation of hepatic PON1 synthesis. In the present study, we investigated the effect(s) of species differences on the immune response against T. spiralis infection by analyzing serum PON1 activity and the associated inflammatory/anti-inflammatory mediators in mice. There were inconsistent changes in the serum PON1 activity of mice infected with T. spiralis, and these changes were associated with significant increases in the serum levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and tumor necrosis factor α during the enteric phase of the infection, while the levels of IL-5 and interferon γ were significantly increased throughout the entire experimental period. Moreover, T. spiralis infection in mice was associated with little inflammatory cell infiltration in hepatic tissues. Given the zoonotic prevalence of T. spiralis, further mechanistic research in this area is warranted.
A 3.9-year-old female African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) had a firm, tan-colored mass with an uneven surface arising from the mandibular salivary gland. A histopathologic examination revealed that the mass was composed of neoplastic proliferation of epithelial and spindle cells. The neoplastic spindle cells showed positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, calponin and cytokeratin 14 and, negative for cytokeratin 19, suggesting that spindle cells were derived from myoepithelial cells. Based on the histological findings and immunohistochemistry results, the mass was diagnosed as pleomorphic adenoma. Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor found in human salivary glands, but it is rare in animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of pleomorphic adenoma in hedgehogs.
In the present study, follicle-sinus complexes (FSCs) were harvested from the muzzle skin of 123 dogs with suspected canine rabies, and the sensitivity and specificity of FSC analysis were compared with those of brain tissue immunohistochemistry analysis. In the FSCs, viral antigen was detected from Merkel cells. Sensitivity was 97.3%, specificity was 100%, and the coefficient κ was 0.88. These results reconfirm that FSCs are very useful for the postmortem diagnosis of canine rabies, and suggest that 5 FSCs can yield results that are almost equivalent to those derived from brain tissue analysis in rabid dogs.
A 14-year and 8-month-old intact male Amur tiger presented with an enlarged left testis, measuring 5.7 × 5.5 × 4.5 cm. The cut surface was mottled dark red to reddish brown in color. Microscopically, the enlarged left testis comprised round or polygonal neoplastic cells arranged in a diffuse sheet pattern. These neoplastic cells had a hyperchromatic nucleus and an abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, these neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin, chromogranin A, synaptophysin, melan-A, inhibin-α, and S100 and negative for desmin and WT-1. Based on these morphological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a Leydig cell tumor.
Cases of hyperthermia caused by exposure to high environmental temperature are not uncommonly encountered in dogs. The circumstances surrounding the exposure to high environmental temperature may be accidental or intentional; thus highlighting the importance to perform a forensic autopsy. This report documents three cases of canine environmentally induced hyperthermia and all dogs in this report died less than 6 hr after exposure to the high environmental temperatures. The most commonly observed macroscopic findings included cutaneous petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhage, pulmonary edema and congestion, and epicardial and endocardial hemorrhage. Microscopically, there was systemic vascular congestion and hemorrhage, fibrin thrombi formation, and occasional enterocyte and/or renal tubular necrosis. The findings from all cases were consistent with hyperthermia induced disseminated intravascular coagulation.
A tumor had formed in the right eye of a 14-year-old male chinchilla. The black-and-white-colored tumor occupied the entire eye except for the lens and had invaded extensively inside the orbit. Histologically, round, spindle- to polygonal-shaped tumor cells had proliferated in a solid-sheet arrangement. The tumor cells exhibited polymorphic nuclei ranging from round- to polygonal-shaped, as well as abundant cytoplasm, which occasionally contained melanin granules. In some areas, several cells were surrounded by the basal lamina. Additionally, the tumor showed cervical lymph-node metastasis. Upon immunostaining, the tumor cells were positive for epithelial markers (cytokeratin AE1/AE3, 8/18, and 20), S100, and vimentin. Consequently, we diagnosed primary pleomorphic iridociliary adenocarcinoma with lymph-node metastasis. This is the first report of iridociliary adenocarcinoma in chinchillas.
A 2-year-old castrated male mongrel dog presented with a well-demarcated fluctuant dermal mass, located on the back of the neck. Grossly along with cystic structures filled with a black greasy fluid, when cut open. Microscopically, the mass was multi-lobulated. The lobules consisted of neoplastic basaloid cells and showed central degeneration, forming multiple central cystic structures filled with dark melanin-pigmented materials. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for CK14 and partially positive for CK19, but negative for CK7, CK8/18, CD34, S-100, Melan-A and α-SMA. Based on the findings, the present case was diagnosed as a feline-type basal cell tumor characterized by cystic structures filled with abundant black fluid.
Five-day-old neonatal piglets presented with debilitation and ananastasia. At the necropsy of one piglet, the apex of the tongue was found to be discolored dark red, and disseminated white foci were found on the cut surface. Many white foci were also found in the lungs and on the serosa of the liver and spleen. Histopathological findings revealed multifocal necrotic glossitis and pneumonia with Gram-negative bacilli. The bacilli were identified as Actinobacillus suis through immunohistochemical, biochemical, and genetic tests, including 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although A. suis usually causes inflammation in thoracic and abdominal organs, lesions were also found in the tongue in the present case. This study is the first report of glossitis caused by A. suis.
Here, we investigated the effects of 9-hydroxyphenanthrene (9-phenanthrol), a potent and selective transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) channel blocker, on the resting membrane potential and cholinergic contractile responses to elucidate the functional role of TRPM4 channels in the contractile activities of mouse detrusor and ileal longitudinal smooth muscles. We observed that, 9-phenanthrol (3–30 µM) did not significantly inhibit high K+-induced contractions in both preparations; however, 9-phenanthrol (10 µM) strongly inhibited cholinergic contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in detrusor preparations compared to inhibitions in ileal preparations. 9-Phenanthrol (10 µM) significantly inhibited the muscarinic agonist, carbachol-induced contractile responses and slowed the maximum upstroke velocities of the contraction in detrusor preparations. However, the agent (10 µM) did not inhibit the contractions due to intracellular Ca2+ release evoked by carbachol, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of 9-phenanthrol may primarily be due to the inhibition of the membrane depolarization process incurred by TRPM4 channels. On the other hand, 9-phenanthrol (10 µM) did not affect carbachol-induced contractile responses in ileal preparations. Further, 9-phenanthrol (10 µM) significantly hyperpolarized the resting membrane potential and decreased the basal tone in both detrusor and ileal muscle preparations. Taken together, our results suggest that TRPM4 channels are constitutively active and are involved in setting of the resting membrane potential, thereby regulating the basal tone in detrusor and ileal smooth muscles. Thus, TRPM4 channels play a significant role in cholinergic signaling in detrusor, but not ileal, smooth muscles.
The influence of different levels of heat exposure on the functions of ovarian and adrenal gland were investigated in pre-puberty female rats. Three-week old female rats were treated with control (26°C) or three higher temperatures (38, 40 and 42°C) for 2hr/day. After 9 days of treatment, blood samples were collected for measurement of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol-17β, corticosterone, cholesterol and triglyceride. Adrenal glands, ovaries and liver were collected for analyzing gene expressions. Body and liver weight were significantly low in the 42°C heating group. Circulating LH and triglyceride in the 42°C heating group were significantly lower, and estradiol-17β, corticosterone and cholesterol were significantly higher than those of the control group. The gene expression of 3β-HSD and P450c21 in the adrenal gland; 3β-HSD, receptors of LH, FSH and estrogen in the ovary were significantly low in heated rats. The liver gene expressions of caspase 3 and NK-κB were significantly high in 42°C heated rats, suggesting that the ability of liver metabolic function reduced in the 42°C heated rats. These results demonstrated that the high temperature is responsible for suppression of ovarian function by decreasing the expression of steroidogenic enzymes, estrogen and gonadotropin receptors in the ovary. Increase in circulating estradiol-17β in the heated rats may be due to accumulate this hormone in circulation by potential changes in liver metabolism during the heat stress.
When rat pups are isolated from their mothers, they emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs). Although previous studies have reported that USVs are related to anxiety, others have reported that they are related to simple, nonemotional factors, such as physiological reactions to coldness. In this study, we examined the influence of three maternal separations on rat pups. The number of USVs during 5 min of USV test under maternal separation, latency in the righting reflex as motor function, and body temperature were recorded twice (the first and second tests) before and after the pups were put in various environments for 10 min. The environments were no maternal separation (Control: CON), maternal separation with littermates (LMS), and single maternal separation with a heater (SMS). In the second test, the SMS pups had fewer USVs, a lower body temperature, and a more rapid righting reflex than the CON and LMS pups. In addition, there was no strong correlation between USVs and righting reflex. As a result, pups undergoing 10 min of SMS while being kept warm by the heater showed rapid righting reflex. Thus, by a single maternal separation, the number of USVs decreased but the decrease was unrelated to decrease in motor function.
Currently, several commercially available biochemical kits are validated for their use in human but not in animals. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the applicability of human kits for alanine-aminotransferase, aspartato-aminotransferase, albumin, total protein, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in ovine plasma. Assays were validated according to international guidelines and stability was explored. Accuracy values were between 67 and 100%, and intra and interday precisions (%RSD) were <15% for all studied parameters. These results confirm the suitability of the studied human kits for their use in ovine plasma and they were used in plasma collected from pregnant ewes.
This study investigated cerebral ventricle size and concurrent craniocervical junction abnormality in relation to atlantooccipital overlapping (AOO) in dogs with atlantoaxial instability (AAI). A total of 61 dogs were treated with atlantoaxial ventral fixation. Medical records of each dog, including magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images, were retrospectively reviewed. CT images were assessed for the presence of AOO and the dogs were then assigned to either an AOO group or a non-AOO group accordingly. CT images were also evaluated to determine the foramen magnum (FM) index. Syringomyelia, cerebellar compression, dorsal compression, and the degree of enlargement of each cerebral ventricle were evaluated using MR images. Of the 61 dogs, 23 had AOO and 38 did not. Furthermore, the ventricle/brain height ratio, the fourth ventricle height/cerebellum length ratio, and the fourth ventricle width/cerebellum length ratio were significantly higher in the AOO group than in the non-AOO group. However, the FM index, third ventricle/brain height ratio, and incidence of syringomyelia did not differ significantly between the two groups. Dogs with concurrent AOO exhibited significantly more dilatation of the lateral and fourth ventricles.
A castrated male Shih-Tzu dog was presented for evaluation of urine leakage after urethrotomy. A fistula with urine leakage was identified in the perineal region. On retrograde urethrography, the contrast extravasated from the penile urethra into the subcutaneous tissue of the perineum. Urine leakage with urethrocutaneous fistula was diagnosed. During surgery, the disrupted urethra wall and two urethral defects were identified. A fascia lata autograft was used, rather than primary repair of the urethra. Two pieces of fascia lata were harvested and sutured to the urethral defects. The fistula was treated with debridement and drainage. No evidence of urine leakage and dysuria was noted 6 months postoperatively. Thus, this case report describes successful urethral reconstruction using a fascia lata autograft.
There has been no report of equine embryo transfer in Japan for the last 24 years. Our objective was to establish an effective protocol for embryo transfer in domestic horse. A Hokkaido native pony was bred by deep-horn artificial insemination with frozen semen from a Connemara pony. Embryo collection was performed using a non-surgical method on day 7. Two embryos were obtained from three flushes (67% recovery) and were transferred fresh into crossbred recipient mares. Both recipient mares were diagnosed pregnant (100% pregnancy rate) 5 days after embryo transfer and had normal progesterone levels until the end of the observation on day 35 of gestation. This is the first successful embryo transfer in Japan by artificial insemination using frozen semen. Embryo transfer technology could be extremely useful in improving the productivity of Japanese domestic and special riding horses.
Ibaraki virus (IBAV) is an arbovirus that is transmitted by biting midges and causes Ibaraki disease in cattle. IBAV induces apoptosis in several mammalian cell lines, and apoptosis in turn facilitates IBAV replication. In addition, virus-induced apoptosis may contribute to mammalian-specific pathogenicity considering that some arboviruses induce apoptosis in mammalian cells but not in insect cells. In this study, we found that when hamster lung cells (HmLu-1) are used as a virus host, IBAV causes severe cytopathic effects with little induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of apoptosis did not affect IBAV-induced cytotoxicity. These results indicate the existence of an apoptosis-independent pathway in which IBAV replicates and exerts cytotoxicity in mammalian cells.
Schmallenberg virus (SBV), discovered in 2011 in Germany, is associated with clinical manifestations of fever, diarrhea, reduced milk yield, abortions and congenital malformations in ruminants. Despite many studies performed for SBV, there is no detailed research on in vitro apoptotic effect of SBV. This study is aimed to determine apoptosis pathways and role of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic molecules in Vero cells infected with SBV. The study results showed that SBV induced apoptosis via both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways by activating both caspase-8 and caspase-9, respectively. Expression analyses of pro-apoptotic (Bax, Bak and Puma) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL) genes revealed that SBV-induced apoptosis causes upregulation of pro-apoptotic genes, dominantly via Puma gene, whereas Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL genes were downregulated. In conclusion, this is the first detailed report about SBV induced apoptosis in the Vero cells via both extrinsic and intrinsic cascades and apoptosis induction is seem to be regulated by Puma.
Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS) is one of the important emerging diseases causing huge losses to the poultry industry. It affects mainly 3- to 6-week-old broiler chickens and rarely occurs in breeding and laying flocks. Recently, an HPS case was recorded with a sudden heavy mortality in a 100-day-old laying flock. A fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4), named as GDMZ strain, was isolated and identified using polymerase chain reaction coupled with electron microscopy. The animal experiment showed that a mortality of 100% was recorded with hydropericardium as a conspicuous lesion throughout the course of infection. Microscopically, vacuolar changes and intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in the liver and vacuolar changes were observed in the heart. The complete genome sequence of GDMZ strain was determined to investigate the molecular properties of GDMZ strain. The comparative analysis revealed that the novel Chinese FAdV-4 isolate contained open reading frame (ORF) 19, ORF27, and ORF48 genomic deletions. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that FAdV-4 could be divided into two major clades, of which Chinese FAdV-4 were located at a distinct clade.
Duck Tembusu virus disease, caused by the duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), can lead to a severe reduction in egg production and growth retardation in laying ducks and ducklings, respectively. In this study, we engineered a novel recombinant adenovirus expressing the E protein of DTMUV (rAd-E) in AAV-293 cells (analyzed by western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assays). Intramuscular immunization of Cherry Valley ducks with rAd-E was performed to evaluate host cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the phosphate-buffered saline administered group and the negative control wild-type adenovirus (wtAd) group, the rAd-E vaccinated group showed increased cellular and humoral responses. The results from the cytokine release and lymphocyte proliferation assays showed that rAd-E induced a stronger cellular immune response than the control group (P<0.01), 4 weeks after primary immunization. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent and virus neutralization assays showed that rAd-E induced higher titers of specific neutralizing antibodies, 2 weeks after primary immunization. The DTMUV challenge experiment showed a higher survival rate (80%) of ducks in the rAd-E group, when challenged with 0.5 ml (ELD50=10−2.67/0.2 ml) of the DTMUV strain AH-F10. These results indicate that rAd-E effectively protects ducks against DTMUV infection. Therefore, rAd-E could be a vaccine candidate to provide an effective and safe method for prevention and control of DTMUV infection.
To evaluate the accuracy of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test as the index of feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)-protective ability, sera from 153 FPV-vaccinated cats aged ≥7 months with HI titer of <1:10–1:40, were examined for serum neutralizing (SN) antibody. SN antibody was detected (≥1:10) in 33 (62.3%) of 53 HI antibody-negative cats, and ranged <1:10–1:160. This suggests that FPV-antibody detection sensitivity of HI test is lower than SN test, and SN test is more suitable for the assessment of FPV-vaccine effect than HI test especially in cats with negative or low HI titer. SN titer was 1:32, FPV-protective threshold, or higher in all cats with HI titers of ≥1:20, suggesting it may be appropriate to set protective HI threshold at 1:20.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) make up an important group of pathogens causing major animal and public health concerns worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of different pathotypes of E. coli in captive wildlife. We analyzed 314 fresh fecal samples from captive wildlife, 30 stool swabs from animal caretakers, and 26 feed and water samples collected from various zoological gardens and enclosures in India for the isolation of E. coli, followed by pathotyping by multiplex PCR. The overall occurrence rate of E. coli was 74.05% (274/370). The 274 E. coli isolates were pathotyped by multiplex PCR targeting 6 genes. Of them, 5.83% were pathotyped as EPEC, 4.74% as STEC, and 1.09% as ETEC. The 16S rRNA genes from the selected isolates were amplified, sequenced, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. The phylogenetic tree exhibited indiscriminate genetic profiling and some isolates from captive wild animals had 100% genetic identity with isolates from caretakers, suggesting that captive wildlife may serve as a reservoir for infection in humans and vice-versa. The present study demonstrates for the first time the prevalence of these E. coli pathotypes in captive wildlife in India. Our study suggests that atypical EPEC strains are more frequent than typical EPEC strains in captive wildlife. Discovering the implications of the prevalence of these pathotypes in wildlife conservation is a challenging topic to be addressed by further investigations.
The small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus) was introduced to Japanese islands and has impacted on the island’s biodiversity. Population control has been attempted through capturing but its efficiency has rapidly declined. Therefore, new additional control methods are required. Our focus has been on the immunocontraceptive vaccines, which act in an especially species-specific manner. The amino-acid sequence of the mongoose ovum zona pellucida protein 3 (ZP3) was decoded and two types of synthetic peptides (A and B) were produced. In this study, these peptides were administered to mongooses (each n=3) and the sera were collected to verify immunogenicity using ELISA and IHC. Treated mongoose sera showed an increasing of antibody titer according to immunizations and the antigen-antibody reactions against the endogenous mongoose ZP. In addition, IHC revealed that immune sera absorbed with each peptide showed a marked reduction in reactivity, which indicated the specificity of induced antibodies. These reactions were marked in peptide A treated mongoose sera, and the antibody titer of one of them lasted for at least 21 weeks. These results indicated that peptide A was a potential antigen, inducing autoantibody generation. Moreover, immunized rabbit antibodies recognized mongoose ZP species-specifically. However, the induction of robust immune memory was not observed. Also, the actual sterility effects of peptides remain unknown, it should be verified as a next step. In any case, this study verified synthetic peptides we developed are useful as the antigen candidates for immunocontraception of mongooses.
A severely emaciated adult Steller’s sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus) was found dead with electrocution-induced severe wing laceration, and with multiple cutaneous pock nodules at the periocular regions of both sides nearby the medial canthi and rhamphotheca. Histopathological examination of the nodules revealed hyperplasia of the epidermis with vacuolar degeneration and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies). The proventriculus was severely affected by nematodes and was ulcerated. Nucleotide sequencing of a PCR-amplified product of Avipoxvirus 4b core gene revealed 100% identity to the sequence of Avipoxvirus derived from other eagle species. This report describes the first detection of Avipoxvirus clade A from a Steller’s sea eagle.