Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) microscopy is a magnetic resonance imaging method with enhanced spatial resolution due to the use of a high static magnetic field and high magnetic field gradients. It is considered to be a useful tool for non-invasive and continuous investigation of tissue and organs at the histological level. In this study, we applied NMR microscopy to assessment of morphology in mouse embryos using a developmental disorder model induced by retinoic acid administration. Pregnant mice were given 50 mg/kg all-trans retinoic acid at 8.5 dpc. Embryos were collected at several time points after treatment and examined by NMR microscopy after fixation. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional spin echo sequences were used. Tissue contrast on two-dimensional images changed according to length of repetition time and echo time, and also to developmental stage of embryos. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional images nondestructively demonstrated defects in development of the skeleton and soft tissue, e.g. hypoplasia of vertebrae in the lumbar and tail regions and dysplasia of the spinal cord, in embryos exposed to retinoic acid. These morphological abnormalities were confirmed by conventional assessment after imaging. Although further improvements are required, NMR microscopy will provide a new approach for multi-parameter assessment of embryonic development under physiological and pathological conditions.
Previously, we histochemically examined the localization of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptors in porcine ovarian follicles, and demonstrated a marked reduction in the expression of TRAIL-decoy receptor-1 (DcR1) in granulosa cells of atretic follicles. In the present study, to confirm the inhibitory activity of DcR1 in granulosa cells, granulosa cells prepared from healthy follicles were treated with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) to cleave glycophospholipid anchor of DcR1 and to remove DcR1 from the cell surface, and then incubated with TRAIL. PI-PLC treatment increased the number of apoptotic cells induced by TRAIL. The present finding indicated the possibility that TRAIL and its receptors were involved in induction of apoptosis in granulosa cells during atresia, and that DcR1 plays an inhibitory role in granulosa cell apoptosis.
3-nitrotyrosine, a product of tyrosine nitration, is a useful indicator of oxidative damage. We modified the previously reported HPLC-electrochemical detection (ECD) method: specifically, a through-type porous carbon electrode was used as a reducing electrode instead of the mercury-gold amalgam electrode, because the response of the latter changes over time. A combination of reverse-phase HPLC and electrochemical detector passed through -800 mV reduction potential and subsequently under +250 mV oxidation potential allows measurement of 3-nitrotyrosine. The detection limit of this assay was less than 10 fmol. In mice to which lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered intraperitoneally, plasma 3-nitrotyrosine levels were elevated, corresponding to LPS dosage. These findings suggest that the improved HPLC-ECD method can be used as a specific and sensitive assay of biological 3-nitrotyrosine and can be applied clinically.
Molecule possessing ankyrin-repeats induced by lipopolysaccharide (MAIL) is a nuclear IκB protein recently identified as a molecule appearing in immunocompetent organs after administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Participation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, which is a major form of LPS receptors, in the LPS-induced MAIL expression was investigated. When a human myelomonocytic cell line U937 was treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate for 3 days, the LPS-induced MAIL expression was much potentiated in parallel with an increase in TLR4 expression. The MAIL induction was attenuated when the cells were treated with a neutralizing antibody against TLR4. The in vivo induction of MAIL in the spleen was smaller in mice having a missense mutation of the Tlr4 gene than in normal control mice. These results collectively indicate that TLR4 contributes, at least in part, MAIL induction after LPS stimulation.
Protective effects of recombinant R7 (rR7) vaccine against Leucocytozoon caulleryi in chickens were studied. After injection of oil-adjuvanted rR7 vaccine into chickens, antibody titers against second-generation schizonts (2GS) antigen of L. caulleryi (anti-2GS antibody) rapidly rose in all the immunized chickens, reached to a peak value 2 weeks after injection, and the titers persisted through 4 or 5 months after injection. Chickens having high levels of the anti-2GS antibody titers (≥ 102,400 ) at pre-challenge completely protected against sporozoites challenge of L. caulleryi. After the challenge inoculation, relatively high parasitemia of L. caulleryi was observed in all the inadequately immunized chickens having low levels of the antibody titers (≤ 3,200 ) at pre-challenge, although some of them seemed to be clinically normal. Correlation of protective effects in the immunized chickens was observed between both prevention of appearance of clinical signs and parasitemia after parasites challenge and anti-2GS antibody titers of the chickens at pre-challenge. The present study shows that chicken leucocytozoonosis can be prevented by vaccination, and humoral immunity may play an important role in the control of chicken leucocytozoonosis.
CD56+ cells in canine blood leukocytes were characterized by flow-cytometric analysis of peripheral blood of 30 healthy adult beagle-dogs (15 males and 15 non-pregnant females). In 19 of the 30 dogs, anti human CD56 antibody, Leu-19, reacted with 8.8-21.7% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. All CD56+ cells simultaneously expressed CD3 molecules on their surface. Further phenotypic analysis revealed that 50.6 ± 13.1% of the CD56+ cells showed CD4-CD8+ phenotype and 43.7 ± 10.1% showed CD4+CD8- phenotype. Expression intensity of CD56 on the CD4-CD8+CD56 + cells was significantly higher than that on CD4+CD8 -CD56+ cells (P<0.001). These findings indicate that CD56, which is a neural cell adhesion molecule, is uniquely expressed on subsets of T lymphocytes in canine peripheral blood.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic factor which targets vascular endothelial cells. In this study, cDNA encoding a feline VEGF (fVEGF) isoform was cloned from a feline lymphoid tumor cell line and sequenced. The fVEGF cDNA contained an open reading frame of 567 nucleotides coding for a polypeptide of 163 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acids. The predicted fVEGF amino acid sequence shared 98.4, 94.2 and 94.2% homology with the sequences of canine, bovine and human VEGF, respectively. Though predicted fVEGF polypeptide was two amino acid residues shorter than human VEGF165, a potential glycosylation site and regions critical for receptor binding were conserved in all the species examined. Transient expression of fVEGF in mammalian cells resulted in secretion of VEGF which could be detected by antibodies against human VEGF165. Furthermore, wide expression of fVEGF mRNA was observed in various feline tissues using RT-PCR methods.
The resistance of cotton rats, Sigmodon hispidus to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection was examined and compared the response to that of the susceptible Indian soft-furred rat, Millardia meltada. After a primary infection with infective third-stage N. brasiliensis larvae (L3), the number of eggs in feces and adult worm recovery rates from the small intestine of cotton rats were significantly lower than in the controls. To determine whether cotton rat resistance was observed during the migratory phase or the intestinal phase, cotton rats and control animals were challenged subcutaneously with L3 or intraduodenally with adult worms, and larval recovery from lungs and adult worm burden were evaluated. The recovery rate of larvae from the lungs of cotton rats was about five-fold lower than from controls. Adult worm recovery from the small intestine of cotton rats was also lower than that from the controls, but the difference (two-fold lower) was smaller than that observed for lung recovery. Carbon treatment at a dose of 250-500 mg/kg effectively increased larval worm recovery from the lungs of cotton rats. However, this treatment had no effect on worm recovery from the intestine after intraduodenal implantation of adult N. brasiliensis. These results suggest that macrophage function have important role in the expression of strong resistance during the migratory phase of N. brasiliensis infection in cotton rats.
C/O specific pathogen-free White Leghorn chickens were intracerebrally inoculated at one day of age with a brain homogenate of Japanese bantams (Gallus gallus domesticus) affected with fowl glioma. Histologically, six of eight inoculated chickens developed nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis in cerebrum and two of them had the characteristic lesions of fowl glioma. Hyperplastic lymphoid foci concomitantly developed in many organs of these birds, especially in the heart. Apart from these lymphoid foci, lymphocytic myocarditis was observed in all inoculated birds. Matrix inclusions were also noted in myocardial cells. Immunohistochemically, avian leukosis virus antigens were detected in reticular cells in the lymphoid foci, mesangial cells of the kidney, smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels, and myocardial cells. Of these tissues, the myocardium of all inoculated birds consistently showed strong reactivity for this antigens. The matrix inclusions were also positive for the antigens. These results suggest that the causal virus of fowl glioma has a high propensity to replicate, especially in myocardium and nonsuppurative myocarditis occurs associated with so-called fowl glioma.
A retrospective study for the detection of porcine circovirus 2 (PCV-2) DNA was conducted by nested PCR method in 16 cases of swine post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Thailand. Histopathology showed characteristic lesions of PMWS and intracytoplasmic viral inclusion bodies in macrophages infiltrating in lymphoid tissues. PCV-2 DNA was detected from formalin-fixed and/or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from all pigs with PMWS. The amplified products were digested with Hae III.
In the genome of strains of very virulent Marek's disease virus serotype 1(vvMDV1), such as Md5 and RB1B, the meq open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 339-amino-acid bZIP protein, is present, while a slightly longer meq ORF, termed as L-meq, in which a 180-bp sequence is inserted into the meq ORF is found in other strains of MDV1, such as CVI988/R6 and attenuated JM. When chickens were infected with vvMDV1 strains and the meq gene was amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the meq gene was detected throughout the experimental period for 7 weeks post inoculation (pi). However, the L-meq gene was also detected at 3 to 5 weeks and 3 to 4 weeks pi. in Md5-infected and RB1B-infected chickens, respectively. In the case of chickens infected with an attenuated MDV1, the JM strain, the L-meq gene was detected at 2 to 7 weeks pi., and the meq gene was also detected at 2 to 6 weeks pi. Both L-meq and meq genes were detected in chickens infected with an attenuated nononcogenic vaccine strain of MDV1 (CVI988/R6), throughout the experimental period. Though quantitative PCR was not performed, a larger amount of the PCR products corresponding to the L-meq than the meq gene was amplified from chickens infected with JM or CVI988/R6. These results suggest that a dynamic population shift between the MDV subpopulations displaying meq and L-meq genes occurs in chickens during the course of MDV infection. Since the MDV subpopulation that displays the L-meq gene only displays it during the latent phase, the L-meq and its gene product, if any, might contribute to the maintenance of the MDV latency.
Borna disease virus (BDV)-specific antibodies were monitored in Misaki feral horses annually for 4 years using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA). Among 130 horses examined, 35 (26.9%) with an ECLIA count above 1000 once or more were judged as BDV seropositive. Throughout the study period, p24 antibodies were more frequent than p40 antibodies in almost all positive animals. Among the 35 seropositive horses, the ECLIA count was consistently high in 12 cases. Eleven horses seroconverted from negative to positive and 7 underwent reversal. The count in the remaining 95 horses (73.1%) remained low for 4 years and these animals were judged as seronegative.