The purpose of present study was to determine annual changes in serum progesterone (P4
) concentrations and to clarify basic reproductive characteristics, such as breeding season, estrous cycle, and puberty in female bharals (Pseudois nayaur
). Blood was collected from 9 female bharals once or twice weekly for approximately one year. Serum P4
concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Serum P4
concentrations showed remarkable and cyclic changes between November/December (winter) and May/June (late spring). The mean estrous cycle was 24.9 ± 0.5 days. Chasing insistently to other females and discharge of mucus from the vulva were observed around the time when the serum P4
concentrations began to increase. The chasing behavior and discharge of mucus were considered to be external indicators of estrus in female bharals. Serum P4
concentrations of a pregnant female had non-cyclic changes, and the values remained high. In this study, all 37 deliveries were between April and September, and about 70% of these were concentrated in May and June. The conception month determined on the day of birth was between October and April for all animals, and the most common month was in December (54%). This month corresponded to an early stage of the period when the serum P4
concentrations changed cyclically. These results indicate that many female bharals become pregnant at the beginning of the breeding seasons and, if they do not become pregnant, the estrous cycle, about 25 days in length, is repeated.