In this study, immunohistochemical analysis has been performed using neuronal markers (GAP43, NCAM and PGP 9.5) to characterize the epithelial invagination in the medial wall of the olfactory pit in the chick embryos. At stages 26–27, the epithelial invagination was primarily composed of characteristic round-shaped cells, which were negative for neuronal markers. These cells were also found in the medial wall of the olfactory pit at stage 24, whereas the epithelial invagination was not observed at any stages other than stages 26–27. The possible relationship between the round-shaped cells and the migratory cells is discussed.
This study determined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolates from dogs with a presumptive diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI). Urine samples from 201 dogs with UTI diagnosed through clinical examination and urinalysis were processed for isolation of Escherichia coli. Colonies from pure cultures were identified by biochemical reactions (n=114) and were tested for susceptibility to 18 antimicrobials. The two most frequent antimicrobials showing resistance in Urinary E. coli isolates were oxytetracycline and ampicillin. Among the resistant isolates, 17 resistance patterns were observed, with 12 patterns involving multidrug resistance (MDR). Of the 69 tetracycline-resistant E. coli isolates, tet(B) was the predominant resistance determinant and was detected in 50.9% of the isolates, whereas the remaining 25.5% isolates carried the tet(A) determinant. Most ampicillin and/or amoxicillin-resistant E. coli isolates carried blaTEM-1 genes. Class 1 integrons were prevalent (28.9%) and contained previously described gene cassettes that are implicated primarily in resistance to aminoglycosides and trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA17-aadA5). Of the 44 quinolone-resistant E. coli isolates, 38 were resistant to nalidixic acid, and 6 were resistant to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin. Chromosomal point mutations were found in the GyrA (Ser83Leu) and ParC (Ser80Ile) genes. Furthermore, the aminoglycoside resistance gene aacC2, the chloramphenicol resistant gene cmlA and the florfenicol resistant gene floR were also identified. This study revealed an alarming rate of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli isolates from dogs with UTIs.
Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), a urinary bladder tumor with high mortality, is encountered commonly in dogs. Whereas overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with development of human urinary bladder cancer, information on EGFR expression in canine TCC is lacking. In this study, EGFR protein and mRNA expression in canine normal bladder (n=5), polypoid cystitis (n=5) and TCC (n=25) were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. EGFR protein expression was significantly higher in TCC than that in normal healthy bladder (P<0.001) and polypoid cystitis (P<0.005). High EGFR protein expression was significantly (P<0.01) associated with TCC with a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 100%. Comparative analysis of protein and mRNA expression levels in TCC showed significant positive correlation (r=0.88, P<0.05) between mRNA and protein expression. These findings suggest that intense expression of EGFR protein could be used as a marker to help canine TCC diagnosis.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) often occurs due to a left heart disease, such as myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD), in dogs and is diagnosed using Doppler echocardiography and estimated pulmonary arterial pressure. Diagnosis of PH in dogs requires expertise in echocardiography: however, the examination for PH is difficult to perform in a clinical setting. Thus, simple and reliable methods are required for the diagnosis of PH in dogs. The purpose of this study was to develop models using multiple logistic regression analysis to detect PH due to left heart disease in dogs with MMVD without echocardiography. The medical records of dogs with MMVD were retrospectively reviewed, and 81 dogs were included in this study and classified into PH and non-PH groups. Bivariate analysis was performed to compare all parameters between the groups, and variables with P values of <0.25 in bivariate analysis were included in multiple logistic regression analysis to develop models for the detection of PH. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the model included a vertebral heart scale short axis of >5.2 v, and a length of sternal contact of >3.3 v was considered suitable for the detection of PH. The predictive accuracy of this model (85.9%) was judged statistically adequate, and therefore, this model may be useful to screen for PH due to left heart disease in dogs with MMVD without echocardiography.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between serum amino acid profiles in normal and calves with Mycoplasma bronchopneumonia. Serum free amino acid concentrations in serum obtained from 34 calves with or without Mycoplasma bronchopneumonia were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The calves with Mycoplasma were characterized by significantly lower total amino acid and total essential amino acid concentrations and molar ratios of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) to aromatic amino acid (BCAA/AAA) and BCAA to tyrosine (BTR), and by a significantly higher molar ratio of serine phosphorylation (SPR). The proposed diagnostic cutoffs for BCAA/AAA, BTR and SPR in serum based on ROC analysis for detection of catabolic states associated with Mycoplasma bronchopneumonia were set at <1.75, <2.86 and >0.85, respectively. Our results suggest that determining the profiles of amino acids, especially BTR and SPR, could provide useful diagnostic information in terms of predicting protein catabolism in Mycoplasma bronchopneumonia.
The present study evaluated the effects of single-dose marbofloxacin in protecting horses against fever associated with transportation using 48 healthy Thoroughbreds. All horses were premedicated with interferon-α (0.5 U/kg, sublingually, every 24 hr) for 2 days before transportation and on the day of transportation. Horses were randomly assigned to receive marbofloxacin (2 mg/kg, IV, once; MRFX group), enrofloxacin (5 mg/kg, IV, once; ERFX group) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (10 ml, IV, once; control group) ≤1 hr before being transportation. Each group contained 16 horses (8 males, 8 females). Horses were transported 1,210 km using commercial vans over the course of approximately 26 hr. Clinical examinations and hematologic analyses were performed on all horses both before and after transportation. Post-transportation neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group compared with the control horses. The serum amyloid A levels were significantly lower in horses in the MRFX group and ERFX group compared with the control horses. Regarding the post-transportation rectal temperatures, fever was detected in 0 horses and 1 horse in the MRFX and ERFX groups, respectively, whereas fevers exceeding 39.1°C were detected in 2 horses in the control group. Additionally, the number of essential post-transportation treatments provided by veterinarians was reduced 3-fold in the MRFX and ERFX groups compared with the saline group. MRFX provided ERFX-like protection against fever associated with long-distance transportation, yielding significantly better protection than saline. Administration of MRFX just before transportation deserves a further study for efficacy in preventing horse fever associated with transportation.
L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), the first isotype of amino acid transport system L, transports aromatic and branched amino acids pivotal for fundamental cellular activities such cellular growth and proliferation. LAT1 expression was high only in the brain in contrast to its limited distribution and low level of expression in normal tissues. We found potent LAT1 expression in canine caput epididymis by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. Immnuno-histochemical examination revealed observable LAT1 in microvillous epithelial cells.
A two-month-old female Chihuahua was diagnosed as severe pulmonary valvular stenosis (PS). Although balloon valvuloplasty (BV) was successfully performed, restenosis was observed 19 months after the procedure. Euthanasia was chosen due to low output syndrome during the surgical repair attempted when the dog was 5 years old. Postmortem examination revealed markedly thickened pulmonary valve due to the increase of extracellular matrix which might be produced by increased α smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts. The thickening of the valve was associated with restriction of the valve’s motion, resulting in restenosis in the present case. This is the first case report documented histopathological and immunohistochemical findings of the restenotic pulmonary valve in dogs with PS after BV.
Bovine babesiosis is a livestock disease known to cause economic losses in endemic areas. The apicomplexan parasite Babesia bovis is able to invade and destroy the host’s erythrocytes leading to the serious pathologies of the disease, such as anemia and hemoglobinuria. Understanding the egress mechanisms of this parasite is therefore a key step to develop new therapeutic strategies. In this study, the possible involvement of Ca2+ in the egress of B. bovis merozoites from infected erythrocytes was investigated. Egress was artificially induced in vitro using calcium ionophore A23187 and thapsigargin to increase Ca2+ concentration in the cytosol of the parasite cells. The increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration following these treatments was confirmed using live cell Ca2+ imaging with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Based on our findings, we suggest a Ca2+ signalling pathway in the egress of B. bovis merozoites.
This study was designed to clarify the differences in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and 5.8S nucleotide sequences of Moniezia expansa, M. benedeni and M. monardi isolated from ruminants in Japan and to determine their phylogenetic relationships. A 98% similarity in the 5.8S sequences was observed among the 3 Moniezia species, whereas many nucleotide indels and substitutions were observed in the ITS1 sequences among the three Moniezia species. These results suggest that the ITS1 region could serve as a potential marker for discriminating the 3 Moniezia species. In the phylogenetic tree based on the ITS1 sequences, M. monardi and M. benedeni showed genetically closer relationship to each other than to M. expansa.
The effects of various selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors on carbachol (CCh)-induced contraction in the bovine abomasum were investigated. Various selective PDE inhibitors, vinpocetine (type 1), erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA, type 2), milrinone (type 3), Ro20-1724 (type 4), vardenafil (type 5), BRL-50481 (type 7) and BAY73-6691 (type 9), inhibited CCh-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the PDE inhibitors, Ro20-1724 and vardenafil induced more relaxation than the other inhibitors based on the data for the IC50 or maximum relaxation. In smooth muscle of the bovine abomasum, we showed the expression of PDE4B, 4C, 4D and 5 by RT-PCR analysis. In the presence of CCh, Ro20-1724 increased the cAMP content, but not the cGMP content. By contrast, vardenafil increased the cGMP content, but not the cAMP content. These results suggest that Ro20-1724-induced relaxation was correlated with cAMP and that vardenafil-induced relaxation was correlated with cGMP in the bovine abomasum. In conclusion, PDE4 and PDE5 are the enzymes involved in regulation of the relaxation associated with cAMP and cGMP, respectively, in the bovine abomasum.
In the present study, we examined the oral pharmacokinetics of the acidic drugs, diclofenac (DF) and sulfamonomethoxine (SMM), which have different physicochemical properties, in Shiba goats. DF and SMM were intravenously and orally administered to 5 male goats using a crossover design. The Tmax of DF and SMM were reached 1.5 and 5.6 hr after they have been orally administered, respectively, and this was followed by their slow elimination. The elimination of both drugs was markedly faster after being intravenously rather than orally administered, which indicated flip-flop phenomena after the oral administration. The mean absorption times (MATs) of DF and SMM were 6 and 15 hr, respectively. This slow absorption may have been due to slow gastric emptying in goats. The large difference observed in MATs between DF and SMM may have been because DF, which is more lipophilic than SMM, was partly absorbed from the forestomach. Therefore, these results suggest that the absorption of highly lipophilic drugs from the forestomach may be markedly high in Shiba goats. In case of drugs whose elimination is quite fast, their efficacies may appear from the early stage after oral administration even in ruminants, because elimination rate is the determinant factor of Tmax in flip-flop phenomena. Such drugs may be used orally even in ruminants.
The tick is a well-known vector for arthropod-borne pathogens, such as tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, Japanese spotted fever and severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome. It is therefore important to know the tick population and distribution in our environment and wild animals in order to prevent tick-borne diseases. Here, we report the results of tick surveillance from May to September 2011 at 14 geographical points and in 5 wild boars in Kyoto City, Kyoto prefecture, Japan. We collected 3,198 ticks comprising 5 tick species, Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis, H. flava, H. kitaokai, Amblyomma testudinarium and Dermacentor taiwanensis. Interestingly, the proportion of tick species varied according to geographical region within the city. The ticks collected in the city were reported as potential vectors of pathogens, such as rickettsiosis. We detected rickettsial DNA by PCR in 71.1% of 201 ticks investigated. The ticks that carried rickettsiae were distributed across the whole the city. The sequences of PCR-amplified DNA fragments were determined and showed similarities to spotted fever group rickettsiae. Although their pathogenicity for animals including humans is still unclear, it is important to stay alert and pay attention to tick-borne diseases in order to ensure the safety of the citizens of the city as well as that of visitors.
We investigated the in vitro differentiation of canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) into voltage- and glutamate-responsive neuron-like cells. BMSCs were obtained from the bone marrow of healthy beagle dogs. Canine BMSCs were incubated with the basal medium for neurons containing recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; 100 ng/ml). The viability of the bFGF-treated cells was assessed by a trypan blue exclusion assay, and the morphology was monitored. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to evaluate mRNA expression of neuronal, neural stem cell and glial markers. Western blotting and immunocytochemical analysis for the neuronal markers were performed to evaluate the protein expression and localization. The Ca2+ mobilization of the cells was evaluated using the Ca2+ indicator Fluo3 to monitor Ca2+ influx. To investigate the mechanism of bFGF-induced neuronal differentiation, the fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor or the Akt inhibitor was tested. The bFGF treatment resulted in the maintenance of the viability of canine BMSCs for 10 days, in the expression of neuronal marker mRNAs and proteins and in the manifestation of neuron-like morphology. Furthermore, in the bFGF-treated BMSCs, a high concentration of KCl and L-glutamate induced an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels. Each inhibitor significantly attenuated the bFGF-induced increase in neuronal marker mRNA expression. These results suggest that bFGF contributes to the differentiation of canine BMSCs into voltage- and glutamate-responsive neuron-like cells and may lead to the development of new cell-based treatments for neuronal diseases.
Prohibitin is an antiproliferative protein that is a product of a putative tumor suppressor gene. However, there is little information on prohibitins in companion animals. In this study, we cloned canine prohibitin mRNA using RT-PCR and 3′-RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends). The sequence was well conserved compared with those of other mammals, including human. The deduced amino acid sequence translated from the open reading frame completely corresponded to the human sequence. Canine prohibitin mRNA was expressed in all normal mammary and tumor samples examined. These results suggest that this protein plays a vital role in cell growth mechanisms and may be related to the occurrence of canine mammary tumors.
A 7-year-old, miniature dachshund was referred for examination and treatment of persistent anorexia, deep yellow-coloured urine and leucocytosis. The clinical sign of jaundice, results from a serum biochemistry profile and ultrasonographic images suggested a biliary tract obstruction. A cholecystectomy was performed to remove the obstruction. Histopathological assessment of the resected gallbladder and partial common bile duct indicated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Twelve days after the initial operation, a second procedure was performed due to bile leakage into the abdominal cavity. Chemotherapy was administered twice after the second operation but discontinued, because the dog showed adverse effects. The dog is still alive 24 months after the surgery. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first description of canine gallbladder lymphoma.
A 4-year-old Shih-Tzu, referred for an enlarged left carpus, was diagnosed with a unicameral bone cyst. A customized titanium device was inserted into cystic lesion and fixed by titanium screws. Sufficient strength of the affected bone with the device inserted to maintain limb function was established after resection of contents of cystic lesion. There was no deterioration of the lesion of bone cyst, and acceptable function of the affected limb with no clinical signs of lameness was maintained during 36 months follow-up. The results of this study demonstrated that bone cyst curettage and use of a customized titanium device could provide an effective alternative treatment of huge lesion of unicameral bone cysts with the intent of preventing pathologic fractures.
We investigated the concentration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the blood, ovarian follicular fluid and uterine fluid of a clinical case of bovine metritis. A 2-year-old lactating Holstein cow exhibited continuous fever >39.5°C for more than 2 weeks after normal calving. The cow produced a fetid, watery, red-brown uterine discharge from the vagina and was diagnosed with metritis. The LPS concentrations in plasma and uterine fluid were 0.94 and 6.34 endotoxin units (EU)/ml, respectively. One of seven follicles showed an extremely high level of LPS (12.40 EU/ml) compared to the other follicles (0.62–0.97 EU/ml). These results might suggest the presence of high concentration of LPS in follicles in cows with postpartum metritis.
Reproductive parameters were evaluated in 19 and 14 estrous beagles that received 100 µg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and saline treatment, respectively, on the day of luteinizing hormone (LH) surge (Day 0; estimated by serial progesterone assay) and balloon catheter-aided single transvaginal artificial insemination of frozen semen on Day 5. Although the conception rate and litter size were similar between the GnRH and saline groups, the concentration of LH peak was significantly higher in GnRH-treated bitches (P<0.01). In addition, the actual LH surge did not occur on the estimated Day 0 in one saline-treated bitch. In clinical practice that daily progesterone assay is difficult, administration of GnRH on estimated Day 0 would be recommended to induce or enhance the LH surge for timely and successful insemination.
One hundred and twenty stranding events of Stejneger’s beaked whales were reported in Japan between 1999 and 2011. The purpose of this study is to introduce pathological data and to discuss probable causes of death for 44 Stejneger’s beaked whales among them. The significant pathological findings were the pulmonary edema, parasitic granulomatous nephritis, emaciation, amyloidosis, suppurative bronchopneumonia and so on. The probable causes of death were categorized as noninfectious in 43 of the cases, which included drowning, starvation and secondary amyloidosis. One individual was diagnosed with septicemia, which was the only example of an infectious disease. Because we could not always perform advanced analyses, such as microbiology tests, biotoxin examinations or contaminant analyses, the finality of our findings may be impaired. However, the present study has broad implications on the causes of death of Stejneger’s beaked whales of the seas around Japan, which are valuable for the future studies and for the detection of emerging diseases.
Serum samples from 1,011 wild boars hunted in 2012 were collected for serological surveillance for 4 subtypes (pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 and classical H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2) of swine influenza virus (SIV). Samples from 12 of the boars were identified as positive for SIV (pandemic A (H1N1) 2009, n=9; classical H1N1, n=2; and H1N2, n=1) by a hemagglutination inhibition test (HI test) and a nucleoprotein (NP)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NP-ELISA). Although the overall seroprevalence of SIV in the Korean wild boar population was somewhat low compared with that in China and the U.S.A., the apparent prevalence of pandemic H1N1 was notable. Therefore, continuous monitoring of the wild boar population is needed as it may be a major reservoir for pandemic H1N1, facilitating its spread to humans and domestic pigs.
Gongylonema pulchrum is an important parasite of captive primates. Twelve rabbits were infected with 30 third-stage larvae of G. pulchrum. At 4–7 months post-infection, animals were administered levamisole at a single dose of 12 mg/kg, levamisole at 8 mg/kg three times at 2-day intervals, levamisole at a single dose of 8 mg/kg after administration of mebendazole at 70 mg/kg for 3 days or 8 ml of distilled water for 3 days (control). Necropsy at 14 days after treatment revealed that single and multiple dosages of levamisole reduced nematode burdens by 68.4% and 89.5%, respectively. The combined regimen of mebendazole and levamisole exhibited high efficacy for treating G. pulchrum located widely within the upper digestive tract, with a reduction of 98.2%. These results suggest that this combined chemotherapy treatment may be effective against G. pulchrum infection, including buccal and lingual gongylonemiasis in primates.