We evaluated the utility of 5 commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits for detecting antibodies to avian influenza viruses. The sensitivities and specificities of the ELISA kits were compared with those of the agar gel precipitation (AGP) and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests. The results suggest that some ELISA kits might not be suitable for monitoring during the early stages of avian influenza virus infections. Therefore, ELISA kits should only be used in conjunction with a profound knowledge about monitoring of avian influenza.
The purpose of this study was to obtain immunogenic proteins and potential proteins of interest that were isolated from Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. One-dimensional SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of whole cell preparation were conducted, and membrane proteome maps were prepared by immunoblotting. One-dimensional SDS-PAGE identified three immunogenic proteins with molecular masses in the range 29–97.2 kDa, two of which were in the membrane protein fraction. After two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 20 highly immunogenic proteins were identified in the whole cell protein preparation while 9 immunogenic proteins were identified in the membrane protein fraction. This indicated that membrane proteins were the principle immunogenic proteins in Mccp. These proteins may have potential for the development of improved diagnostic tests and possible vaccines.
Approximately 39.9% (63/158) of beef samples collected from retail markets in Hanoi from January to June 2009 were Salmonella-positive. Nine Salmonella serovars, Anatum (28.6%), Rissen (25.4%), Weltevreden (12.7%), Typhimurium (7.9%), Derby (7.9%), Lexington (7.9%), Dublin (4.6%), Newport (3.2%) and London (1.8%), were identified. Thirty-seven (58.7%) of the 63 Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial tested, of which 29 (46%) isolates showed multidrug resistance (MDR). The isolates were commonly resistant to tetracycline (46.0%), sulphonamide (39.7%), ampicilline (31.7%), streptomycin (30.2%), trimethoprim (28.6%), kanamycin (28.6%) and chloramphenicol (22.2%). Fourteen (blaTEMV, blaOXA-1, aadA1, aadA2, sul1, tetA, tetB, tetG, cmlA1, floR, dfrA1, dfrA12, aac (3)-IV and aphA1-1AB) out of 22 antimicrobial resistance genes were detected by PCR from the resistant isolates. The catA1, Kn, blaPSE-1 genes and plasmid-mediated quinolones resistance (PMQR) genes such as qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qepA and acc (6’)-ib-cr were not detected. Mutations in the gyrA gene leading to the amino acid changes Ser83Phe and/or Asp87Asn were found in 6 out of the 11 quinolone-resistant isolates. The data revealed that multidrug resistant Salmonella strains were widely distributed in north Vietnam via the food chain and might contain multiple genes specifying identical resistant phenotypes. Thus, continuous studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms of MDR in Salmonella and its spread in the livestock market.
The Papanicolaou stain is a gold-standard staining method for tumor diagnosis in human cytology. However, it has not been used routinely in veterinary cytology, because of its complicated multistep procedure and requirement for wet fixation. Currently, a rapid Papanicolaou stain using air-dried smears is utilized in human cytology, but usefulness of this rapid-air-dry Papanicolaou (RAD-Pap) stain in the veterinary field has not been fully evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the RAD-Pap stain by using quantitative analysis. Air-dried impression smears were collected from tumor specimens and stained with RAD-Pap and Giemsa. Twelve parameters representing the criteria of malignancy were quantitated, and characteristics of the RAD-Pap were evaluated statistically. The RAD-Pap stain could be applied to all the smears, and images of nucleoli and chromatin patterns were clear and detailed. In quantitative analysis with the RAD-Pap stain, but not with the Giemsa stain, dispersion of nucleolus size and dispersion of nucleolus/nucleus ratio in malignant tumors were significantly higher than those in benign tumors. These findings demonstrated that the RAD-Pap stain was useful for obtaining detailed nuclear information, and the ability to differentiate benignity and malignancy by nucleolus findings was a principal advantage of this stain. This RAD-Pap stain could be routinely used as a supportive staining method in veterinary diagnostic cytology.
A 6-month-old male Nubian goat suddenly showed dullness, tachypnea, recumbency and opisthotonus in August 2011 in Okinawa, Japan. The goat was consequently necropsied: gross lesions in the brain included slightly swollen foci of yellowish discoloration on the cerebral hemisphere. Histopathologically, necrosis of the cortex with ischemic changes of neuronal cells was present, and swelling of the vascular endothelium, thickening of the basement membrane and diffuse infiltration of macrophages were observed in the cerebral lesion. Autofluorescence of the cerebral cortex was confirmed by an ultraviolet light test. The thiamine levels of the blood serum and tissue samples (brain, liver and heart) of the goat were low compared with goats from the same herd. The goat was diagnosed with cerebrocortical necrosis (CCN). This is the first case report of caprine CCN in Japan.
A 49-month-old Holstein cow with anorexia, tachypnea, enlarged peripheral lymph nodes, and difficulty standing up was suspected of bovine leukosis. Hematological examination revealed lymphocytosis with the presence of neoplastic cells. Increased total lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, isozymes of LDH-2 and LDH-3 activities and thymidine kinase activity were observed. Cytological findings of fine needle aspiration of subiliac lymph nodes indicated lymphosarcoma. Histopathology and antibody analysis confirmed the diagnosis of enzootic bovine leukosis, a B-cell bovine lymphoma caused by bovine leukemia virus. Gene expressions known as biomarkers of hematopoietic neoplasia in human were also examined in the present case. Increased messenger RNA expression of interleukin 2 receptor, thymidine kinase, and immunoglobulin-associated alpha-1 was observed in the case animal.
The stability of the characteristics of the diminazene aceturate (DA)-resistant B. gibsoni isolate was initially determined invitro. Part of the DA-resistant B. gibsoni isolate was cultured without DA for 4 weeks, and then newly exposed to 200 ng/ml DA. As a result, this isolate could proliferate the same as the DA-resistant isolate, indicating that the characteristic of DA resistance was stable in the DA-resistant isolate. Additionally, the level of parasitemia in the DA-resistant isolate was comparatively lower than in the wild-type, suggesting that the proliferation potential of the DA-resistant isolate would be lower than that of the wild-type. Subsequently, to investigate the involvement of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in DA resistance in B. gibsoni, the nucleotide sequences and deduced amino acid sequences of mitochondrial genes such as COXI, COXIII, and CYTb genes of the DA-resistant isolate, were compared with those of the wild-type. As a result, these three genes were not altered in the DA-resistant B. gibsoni isolate. Moreover, the transcription levels of COXI, COXIII, and CYTb genes were observed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. As a result, the gene transcription of those genes in the DA-resistant isolate was not significantly altered. These results indicated that DA did not affect mtDNA directly in DA-resistant B. gibsoni. Thus, it is suggested that mtDNA should not be deeply involved in DA resistance in B. gibsoni.
The prevalence and risk factors of 2 bovine hemoplasma species—Mycoplasma wenyonii (Mw) and “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos” (CMh)—were examined by direct PCR using whole blood samples collected from 343 cattle in Eastern Hokkaido, Japan. The sensitivity of the direct PCR assay was 10-fold higher than the standard PCR assay, detecting 5 copies of bovine hemoplasma DNA per reaction. An epidemiological survey of sampling location, living conditions, age and bovine leukemia virus antibody was performed to assess infection risk factors. The prevalence rates were 38.5% for Mw and 39.1% for CMh, respectively, with an overall prevalence rate of 64.7% for all bovine hemoplasma infections. Significant differences were found in sampling location, living conditions and age. Compared with pastured cattle, farmed cattle were significantly more susceptible to infection with total hemoplasma species (P<0.001), and were particularly susceptible to CMh (P<0.001). Cattle that were 1–3 years of age were more susceptible to infection with hemoplasma compared with other age groups. Bovine leukemia virus infection status was not significantly associated with hemoplasma infections. Blood examination revealed significantly lower RBC, Hb, and PCV levels, and a higher MCV in infected cattle than in noninfected cattle.
This study reported detailed clinical effects of bovine lactoferrin on 2 canine littermates (1 female and 1 male) with familial neutrophil dysfunction and an investigation of their genetic background. Clinical signs caused by severe upper respiratory bacterial infections were observed in these dogs. Oral administration of bovine lactoferrin for a long duration improved their clinical signs (severe uveitis in the female dog and coughing from pneumonia in the male dog). Their backcross dogs that have the same father didn’t show clinical signs of bacterial infection. Neutrophil function tests revealed that the backcross dogs didn’t have any disorders. It is likely that abnormal clinical signs are associated with neutrophil dysfunction in the colony, and the mother dog of these cases might be the genetic carrier of this dysfunction.
A 12-month-old Holstein heifer with anorexia, lameness, and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes was suspected of having bovine leukosis. Although lymphocytosis was not observed, cytology of fine needle aspirate from a superficial cervical node, and increased serum lactate dehydrogenase and thymidine kinase activities, strongly suggested lymphosarcoma. Increased numbers of mononuclear cells as well as mitotic cells were observed in synovial fluid collected from swollen joints. Pathological examination confirmed B-cell calf form bovine leukosis and joint swelling related to neoplastic cell infiltration. Both interleukin-2 receptor and thymidine kinase 1 genes were highly expressed in cells from superficial cervical lymph node aspirate.
A 7-year-old intact female Maltese dog was referred with ptyalism and intermittent vomiting but no regurgitation for over 1 month. Survey radiographs including a contrast study revealed a large circular dilated cavity from the carina to the diaphragm. Additionally, multi-detector computed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction were performed. These images revealed large idiopathic distal esophageal diverticula. This case report represents the first report using multi-detector computed tomography and three-dimensional reconstruction for evaluation of esophageal diverticula in a dog.
Several dozens of small trematodes were found in the small intestine of a Japanese monkey, Macaca fuscata, that was captured in Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture, Japan. The trematode was identified as Ogmocotyle ailuri. This is the first case of a Japanese monkey infected with Ogmocotyle trematodes, and a new host record for O. ailuri.
Humeral chondrosarcoma was found in an 18-year-old male Hokkaido brown bear (Ursus arctos yesoensis). Necropsy revealed a large firm mass under the left superficial pectoral muscle at the axillary region. The mass involved the left shoulder joint and peripheral muscles, and connected to the head of the humerus with osteolysis. Histopathologically, the mass was composed of irregularly shaped myxomatous to cartilaginous tumor lobules. The tumor cell showed moderate nuclear atypia with a relatively high mitotic index, especially in the edges of the myxomatous lobules. The tumor cells were positively immunostained with vimentin and S-100 protein. Based on these findings, the tumors were diagnosed as chondrosarcoma. Metastases were found in the left axillary lymph node, lungs, liver and kidney.
Ovarian cyst is common incidental finding in humans and many animals and includes follicular cysts, cystic rete ovarii and mesonephric duct cysts. Ovarian cyst is often associated with reproductive disorders in humans and animals. We found accidentally bilateral cystic masses in ovaries in an African green monkey. Grossly, the left and right ovarian cystic masses were single unilocular cystic structures measuring 0.6 and 1.8 cm in diameter, respectively. Histologically, both cysts were thin-walled structures that arose from the center of the ovary and displaced ovarian tissue peripherally. The cysts were lined by a single layer of nonciliated low cuboidal epithelium. Immunohistochemically, epithelial cells in the cysts were positive for cytokeratin, and the stromal cells were positive for smooth muscle actin but negative for vimentin. These results suggest that these ovarian cysts in an African green monkey are cystic rete ovarii. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cystic rete ovarii in African green monkeys and may be of value in relation to research of the pathogenesis and treatment of ovarian cyst.
Previous report demonstrated that prokinetic agent mosapride has anti-ulcerogenic action in rat-indomethacin gastric mucosal injury model. Here, we assessed the prophylactic effect of mosapride on gastric mucosal injury and emptying disorder induced by prednisolone in dogs. Crossover study design was employed. Six healthy beagles were administered prednisolone alone (2 mg/kg, twice a day [BID] subcutaneously) and prednisolone with mosapride (1 mg/kg, BID, orally), followed by an interval of at least 6 weeks. In each treatment, gastric mucosal injury was scored endoscopically according to the modified Lanza scale, and gastric emptying was assessed with 13C-octanoic acid breath test. The incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events was also investigated. Coadministration of mosapride with prednisolone significantly (P<0.05) reduced the gastric mucosal injury score (mean ± SD, 17.67 ± 6.96), compared with that of prednisolone treatment alone (25.50 ± 13.03). Prednisolone treatment delayed the half-emptying time (184 ± 45 min) compared with that of controls (137 ± 19 min), and coadministration of mosapride improved this gastric-emptying delay (143 ± 29 min). Furthermore, the incidence of the gastrointestinal adverse event vomiting became less frequent upon coadministration with mosapride. In addition to its prokinetic action, our study suggests that mosapride has an anti-ulcerogenic action in dogs. The use of mosapride in combination with prednisolone is effective for attenuating prednisolone-induced gastrointestinal adverse events.
The efficacy and tolerability of robenacoxib for the treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs were evaluated in a prospective, multicenter, randomized, noninferiority design clinical trial. A total of 32 dogs presenting with osteoarthritis were allocated randomly to receive, orally once daily for 28 days, either 1–2 mg/kg robenacoxib (n=21) or 3.5–5 mg/kg carprofen (n=11). Dogs were assessed by clinicians and owners using numerical rating scale scores at baseline and days 14 and 28. The primary efficacy endpoint was the global functional disability score, which was the sum of clinician scores for standing posture, lameness at walk, lameness at trot, willingness to raise the contralateral limb and pain at palpation. There was a good to excellent level of efficacy in both treatment groups. Differences between days 14 and 28 compared to day 0 were significant for all 11 clinician and owner scores for robenacoxib, and for 6 of 11 scores for carprofen. The efficacy of robenacoxib was numerically superior to carprofen for all 13 endpoints, but differences were not statistically significant. For the global functional disability score, the estimated efficacy of robenacoxib was 1.244 (95% confidence interval 0.555–2.493) relative to carprofen. The tolerability of both treatments was good as assessed from adverse events, clinical signs, and hematology and serum biochemistry variables. In conclusion, once daily administration of robenacoxib tablets had noninferior efficacy and tolerability compared to carprofen for the treatment of the clinical signs of osteoarthritis in dogs.
Plasma profiles of glucose, insulin and lipids were examined in the male WBN/Kob-Leprfa (fa/fa) rat, a new model of type 2 diabetes (T2D), in comparison with age-matched original male WBN/Kob (lean) rats. The fa/fa rats developed hypertriglycemia, obesity and hyperglycemia from 5, 7, and 9 weeks of age, respectively. Plasma insulin levels in fa/fa rats were significantly higher than those in lean rats at 5 weeks of age, but after 11 weeks of age gradually declined to the levels in lean rats. HOMA-IR, a measure of insulin resistance status, showed that fa/fa rats had insulin resistance. The fa/fa rat has the potential to become an important animal model of T2D with obesity.
To investigate the distribution of hantaviruses among animals in Southern and Central Highland area of Vietnam, a total of 1311 serum samples were obtained from rats and Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus) captured at 11 locations between 2006 and 2009. A total of 1066 serum samples from rats were examined for IgG antibodies against Hantaan virus, and there were 30 antibody-positive serum samples from rats that had been captured mainly in a port area and urban area in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) (2.8%). All of the antibody-positive rats were Rattus norvegicus, and they had Seoul virus (SEOV) genome in their lungs. SEOV sequences detected from rats captured in Southern Vietnam belonged to the same lineage as those from rats captured at Haiphong Port and a market area in Hanoi City. SEOV strain CSG5 was isolated from a rat captured at Saigon Harbor. Strain CSG5 showed a cross-neutralization pattern almost the same as that of a representative strain of SEOV. A total of 245 Asian house shrews were captured in the Central Highland area and near HCMC. Sera were examined for IgG antibodies against Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), and 32 (13.1%) of the antibody-positive shrews were mainly from the Central Highland area and showed a neutralizing antibody against TPMV. These results indicated that SEOV is distributed among R. norvegicus inhabiting harbor and urban areas of Southern Vietnam and that TPMV or an antigenically related virus is distributed among Asian house shrews in Central Highland area.
Cefotaxime (CTX)-resistant and -susceptible Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis isolates obtained from broilers raised on a farm in January 2010 in Japan were characterized to establish their resistance determinants. The CTX-resistant isolates produced CTX-M-14 extended-spectrum β-lactamase and harbored 2 distinct plasmid of approximately 140- and 95-kb, whereas the CTX-susceptible isolates harbored one 140-kb plasmid. The 95-kb plasmids were replicon typed as IncI1 carrying the blaCTX-M-14 gene, while the 140-kb plasmids were IncP and harbored the aphA1, aadA1, tetA, and sul1 genes. Genetic fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed similar macrorestriction profiles amongst CTX-resistant and susceptible isolates, suggesting a clonal relationship. The presence of CTX-resistant S. Infantis on a broiler farm has occurred through the acquisition of IncI1 resistance plasmid.
Antigenic diversity among different hantaviruses requires a variety of reagents for diagnosis of hantavirus infection. To develop a diagnostic method applicable to various hantavirus infections with a single set of reagents, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of three hantaviruses, Amur, Hokkaido, and Sin Nombre viruses. This novel cocktail antigen-based ELISA enabled detection of antibodies against Hantaan, Seoul, Amur, Puumala, and Sin Nombre viruses in immunized laboratory animals. In wild rodent species, including Apodemus, Rattus, and Myodes, our ELISA detected antibodies against hantaviruses with high sensitivity and specificity. These data suggest that our novel diagnostic ELISA is a useful tool for screening hantavirus infections and could be effectively utilized for serological surveillance and quarantine purposes.
Portal vein aneurysm (PVA) is a rare abnormal dilatation of the portal vein, which has not been reported in dogs. We describe the findings of ultrasound and computed tomography in a case of PVA in a young male toy poodle, with the final diagnosis established by explorative surgical observation. The dog had an aneurysmal fusiform dilatation in the extrahepatic portal vein with portal hypertension and multiple portsystemic shunts. This is the first report of canine PVA.
We examined the effects of porcine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (pGM-CSF) on the in vitro development of porcine embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) for the first time. We evaluated the effects of pGM-CSF on SCNT-derived blastocyst formation and investigated gene expression. A total of 522 cloned embryos in 6 replicates were treated with 10 ng/ml pGM-CSF during in vitro culture (IVC). This treatment significantly (P<0.05) increased blastocyst formation and total cell number in blastocysts compared with the control (12.3% and 41.4 vs. 9.0% and 34.7, respectively). However, there was no effect on cleavage rate. The numbers of cells in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm were significantly higher in the pGM-CSF treatment group (6.0 and 43.0, respectively) compared with the control (4.4 and 31.9, respectively). Treatment with 10 ng/ml pGM-CSF significantly increased POU5F1 and Cdx2 mRNA expression in blastocysts. In addition, Bcl-2, Dnmt1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) mRNA expression were upregulated in blastocysts in the pGM-CSF supplemented group compared with the control. These results suggest that pGM-CSF improves the quality and developmental viability of porcine SCNT embryos by regulating transcription factor expression.
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of gamma-oryzanol-enriched -rice bran oil on the quality of cryopreserved boar semen. Ten boars provided semen of proven motility and morphology for this study. The semen was divided into three portions in which lactose-egg yolk (LEY) extender used to resuspend the centrifuged sperm pellet was supplemented with 2 types of rice bran oils, at a gamma-oryzanol concentration of 0 mg/ml of lactose egg yolk (LEY) freezing extender (group A, control), 0.1 mg/ml(0.16 mMol) of freezing extender (group B) and 0.1 mg/ml of freezing extender (group C). Semen suspensions were loaded in medium straws (0.5 ml) and placed in a controlled-rate freezer. After cryopreservation, frozen semen samples were thawed and investigated for progressive motility, viability and acrosomal integrity. There was a significantly higher percentage of progressive motility (34 versus 47.0 and 48.5, P<0.001), viability (35.5 versus 48.1 and 50.1, P<0.001) and acrosomal integrity (39.8 versus 50.8 and 54.9, P<0.001) in the gamma-oryzanol-enriched rice bran oil-supplemented groups (groups B, C) than in the control group (group C), respectively. In conclusion, addition of gamma-oryzanol-enriched rice bran oil to LEY freezing extender is appropriated for improving the quality of frozen-thawed boar semen.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is associated with a range of economically important diseases of cattle including reproductive disorders and an acute fatal hemorrhagic disease. Neutralizing antibodies that bind to the E2 glycoprotein are important predictors of vaccinal immunity. Neutralization tests using the NADL strain of BVDV and five anti-E2 monoclonal antibodies showed one, Wb163, neutralized the NADL strain of BVDV in an unexpected manner. Its titer was 10,000 compared to <35 as reported previously. The present stock of NADL differed from that of the earlier study in that the amino acid at position 79 of E2 was Valine instead of Glutamic acid. MAb Wb163 may, however, recognize a less important neutralizing epitope than another mAb Wb166, because it was less cross reactive than mAb Wb166, had a neutralizing titer 50-fold lower than Wb166 and was of lower relative affinity than Wb166. Variations in the amino terminus of E2 will be discussed in the context of vaccinal immunity.
An abnormal isoform of prion protein (PrPSc) was extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from sheep and analyzed by western blotting. PrPSc immunoreactivity against anti-PrP monoclonal antibody T2, which recognizes discontinuous PrP sequences, differed amongst individual scrapie sheep cases. This may reflect structural differences in PrPSc that have been formalin-fixed prior to their extraction. This study indicates that western blotting by using FFPE tissues is useful for the retrospective analysis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in which only formalin-fixed samples are available and in conducting transmissible spongiform encephalopathies surveillance where freezing system is insufficient.
Novel murine norovirus (MNV)-like sequences were detected in 7 (14.9%) of 47 fecal and intestinal samples obtained from wild rodents in Japan. Sequencing and genetic analyses of the 7 MNV-like genes, 6 derived from Apodemus speciosus and 1 from Rattus rattus, suggested that these sequences form a cluster distinct from known MNV within genogroup V and differed even among clusters of wild rodents. Considering these results, MNV might be genetically diverse depending on the host species or distribution. This is the first report suggesting the prevalence of MNV in A. speciosus and R. rattus.