Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
69 巻 , 5 号
May
選択された号の論文の24件中1~24を表示しています
Anatomy
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  • Sachiko ONISHI, Toshifumi YOKOYAMA, Keigi CHIN, Midori YUJI, Tetsurou ...
    2007 年 69 巻 5 号 p. 501-508
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2007/06/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    The differentiation process of immature microvillous epithelial cells to M cells and the fate of M cells in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues are still unclear. In this study, the differentiation process and the fate of M cells were clarified in rat Peyer's patches under a transmission electron microscope. Almost all immature epithelial cells were found to possess long, slender microvilli, which gradually shortened, thickened and dispersed as the immature epithelial cells migrated away from the crypt orifices. These morphological changes started in the centers and moved to the peripheries of the apical surfaces of epithelial cells, accompanied by the protrusion of apical cytoplasm out of the terminal web. During these changes, the bundles of microfilaments of microvilli never shortened, and both small vesicles in the apical cytoplasm and tiny invaginations of the apical membranes were found. The intraepithelial migrating cells gradually accumulated to form typical intraepithelial pockets. In all FAE, there was no morphological sign of cell death in M cells. The rearrangement of microfilament bundles, the reconstruction of microvilli and the disappearance of pockets resulted in the transformation of M cells into microvillous epithelial cells. These serial ultrastructural changes suggest that M cells are a temporal and transitional cell type caused by the active engulfment of luminal substances and that when the engulfment ceases, the M cells transform into mature microvillous epithelial cells.
Bacteriology
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  • Masahisa WATARAI, Suk KIM, Jun YAMAMOTO, Kazuro MIYAHARA, Mikio KAZAMA ...
    2007 年 69 巻 5 号 p. 477-480
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2007/06/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    Brucella canis is the causative agent of canine brucellosis and facultative intracellular pathogen. The diagnosis of canine brucellosis is based on bacteriological examination and serological methods including agglutination and gel diffusion tests. In this study, crude antigens were extracted from B. canis using hot saline, coated on to latex beads and their usefulness in the serological diagnosis of canine brucellosis was examined. Mixing the antigen coated latex beads with the sera of dogs infected with B. canis produced clear agglutination, but this was not so for B. canis free dog sera. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the crude hot saline extracts, showed that they contained copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, ribose ABC transporter and hypothetical protein of Brucella as antigens. A serological survey of canine serum samples conducted by means of an agglutination test using the antigen coated latex beads, showed that this method was more specific than the tube agglutination test using whole bacterial cell antigens. Although these results suggest that our method in which crude hot saline extracted antigens are coated on to latex beads would be useful in the serological diagnosis of canine brucellosis, we need further investigation using more serum samples to confirm the usefulness of our method.
Clinical Pathology
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Immunology
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  • Masahiro KATO, Shinobu WATARAI, Shigeru NISHIKAWA, Tadashi IWASAKI, Hi ...
    2007 年 69 巻 5 号 p. 481-486
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2007/06/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study was designed to develop a novel culture method for the efficient proliferation of canine peripheral blood lymphocytes (cPBL) for adoptive immunotherapy. When cPBL were cultured in the presence of concanavalin A (Con A), proliferation of cPBL was induced and expression of interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) which enables to respond to exogenously added IL-2 was upregulated. And then, when cPBL were cultured with recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2) in addition to Con A, proliferation was accelerated and increased to about 10-fold after 1 week. The phenotypic analysis showed that the main population of the cultured cPBL was consisted of CD8+ positive lymphocytes. Among them, CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP) lymphocytes had significantly increased, and the ratio of CD4+ single positive (SP) lymphocytes to CD8+ SP lymphocytes (CD4+SP/CD8+SP) was decreased as compared to before culturing. To evaluate the cytotoxic activity of cPBL cultured with Con A and rhIL-2, furthermore, cytotoxic assay was carried out against xenogeneic melanoma cell line (MeWo), which resulted in MHC-unrestricted cytokilling. These results suggest that the culture method of cPBL by the use of Con A and rhIL-2 may be useful for generating lymphokine activated killer cells, and also this may be beneficial for adoptive immunotherapy of tumor-bearing dogs.
  • Mohamed AHMED, Zein SHABAN, Daisuke YAMAJI, Yuko OKAMATSU-OGURA, Moham ...
    2007 年 69 巻 5 号 p. 509-514
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2007/06/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    The proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) containing both monocyte/macrophages and T lymphocytes increased after treatment with T-cell mitogen (concanavalin A: Con A). PBMC treated with either leptin alone or combination of leptin and ConA showed enhanced proliferative activity by 10-40%, compared with those treated with ConA alone. In contrast, isolated T lymphocytes treated with leptin and ConA showed lowered proliferative activity than the ConA-treated alone, indicating that leptin induced production of some cytokines from monocyte/macrophages, that subsequently resulted in enhancement of T lymphocytes proliferation in PBMC. Among the cytokines examined, monocyte/monocytes constitutively expressed interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12p35, IL-18 mRNA, and faintly expressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-12p40 mRNA. Leptin treatment augmented the monocyte/macrophages mRNA expression of only TNF-α and IL-12p40 to comparable levels of cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, leptin treatment increased monocyte/macrophages production of IL-1β as well as TNF-α, and induced the mRNA expression of caspase-1, which is shown to mediate the conversion of latent pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 to active forms. These results suggest that leptin directly acts on monocyte/macrophages to produce factors that induce T lymphocytes proliferation such as IL-12p35/p40 complex through IL-12p40 induction and IL-1β/IL-18 production through caspase-1 induction.
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Internal Medicine
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  • Jong-Hyun YOO, Min-Su KIM, Ki-Dong EOM, Jong-Im PARK, Chul PARK, Hee-M ...
    2007 年 69 巻 5 号 p. 459-464
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2007/06/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that vasopressin administration prior to crystalloid resuscitation can be used to improve hemodynamic and oxygen delivery functions. Hemorrhagic shock was experimentally induced by maintaining mean arterial pressure at 60 mmHg for 30 min in sixteen healthy dogs weighing from 8 to 10.6 kg. Vasopressin was administered and then volume resuscitation was performed for the 6 dogs of V-C group, while vasopressin was administered at the end of volume resuscitation in the 5 dogs of C-V group. The control group (n=5) was administered 0.4 IU/kg of vasopressin after induction of shock without fluid resuscitation. In all groups, hemodynamic parameters were measured pre- and post-hemorrhage and for 60 min after fluid resuscitation. The dogs in V-C group had substantially increased systolic arterial pressure (SAP) for 60 min and improved pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), cardiac output (CO), oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption indexes compared with C-V and control groups. Diastolic pressure and systemic vascular resistance was significantly lower in the V-C group than those in the C-V and control groups (P<0.05). In the V-C group, there was effective and rapid restoration of the SAP, CO, PCWP, and oxygen delivery parameters after treatment. This study indicates that vasopressin administration before crystalloid resuscitation is a more efficient way of improving hemodynamic and oxygen delivery functions in hemorrhagic shock in dogs.
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Parasitology
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  • Munehiro OKAMOTO, Hayato URUSHIMA, Masahiro IWASA, Hideo HASEGAWA
    2007 年 69 巻 5 号 p. 545-547
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2007/06/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    Species of the genus Syphacia are considered to have generally co-evolved with their rodent hosts. This study determined partial sequences of the CO1 gene from several species in the genus Syphacia and discuss the relationships between pinworms and their hosts. Syphacia montana, which parasitizes Microtinae, was closely related to S. frederici and S. obvelata, which parasitize Murinae. Although both S. obvelata and S. ohtaorum parasitize rodents in the genus Mus, these two species were not found to be closely related to each other. Syphacia frederici, S. emileromani and S. agraria are all pinworms of the Apodemus species, but genetic affiliation between these three species was not indicated. These facts suggest that the co-evolutionary relationship between species of the genus Syphacia and their host rodents may not so strict and host switching has probably occurred during the course of evolution.
Pathology
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Physiology
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  • Hidehiko UCHIYAMA, Nobuyo OHTANI, Mitsuaki OHTA
    2007 年 69 巻 5 号 p. 521-526
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2007/06/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aims of this study were to measure the activity of the autonomic nervous system using heart rate variability (HRV) during learning tasks and to clarify the relationship between learning to overcome a difficult situation and the autonomic nervous system in monkeys. Two young male monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were given simple discrimination learning tasks (DL) and delayed matching to samples tasks (DMTS); Holter-type electrocardiography was done, and HRV was measured. We defined the frequency bands of HRV in rhesus macaques; the low frequency (LF) was 0.01-0.15 Hz, and the high frequency (HF) was 0.15-0.50 Hz. Based on these frequency bands, the LF/HF ratios during learning tasks were analyzed, and a significant increase in the ratio was found during the tasks. The variances in the HF differed between the DL and DMTS tasks; during DMTS tasks, HF variances had a tendency to increase. Our results indicate that increased sympathetic activity accompanied learning and suggest that the parasympathetic nervous system plays a key role during learning, particularly when difficult tasks are being learned.
Surgery
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  • Shinsuke WAKAIKI, Seiya MAEHARA, Reona ABE, Keiko TSUZUKI, Osamu IGARA ...
    2007 年 69 巻 5 号 p. 465-470
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2007/06/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    In dogs, a variety of diseases of the retina and choroid have been reported, either separately or concomitantly; however, the canine choroid is difficult to evaluate by veterinary techniques currently available. Indocyanine green (ICG) angiography is widely used in human ophthalmology, but has not been investigated for use in canine ophthalmology. The aim of this study was to apply a new approach to ICG angiography and compare the resulting angiograms with fluorescein (FLUO) angiograms of the ocular fundus in dogs. With a fundus camera equipped with an infrared-sensitive charged coupled device (CCD), we performed angiography on eight healthy beagles under inhalation anesthesia. ICG angiography enabled clear visualization of the choroidal vasculature, whereas FLUO angiography showed only the retinal vessels. At 8.4 ± 3.6 sec after administration of ICG dye into the cephalic vein, the choroidal arteries could be seen extending radially from the optic disc, then the choroidal veins became apparent at 10.2 ± 4.1 sec, coursing alongside the choroidal arteries. Gradual fading of the choroidal vessels began 13.2 ± 2.2 min after the dye was administered, and overall diffuse fluorescence of the fundus appeared. Diffuse fluorescence of the fundus continued after the choroidal vessels and optic disc faded at about 58.3 ± 5.3 min from administration of the dye. In conclusion, ICG angiography provides clear resolution and is reliable and simple, thus offering promise as a diagnostic aid for clinical evaluation of the choroid in dogs.
  • Tomoko TAKAHASHI, Emi OHASHI, Takayuki NAKAGAWA, Manabu MOCHIZUKI, Ryo ...
    2007 年 69 巻 5 号 p. 495-499
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2007/06/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    The interactions of tumor cells with the extracellular matrix (ECM) are a crucial step in invasion and metastasis. Integrins are adhesive molecules forming heterodimers with α and β subunits that play a definitive role in these interactions. In this study, mastocytoma (mast cell tumor: MCT) cell-ECM interaction was investigated using 3 canine MCT cell lines: CM-MC (originating from cutaneous MCT), VI-MC (originating from intestinal MCT), and CoMS (originating from oral MCT). Flow cytometric analysis showed that all cells highly expressed the integrin β1 and α1 through α5 subunits and that they moderately expressed the α6 subunit. In adhesion studies, CoMS weakly but spontaneously adhered to fibronectin (FN), which was enhanced by phorbol ester (TPA), while CM-MC and VI-MC required cell activation by TPA to adhere to FN. Anti-β1 and α5 integrin antibodies strongly inhibited cell adhesion to FN in CM-MC and CoMS and moderately inhibited cell adhesion in VI-MC. Only VI-MC adhered to laminin (LN) under activation by TPA. Anti-β1 integrin antibodies strongly inhibited cell adhesion to LN, but all anti-α integrin antibodies failed to inhibit cell adhesion to LN. No cells adhered to collagen types I and IV. Canine MCT cells from different origins expressed similar integrin patterns; however, there were some differences in adhesive behavior in response to various ECM proteins and activating stimuli.
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  • Min-Su KIM, Kang-Moon SEO
    2007 年 69 巻 5 号 p. 577-579
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2007/06/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antagonism of acupuncture-induced sedation by electroencephalographic spectral edge frequency (SEF) 95 in 10 healthy intact male Miniature Schnauzer dogs (4.2-6.1kg; 2-3 years old) without neurological disorder. The GV20 and Yintang acupoints were administered for 20 min. While the dogs were conscious, SEF 95 baseline values were recorded at 2-min intervals for 4 min. Then acupuncture was administered at the GV20 and Yintang acupoints. During the acupuncture procedure, the SEF 95 values were recorded at 2-min intervals for 10 min. Subsequently, antagonist drugs, naloxone and atipamezole, were administered through the cephalic vein. The SEF 95 values were then measured again at 2-min intervals for 10 min. Those values were found to be significantly increased after administration of atipamezole in dogs sedated by acupuncture at the GV20 and Yintang acupoints (p<0.05). However, the SEF 95 values in the naloxone groups did not show any significant changes before and after administration of the antagonist. It was concluded that sedation induced by acupuncture at the GV20 and Yintang acupoints might be partially associated with the α2-adrenergic system.
Theriogenology
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Virology
FULL PAPER
  • Rikio KIRISAWA, Ai TAKEYAMA, Masateru KOIWA, Hiroshi IWAI
    2007 年 69 巻 5 号 p. 471-476
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2007/06/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bovine torovirus (BoTV) in bovine fecal samples and to determine whether a relationship exists between BoTV and diarrhea in Japan. Ninety-nine diarrheic and 114 normal fecal samples from calves in Hokkaido Prefecture and 38 diarrheic fecal samples from calves in 10 other prefectures were examined by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR with primers designed in the spike (S) gene for the presence of BoTV. The specimens were also examined for the presence of other enteric pathogens, bovine rotavirus, coronavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. BoTV RNA was detected in 15 (15.2%) of the 99 diarrheic samples from Hokkaido and in 9 (23.7%) of the 38 diarrheic samples from the other prefectures. The incidence of BoTV in control specimens was 7.0%. In 11 of the 15 BoTV-positive specimens from Hokkaido, BoTV was the only pathogen detected among those examined, and 11 BoTV-positive specimens were obtained from calves less than 2 weeks of age. Rotavirus was confirmed to be associated with calf diarrhea, but coronavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. were not. Nucleotide sequences of 17 different BoTV RT-PCR products were determined. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences revealed that Japanese BoTVs could be classified into at least two groups. This study showed that BoTV is a common virus in fecal specimens of calves with diarrhea in Japan and may be an important pathogen of cattle, principally in young calves less than 2 weeks of age.
  • Keita MATSUNO, Yoshihiro SAKODA, Ken-ichiro KAMEYAMA, Kyuzo TAMAI, Asa ...
    2007 年 69 巻 5 号 p. 515-520
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2007/06/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    The 475 strains of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolated from cattle in 12 prefectures of Japan in the last 7 years were phylogenetically classified as BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of the 5'-untranslated region. BVDV-1 strains were further subtyped as 1a (101 strains), 1b (163), 1c (128), 1j (3), and So CP/75-like (1), and all of the 79 BVDV-2 strains belonged to subtype 2a. These 2a BVDVs contain two isolates that had high nucleotide identities with those of highly pathogenic BVDV-2 strains reported in North America (Pellerin et al., 1994). However, acute infection with severe mortality like North American outbreak was not observed and most of the present BVDV-2 strains were isolated from persistently infected (PI) cattle showing mild or no clinical sign. Moreover, it was revealed that 61.5% of the 39 PI cattle with cytopathogenic BVDVs did not show typical mucosal disease and 54.6% of the 405 PI animals only with non-cytopathogenic BVDVs were apparently healthy. The present results indicate that the prevention of the infection with an appropriate vaccine and active surveillance covering healthy cattle are required for the control of BVD.
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