In the present study, we histologically and morphometrically investigated species differences in renal structure using laboratory rodents (mice, gerbils, hamsters, rats, and guinea pigs). Morphometric parameters were as follows, 1) diameter of the cortical renal corpuscles, 2) diameter of the juxtamedullary renal corpuscles, 3) percentage of the renal corpuscles with a cuboidal parietal layer, 4) number of nuclei in proximal convoluted tubules (PCTs) per unit area of cortex, 5) semi-quantitative score of the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) -positive granules in PCTs, and 6) semi-quantitative score of the PAS-positive granules in proximal straight tubules (PSTs). Significant species differences were detected for each parameter, and particularly severe differences were observed in the PAS-positive granules of PCTs and PSTs. Granular scores varied among species and sexes. Vacuolar structures that did not stain with PAS or hematoxylin-eosin were observed in the renal proximal tubules. The appearance and localization of these vacuolar structures differed remarkably between species and sexes.
The changes of calretinin (CR)-immunoreactive periglomerular cells in the glomerular layer of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) were investigated in rats differing ages from postnatal month 1 (PM 1) to PM 24. The number of cresyl violet-positive periglomerular cells was similar between PM 1 and PM 12, but they decreased slightly in the PM 24 group. The size of CR-immunoreactive periglomerular cells in the glomerular layer increased with age, while their numbers did not change significantly in the PM 6-PM 24 groups. In the PM 24 group, numbers of CR-positive periglomerular cell bodies and their processes decreased, while the size of CR-positive cell bodies in the glomeruli was larger than that of the previous groups. These results suggest that CR-immunoreactive periglomerular cells in the rat MOB are well-developed in the PM 6 group, and that periglomerular cells in the PM 24 group show poor CR-immunoreactivity compared to those in the PM 6 group.
Serum samples from 191 ostriches (Struthio camelus) in Japan were tested for antibodies to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus (AIV). Twenty-two (12%) contained NDV-specific neutralizing antibodies by a virus-neutralization (VN) test without vaccination. Antibodies to AIV were not detected in the any sera by an agar gel precipitation test. Seven serum samples that had vaccinated with live NDV by eye drop were all positive by the VN test at 1 month post vaccination. A haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test for NDV seemed not to be suitable for ostriches because of non-specific agglutination of chicken red blood cells. No haemagglutinating viruses were isolated. This is the first report on detection of antibodies against NDV in ostriches in Japan.
Lawsonia intracellularis (L. intracellularis) was isolated from a Korean pig suffering acute proliferative enteropathy. In vitro culture conditions of L. intracellularis were established in McCoy cells. Pigs and hamsters experimentally infected with the pure culture of L. intracellularis reproduced clinical signs and intestinal lesions of proliferative enteropathy. The presence of L. intracellularis in the intestinal lesions was confirmed by immunohistochemistry with L. intracellularis-specific monoclonal antibodies.
Claudin-16 is one of the tight junction protein claudins and has been shown to contribute to reabsorption of divalent cations in the human kidney. In cattle, total deficiency of claudin-16 causes severe renal tubular dysplasia without aberrant metabolic changes of divalent cations, suggesting that bovine claudin-16 has some roles in renal tubule formation and paracellular transport that are somewhat different from those expected from the pathology of human disease. As the first step to clarify these roles, we examined the expression and distribution of claudin-16 and several other major claudin subtypes, claudins 1-4 and 10, in bovine renal tubular segments by immunofluorescence microscopy. Claudin-16 was exclusively distributed to the tight junction in the tubular segment positive for Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein, the thick ascending limb (TAL) of Henle's loop, and was found colocalized with claudins 3, 4, and 10. This study also demonstrates that bovine kidneys possess segment-specific expression patterns for claudins 2-4 and 10 that are different from those reported for mice. Particularly, distribution of claudin-4 in the TAL and distal convoluted tubules was characteristic of bovine nephrons as were differences in the expression patterns of claudins 2 and 3. These findings demonstrate that the total lack of claudin-16 in the TAL segment is the sole cause of renal tubular dysplasia in cattle and suggest that the tight junctions in distinct tubular segments including the TAL have barrier functions in paracellular permeability that are different among animal species.
NOD1 (Card4) and NOD2 (Card15) are thought to be responsible for cytoplasmic defense against bacterial entry. To gain further knowledge about how their expressions are regulated in murine macrophages, we investigated the expression of NOD1 and NOD2 mRNAs after stimulation with various endotoxins, lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid and peptidoglycan. In macrophage RAW264.7 cells, the first and second rises in NOD1 and NOD2 mRNAs were observed at 2 hr and at 8-12 hr after endotoxin treatment. Increases in NOD1 and NOD2 mRNAs at 2 hr in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 cells were reduced with the use of NF-κB inhibitor, caffeic acid phenetyl ester. In RAW264.7 cells, lipopolysaccharide-induced increases in NOD1 and NOD2 mRNAs were inhibited with anti-TLR4 antibody, and partially reduced in peritoneal macrophages obtained from TLR4-deficient mice. Furthermore, NOD1 and NOD2 mRNA expressions in RAW264.7 cells were increased by the treatment with proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), or IL-6. In TNF-α deficient macrophages, the expression of NOD molecules was minimal at 12 hr, and the second rise in NOD mRNA seen in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW264.7 cells was inhibited with anti-TNF-α, but not with anti-IL-1β or anti-IL-6 antibody. These observations suggest that immediate response of NODs to endotoxins could result from NF-κB activation via TLR signaling, whereas the second rise in NOD mRNAs might have resulted from TNF-α production possibly through NF-κB, TLR, and/or NOD signalings.
A novel thrombin inhibitory protein coding gene was identified from a cDNA library derived from salivary gland of partially-fed Haemaphysalis longicornis (hard tick). The gene encoded a 93-amino acid protein, designated chimadanin, which had a signal peptide sequence and was predicted to be a secretory protein. It showed no similarity to any other previously identified proteins or conserved domain sequences. The gene was expressed during blood feeding and suggested to be expressed mainly in the salivary gland. The predicted mature region of chimadanin was expressed in Escherichia coli and characteristics of the recombinant chimadanin were determined. The activated partial thromboplastin time and the prothrombin time in sheep plasma were significantly prolonged by chimadanin in a dose dependent manner. Amidolytic activity of thrombin was also inhibited by chimadanin in a dose dependent manner and it suggested that chimadanin was an anticoagulant with thrombin inhibitory activity. This newly identified thrombin inhibitor may play an important role in tick blood feeding.
After RNA extraction from horsehair shafts and roots, the mRNAs of β-actin, muscle-type phosphofructokinase, and transforming growth factor-β1 were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. Low amounts of RNA were present in the horsehair. These specific mRNA transcripts were readily detected when more than three hair roots were used. However, detection of the mRNA transcripts was difficult in the hair shaft. These findings indicate that the small amounts of residual RNA in horsehair roots can be utilized as samples for molecular biological analysis.
We encountered an extremely rare tumor, a pericardial mesothelioma, in a neonatal calf. The patient calf showed severe abdominal distention, and died immediately after birth. The thoracic cavity was contained a huge heart with a large amount of pericardial fluid. A number of granular and cobblestone-like nodules were dispersed over the epicardium and pericardium. The nodules consisted of papillary proliferations of neoplastic cells, and the neoplasm occasionally showed mesenchymal proliferations. Immunohistochemistry revealed that they had the characteristics of mesothelial cells (cytokeratin-and vimentin-positive), and the neoplasm was diagnosed as mesothelioma.
Genes and proteins of human origin are often administered to monkeys for research purposes, however, it can be difficult to obtain sufficient levels of the products in vivo due to immunological clearance. In this study, we showed that human erythropoietin (hEPO) induces generation of anti-hEPO antibody in cynomolgus macaques (n=2), although 92% of amino acid residues are common between the human and macaque EPO. The administered hEPO was thus eliminated from the animals. On the other hand, when an immunosuppressant, cyclosporin A (CyA), was administered (6 mg/kg) intramuscularly every other day in combination with hEPO (n=2), no anti-hEPO antibody was generated and high serum levels of hEPO were obtained during administration of hEPO, resulting in an increase in serum hemoglobin levels. No adverse effects associated with CyA were observed. Thus, CyA treatment is useful for prevention of immune responses associated with the administration of human proteins in monkeys.
The objective of this study was to evaluate nuclear reactivity of Mdm2 and p53 proteins by immunohistochemical means in feline mammary gland tumors; 12 adenomas which included 6 adenomatous lesions obtained from the tissue adjacent to adenocarcinomas, and 22 adenocarcinomas. Seven adenomas and 18 adenocarcinomas showed moderate or marked Mdm2 reactivity. Sixteen adenocarcinomas showed moderate to marked p53 reactivity, but 9 adenomas showed none. Discordant Mdm2 overexpression was found in 5 adenomas and 3 adenocarcinomas, although co-overexpression of Mdm2 and p53 was found in 15 adenocarcinomas. These results suggest that nuclear overexpression of Mdm2 is present in the tumors of early stage without p53 overexpression and related to feline mammary gland tumorigenesis. Nuclear overexpression of p53 is more frequent in adenocarcinomas, but not in adenomas.
3-methylcholanthrene (MC)-induced mouse 10 embryonal (ERSs) and 24 pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcomas (PRSs) of the dermis were examined immunohistochemically for nuclear reactivity of Mdm2, p53, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). ERSs were microscopically present in the rhabdium layer of the dermis from 10 to 13 weeks post injection (PI), and PRSs developed from 13 weeks PI. Moderate to marked Mdm2 reactivity was observed in each of the 10 ERSs, and 23 of the 24 PRSs. Moderate to marked p53 reactivity was observed in 5 of the 10 ERSs, and 19 of the 24 PRSs. p53 reactivity increased in PRSs compared with ERSs. The level of Mdm2 expression was significantly higher compared with p53 expression. Discordant Mdm2 overexpression was observed in 5 ERSs and 5 PRSs, and discordant p53 overexpression was observed in 1 PRSs, although co-overexpression of Mdm2 and p53 was observed in 5 ERSs and 18 PRSs. PCNA reactivity significantly increased in PRSs compared with ERSs. These results suggest that Mdm2 overexpression is an important pathogenic event in MC-induced mouse rhabdomyosarcomas, and its expression may be induced by p53-independent pathway.
An 11-year-old thoroughbred gelding was euthanatized because of right nasal cavity tumor. The tumor consisted of round to oval cells with a scanty cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nuclei. Homer-Wright rosettes and pseudorosettes, as well as microcysts were seen. Neoplastic cells were immunoreactive to vimentin, S-100 protein, and neuron-specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein and microtube-associated protein in varying degrees, indicating neurogenic nature. Based on these findings, this tumor was diagnosed as an olfactory neuroblastoma. Since this type is an uncommon tumor showing histological variety, the nature is discussed.
The antiinflammatory effects of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinata) seeds were examined in vivo and in vitro. The extract of this seed (HCSE) inhibited croton oil-induced swelling of the mouse concha. HCSE inhibited cyclooxygenase (COX) -1 and -2 activities, but had no effect on 15-lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2 activities. Inhibition of COX-2 occurred at a lower concentration of HCSE than for COX-1. Japanese horse chestnut seeds contain coumarins and saponins, but these chemicals did not inhibit COX activities. These results suggest that the antiinflammatory effect of Japanese horse chestnut seeds is caused, at least partly, by the inhibition of COX. The inhibitor of COX in this seed may be a chemical(s) other than coumarins and saponins.
Insulin-like growth factor (IGFs: IGF-I and IGF-II) systems have been reported to be associated with the onset of diabetic mellitus. Therefore, we investigated the effect of diabetes on regulation of the IGF system in the liver, kidneys and heart, which are important organs in the pathogenesis of diabetes. The experimental groups were subdivided into three groups: 1) controls, 2) streptozotocin (STZ)-induced untreated diabetic group, and 3) an insulin-treated group (plus diabetic rats). In the present study, starting on the second day after STZ treatment, the diabetic group exhibited hyperglycemia, polyuria, and polydipsia, which are characteristic of diabetes melittus. Serum levels of IGF-I were decreased, but those of IGF-II were increased in the diabetic group compared with the controls. The expression levels of IGF-I and IGF-II protein in the livers of the diabetic group had a similar pattern to the serum. In addition, the expression levels of liver IGF-I mRNA and IGF-II mRNA were decreased in the diabetic groups. In the heart, IGF-I levels were decreased, but IGF-II levels were increased in the untreated diabetic groups, which was consistent with the expression levels of their mRNA. However, both the IGF-I and IGF-II levels in the kidneys were increased in the untreated diabetic groups, but the mRNA levels were decreased. Insulin treatment ameliorated the changes of IGF system in the serum, liver, kidneys, and heart. In conclusion, diabetes induced alteration of the IGF system tissue-specifically, and this was blocked by insulin treatment.
The possible relationship between myofiber type composition and adipose tissue development in skeletal muscle in vivo has been suggested. Recent evidence indicated that satellite cells are multipotent cells that can undergo not only myogenic, but also adipogenic differentiation. In the present study, rat satellite cells were isolated from soleus, back, extensor digitorum longus, tibialis anterior and quadriceps muscles, and their adipogenic potentials were compared by culturing them under adipogenic conditions in vitro. Cells from soleus muscle exhibited the highest adipogenic potential as judged from Oil Red-staining and immunocytochemical C/EBPα-staining. The adipogenic potential of satellite cells was positively correlated with type I myofiber distribution in the corresponding muscle of origin. These results demonstrated that the adipogenic potential of satellite cells differs according to the muscle of origin and suggested that its possible correlation to type I myofiber distribution may account for preferential adipose tissue development in slow oxidative muscles.
Plasma proteins of wasting pigs were quantitatively and qualitatively compared with those of normal fattening pigs. Higher expression of a 120 kDa protein was observed in the plasma of wasting pigs by SDS-PAGE. This protein was identified as pig major acute-phase protein (Pig-MAP) by proteomic analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The plasma concentration of Pig-MAP in wasting pigs was 7-fold higher than that of normal ones.
We investigated for dynamics of Campylobacter clones on 2 different managerial broiler farms. Campylobacter isolates were differentiated by resistance typing and molecular typing methods. On farm I, the same C. jejuni clones resistant to fluoroquinolone and oxytetracycline were isolated after one and half years again and another susceptible clone was invaded. The susceptible clone was isolated again after half year. Broiler flocks on the farm may be repeatedly infected with a few C. jejuni clones. On farm II, new clones including antimicrobial resistant one, were often invaded. The change of predominant C. jejuni clone in each flock on both the farms was observed, in the absence of antimicrobial selective pressure.
Twelve killer whale (Orcinus orca) were hemmed in by ice floes, and nine died on the Aidomari coast in the Nemuro Strait in Rausu, Shiretoko, Hokkaido, Japan on 8 February 2005. Tissue samples collected from 8 whales were tested for Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, and Brucella species DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Gamma-globulin isolated from blood samples by ammonium sulfate precipitation was tested for antibodies to these pathogens by means of agglutination tests and immunoblotting. None of the 8 tissue samples had antibodies to the pathogens, when subjected to agglutination tests. In immunoblotting, one sample (sample No.5) showed antibody binding to N. caninum antigens. In the PCR assay, none of the samples was positive. Further study is necessary to examine the prevalence of the pathogens in marine mammals inhabiting this area.
Six adult healthy Beagles were used to investigate the hepatic perfusion dynamics of Levovist, a contrast agent used in contrast harmonic imaging (CHI). In addition, 8 dogs with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 2 dogs with metastatic hepatic hemangiosarcoma (HSA) were used to characterize both the CHI findings with Levovist. In the Beagles, the start of intravenously injected Levovist into the aorta between the cranial mesenteric and renal arteries and the portal vein at the hepatic hilum were 5.47 ± 1.52 sec and 16.03 ± 3.39 sec, respectively. As a characteristic CHI finding in the 8 dogs with HCC, the early arterial phase showed a fine network of blood flow enhanced at the surrounding region and within the tumor in all the 8 dogs (100%), and the post vascular phase demonstrated a defect in the whole tumor and an enhancement of the surrounding hepatic tissues in 7 dogs (87.5%). In the 2 dogs with HSA, characteristic finding in which the early arterial and late vascular phases showed a rim contrast enhancement pattern, and the post vascular phase revealed that the whole tumor lacked contrast enhancement and the surrounding hepatic tissues was clearly enhanced. In dogs, the start of the early arterial and late vascular phases, and the characterizations of the CHI findings in HCC and HSA were suggested to be similar to those in humans. Therefore, CHI is thought to be useful for the diagnosis of HCC and metastatic hepatic HSA in dogs as well as in humans.
Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A viruses have been spreading among domestic poultry, wild aquatic birds, and humans in many Asian countries since 2003. The largest number of patients, to date, infected with the H5N1 viruses are in Vietnam, where these viruses continue to cause outbreaks in domestic poultry. Here, we molecularly characterized the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of nine H5N1 viruses isolated between January 2004 and August 2005 from domestic poultry in Vietnam. We found that several groups of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses are circulating among these birds, which suggests that H5N1 viruses of different lineages have been introduced into Vietnam multiple times.