A 16-year-old castrated male mongrel cat presented with swelling under the left pinna and a 3 -month history of voice change. Laryngeal endoscopy revealed circumferential oedema around the arytenoid cartilages and hypersecretion of saliva. Histopathological examination of the mass around the left ear canal was considered the primary lesion that originated from cutaneous apocrine adenocarcinoma or parotid gland adenocarcinoma, and it metastasized to the larynx, lung and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes. This report provides new insights into feline laryngeal diseases which could result in laryngeal metastasis with slight mucosal irregularity alone and without obvious radiographic abnormalities. Therefore, histopathological examination should be performed when a cat presents clinical signs such as stridor, dysphonia or voice change without any mass-forming laryngeal lesion.
Pancreatic fibrosis develops as the results of the activity of myofibroblasts capable of producing collagens. The myofibroblasts derive from pancreatic interstitial cells, including pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), which can express glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). First, we investigated the expression patterns of vimentin, desmin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), Thy-1 and GFAP in the developing rat pancreas (in fetuses at 18 and 20 days, neonates from 1 to 21 days, and adults). Interstitial cells in the developing pancreas expressed vimentin, desmin, GFAP and Thy-1 at varying degrees; interestingly, the reactivity for desmin and vimentin was the highest in fetuses. GFAP expression was consistent between fetuses and neonates, and Thy-1 reactivity transiently increased after birth; however, α-SMA-positive interstitial cells were rarely seen. Next, we analyzed the immunophenotypical characteristics of myofibroblasts appearing in pancreatic fibrosis in dogs and cats. With increasing fibrotic grade, myofibroblasts showed increased expression of vimentin, desmin and α-SMA, in addition to increased GFAP expression. Collectively, pancreatic interstitial cells and myofibroblasts may have similar immunophenotypes, and myofibroblasts might originate partly from GFAP-expressing PSCs.
Neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by severe axonal swelling (spheroids) throughout the nervous system. In dogs, NAD has been reported in several breeds and a missense mutation in PLA2G6 gene has recently been identified in the Papillon dog NAD. Here we performed ultrastructural analysis to clarify the detailed ultrastructural features of the Papillon dog NAD. Dystrophic axons consisted of accumulation of filamentous materials, tubulovesicular structures, and swollen edematous mitochondria with degenerated inner membranes were often observed in the central nervous system. At axonal terminals, degeneration of presynaptic membrane was also detected. As reported in Pla2g6 knockout mice, mitochondrial and presynaptic degeneration may be related with the pathogenesis of NAD in Papillon dogs.
Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental pollutant that shows severe toxicity to humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating MeHg toxicity are not completely understood. We have previously reported that the MARCKS protein is involved in the MeHg toxicity to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and EA.hy926 vascular endothelial cell lines. In addition, calpain, a Ca2+-dependent protease, is suggested to be associated with the MeHg toxicity. Because MARCKS is known as a substrate of calpain, we studied the relation between calpain activation and cleavage of MARCKS and its role in MeHg toxicity. In SH-SY5Y cells, MeHg decreased cell viability along with increased calcium mobilization, calpain activation and a decrease in MARCKS amounts. However, pretreatment with calpain inhibitors attenuated the decrease in cell viability and MARCKS amount induced only by 1 µM but not by 3 µM MeHg. In cells with a MARCKS knockdown, calpain inhibitors failed to attenuate the decrease in cell viability caused by MeHg. In EA.hy926 cells, although MeHg caused calcium mobilization and a decrease in MARCKS levels, calpain activation was not observed. These results indicate that the participation of calpain in the regulation of MARCKS amounts is dependent on the cell type and concentration of MeHg. In SH-SY5Y cells, calpain-mediated proteolysis of MARCKS is involved in cytotoxicity induced by a low concentration of MeHg.
Okayama University-type retinal prosthesis (OURePTM) is a photoelectric dye-coupled polyethylene film which generates electric potential in response to light and stimulates nearby neurons. This study aims to test surgical feasibility of subretinal implantation and functional durability of dye-coupled films in the subretinal space. The dye-coupled films were implanted subretinally by 25-gauge vitrectomy in the right eye of 11 normal beagle dogs: 2 dogs served for film removal after 5-month film implantation, 3 dogs for film removal after 3-month film implantation, 3 dogs for 3-month film implantation and pathological examination, and 3 dogs for sham surgery. The surface electric potential of the removed dye-coupled films in response to light was measured by the Kelvin Probe system. At surgery, rolled-up dye-coupled films in 5 × 5 mm square size could be inserted into subretinal space of retinal detachment induced by fluid injection with a 38-gauge polyimide tip. Retinal attachment was maintained by silicone oil injection in vitreous cavity. At autopsy, the retina in all dogs maintained the ganglion cell layer, inner and outer nuclear layers while it lost the outer segments in some part. All 5 sheets of removed dye-coupled films maintained the dye color. One sheet of the 5-month implanted film showed proportional increase of surface potential in response to increasing light intensity. Subretinal implantation of OURePTM by vitrectomy was technically feasible in canine eyes, and OURePTM maintained the function of generating light-evoked surface potential after 5 months in subretinal implantation.
A 10-year-old French bulldog presented with an abdominal tumor. Triple-phase helical computed tomography was performed, revealing a hepatic tumor, an enlarged hepatic lymph node, and no masses in other organs. The hepatic tumor demonstrated marked enhancement, similar to that of the aorta in the arterial phase. The tumor had rich vascularization and a hepatic arterio-venous shunt formed between the hepatic artery and middle hepatic vein. The hepatic tumor was surgically removed and histological diagnosis revealed a hepatic carcinoid tumor. During surgery, rapid massive arterial hemorrhage occurred from the site of the incision. The animal died without improvement post-surgery. In the case of an arterio-venous shunt in a hepatic tumor, it is important to be careful to avoid perioperative bleeding.
To clarify the mechanisms underlying the development of displaced abomasum (DA), we repositioned DA in 12 cows by rolling and observed the course of redisplacement using X-ray fluoroscopy. Displacement of the abomasum was observed to follow three patterns: displacement to the left side of the abdominal cavity through the gap formed at the reticulum, atrium of the rumen and ventral sac of the rumen (n=7); displacement to the left side after cranial movement along the diaphragm (n=3); displacement to the right side after cranial movement along the diaphragm (n=2). These differences were considered to be associated with the rumen volume. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the visual observation of the course of DA in dairy cows.
Although many studies have been conducted worldwide for Equus caballus papillomavirus (EcPV), limited information is available on the virus in Japan. We recently collected one classical viral papillomatosis sample (E150904) from a racing horse in Japan. Papillomavirus infection was confirmed by histopathology, immunohistochemistry and PCR assays, and the sample was diagnosed as epithelial papilloma. Full-length genome of the virus was cloned and sequenced. It was 7,613 bp in length and had the same genome organization with reported EcPV-1. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis based on L1 gene revealed that the infection was caused by a variant of EcPV-1. This is the first report of EcPV infection in Japan, and would further contribute to the molecular epidemiological and pathological studies for EcPV.