Understanding the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistance and the relationship between emergence of resistant bacteria and clinical treatment can facilitate design of effective treatment strategies. We here examined antimicrobial susceptibilities of Escherichia coli isolated from dogs admitted to a university hospital (University hospital) and companion animal clinics (Community clinics) in the same city and investigated underlying multidrug-resistance mechanisms. The prevalence of E. coli with intermediate and resistant interpretations to ampicillin (AMP), enrofloxacin (ENR) and chloramphenicol (CHL) was higher in the University hospital than in the Community clinics cases. Use of antimicrobials, including fluoroquinolone, was also significantly higher in the University hospital than in the Community clinics cases. Upon isolation using ENR-supplemented agar plates, all ENR-resistant isolates had 3–4 nucleotide mutations that accompanied by amino acid substitutions in the quinolone-resistance-determining regions of gyrA, parC and parE, and 94.7% of all isolates derived from the University hospital showed AMP and/or CHL resistance and possessed blaTEM and/or catA1. The average mRNA expression levels of acrA, acrB and tolC and the prevalence of organic solvent tolerance, in isolates derived from ENR-supplemented agar plates were significantly higher in the University hospital than in the Community clinics isolates. Thus, E. coli derived from the University hospital cases more often showed concomitant decreased susceptibilities to aminopenicillins, fluoroquinolones and CHL than did those derived from the Community clinics; this was related to an active AcrAB–TolC efflux pump, in addition to acquisition of specific resistance genes and genetic mutations.
A total of 658 cattle in 6 provinces in the Philippines were screened for Anaplasma marginale infection by using a diagnostic heat-shock operon (groEL) gene-PCR assay. The screening-positive samples were further tested using the major surface antigen protein 1a (Msp1a) gene-PCR assay. Screening PCR results showed 130 cattle (19.8%) were positive for the A. marginale infection. Subsequent amplification using the Msp1a gene only showed 93 samples (14.1%) to be positive. In addition, 37 tandem-repeat structures, including 20 novel structures, and 41 distinct genotypes were identified. Interestingly, multiple infections of 4 different genotypes were also observed in A. marginale-infected cattle. The present study demonstrated the prevalence and characterization of diverse genotypes of A. marginale in the Philippine cattle.
Bacterial surface proteins play key roles in virulence and often contribute to bacterial adhesion and invasion. We discovered that the Streptococcus suis type 2 (SS2) gene SSU0587 encodes a protein of 1,491 amino acids that possesses β-galactosidase activity. The surface association of the protein was dependent upon sortase activity. Deleting SSU0587 from clinical SS2 isolate JX081101 caused a loss of both β-galactosidase activity and adherence to microvascular endothelial cells. Deleting SSU0587 had no measurable impact on either invasion of microvascular endothelial cells or on virulence in a murine infection model, although the concentration of JX081101ΔSSU0587 was reduced in the brains of infected mice, as compared with the pathogen loads of the wild-type strain.
The 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) enzyme has been characterized in other species, but not in the genus Babesia, which causes major losses in the livestock industries worldwide. Therefore, we isolated, cloned and expressed the wild-type B. bovis dxs cDNA in Escherichia coli and evaluated its enzymatic activity in vitro. DNA sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 2061 bp capable of encoding a polypeptide of 686 amino acid residues with a calculated isoelectric point of pH 6.93 and a molecular mass of 75 kDa. The expressed soluble recombinant fusion DXS protein was approximately 78 kDa, which is similar to the native enzyme identified from the parasite merozoite using anti-rDXS serum. The recombinant fusion DXS enzyme exhibited Km values of 380 ± 46 µM and 790 ± 52 µM for D,L-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvate, respectively. In this work, we present the first cloning, expression and characterization of DXS enzyme from B. bovis.
This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity of a recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis vaccine expressing the CMX fusion protein composed of immunodominant epitopes Ag85C, MPT51 and HspX of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which are important mycobacteria virulence factors. A group of Nelore heifers that were 10 to 12 months of age and negative for the tuberculin skin test (TST) were immunized with four doses of the recombinant vaccine mc2-CMX (M. smegmatis-Ag85C-MPT51-HspX) during a period of one year. Before each immunization, blood was collected to obtain sera for antibody analysis. Serological analysis demonstrated that mc2-CMX was able to induce a humoral response with increased levels of specific IgG antibodies against CMX, despite minimum antibody levels being detected for individual Ag85C, MPT51 or HspX recombinant antigens. However, there was no significant increase in specific CD4+ IFN-γ-positive T cells. Lymphadenomegaly was observed in superficial cervical lymph nodes adjacent to the site of vaccination among mc2-CMX-vaccinated bovines, and the histopathological analysis demonstrated follicular hyperplasia without inflammatory infiltrate or granuloma formation. Animals remained negative for the TST until the end of the experiments, showing no cross-reactivity with the recombinant vaccine and tuberculin proteins. We discuss the potential of mc2-CMX to induce an immune response in cattle.
Serum amyloid A (SAA) proteins are acute-phase proteins and are classified into multiple isoforms; however, the biological functions of each SAA isoform are not fully understood. In this study, to clarify the roles of SAA3 in the intestine, we characterized mRNA expression in mouse colonic epithelial CMT-93 cells treated with rotavirus, Toxoplasma, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recombinant murine SAAs (rSAAs). E. coli together with LPS, but not the other pathogens, enhanced SAA3 mRNA expression. The mRNA expression of SAA3 by dead E. coli was higher than that by living E. coli, and the mRNA expression by E. coli and LPS increased in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, mRNA expressions of SAA1 and/or SAA2 were not stimulated by any of the treatments. In comparisons of cell treatments with rSAA1 or rSAA3, rSAA3 significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of mucin 2 (MUC2), a major component of the mucus layer of the intestines that acts as an epithelial cell barrier against pathogens, while MUC2 mRNA expression was not significantly increased by E. coli and LPS. Furthermore, treatment with rSAAs intensively induced tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression. These results suggest that SAA3 plays a role in host innate immunity in the colon by up-regulating MUC2 mucin production, which builds a physiological barrier of colonic epithelia against bacterial invasion.
To evaluate diurnal variation of plasma bone markers, blood samples were collected from five calves at 2-hr intervals throughout a 24-hr period. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b), carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks of type-I collagen (CTX), hydroxyproline, bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP) and osteocalcin were measured. Cosinor analysis showed a significant rhythm in all bone markers. The acrophase of each bone marker appeared from the early to late morning. The percentage ratio of the amplitude to mesor and the within-subject variability for CTx and osteocalcin were significantly larger than those for TRAP5b and BALP. This marked diurnal variation in five bone markers suggested that the time of blood sampling should be fixed when studying bone marker concentrations in bovine plasma.
A 9-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu dog was referred to us, because of chronic vomiting. The patient’s hematological, radiographic, ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological examinations were evaluated for diagnosis. Hematologic analysis indicated moderate anemia and azotemia. Based on the imaging studies, an oval-shaped mass was identified in the gastric pylorus area. A proliferative mass was found on endoscopic examination, and we performed biopsy using grasping forceps. The histopathological findings of the biopsy specimens indicated hypertrophic gastritis, and Y-U pyloroplasty was performed. However, histopathological examination of the surgically resected mass revealed tubular adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Then, carboplatin chemotherapy was performed 4 times for 13 weeks. Clinical signs, such as vomiting, were resolved gradually after surgery and chemotherapy, and the patient’s condition was managed favorably until recently (30 months after surgery). This case report describes clinical features, imaging studies, endoscopic characteristics and histopathological and immunohistochemical features of gastric tubular adenocarcinoma as early gastric cancer in a dog.
A 12-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier with intermittent vomiting was diagnosed with regional granulomatous enteritis through histopathological examination. On ultrasonography and computed tomography, a focal thickened duodenal wall showed a mass-like appearance with indistinct wall layers. Marked uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose was observed from the mass on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. Regional granulomatous enteritis is a rare form of inflammatory bowel disease and may have imaging features similar to intestinal tumors. This is the first study describing the diagnostic imaging features of ultrasonography, computed tomography and positron emission tomography-computed tomography for regional granulomatous enteritis in a dog.
To determine the incidence of hepatic diseases in dogs and cats in Japan, a retrospective study was performed using data of 463 canine and 71 feline liver biopsies at the Veterinary Medical Center of the University of Tokyo. The most common canine hepatic disease was microvascular dysplasia (MVD) and occupied 29.4% of all diagnoses. This terminology might contain “real” MVD and primary portal vein hypoplasia, because these two conditions were difficult to be clearly distinguished histopathologically. Parenchymal and interstitial hepatitis and primary hepatic tumors accounted for 23.5% and 21.0% of the diagnoses, respectively. Parenchymal and interstitial hepatitis occupied 34.1% of non-proliferative canine hepatic diseases, while hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma were 26.6% and 24.5% of proliferative hepatic diseases, respectively. Breed-specificity was seen in MVD for Yorkshire terrier, Papillon and Toy poodle, in hepatitis for Doberman pinscher and Labrador retriever, in cholangiohepatitis for American cocker spaniel, Miniature schnauzer and Pomeranian, in hepatocellular adenoma for Golden retriever and Shiba and in hepatocellular carcinoma for Shih Tzu. The most common feline liver disease was parenchymal and interstitial hepatitis (45.1% of all diagnoses). Among feline hepatitis, neutrophilic cholangiohepatitis (23.9%), lymphocytic cholangiohepatitis (14.1%) and chronic hepatitis (5.6%) were recorded. Adult polycystic liver disease was 5.6%. Among proliferative diseases in the feline liver (11.3% of the all), lymphoma (4.2%) and primary epithelial tumors (4.2%) including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocellular adenoma and cholangiocellular carcinoma were observed. Hepatic degeneration was 14.1%, and MVD was 12.7%, respectively.
An 11-year-old mixed breed dog was presented with signs of anorexia. Radiographic and ultrasound examinations revealed a large mass in the heart, between the right atrium and the right ventricle. Upon gross inspection, a multilobulated tumor arising from the right atrial wall and occupying the right atrium was identified. Microscopical analysis demonstrated that this tumor consisted of neoplastic cells with granular cytoplasm, which were separated into nests by fine fibrovascular stroma and were negative for Grimelius’s method. Immunohistochemical examinations revealed that the neoplastic cells expressed chromogranin A, synaptophysin and neuron specific enolase. Electron microscopy revealed that the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells held secretory granules. Based on these pathological findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a paraganglioma. This report is a rare case of primary paraganglioma deriving from the right atrium and provides a detailed characterization of its morphological features.
Organ culture of blood vessel is a better technique to investigate the long-term effects of drugs. However, some functional changes may occur from freshly isolated vessel (Fresh). Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates smooth muscle differentiation and Ca2+ mobilization. We thus investigated mechanisms of alteration in smooth muscle contractility after serum-free organ culture focusing on mTOR. Rat isolated mesenteric arteries were cultured for 5 days without (0% serum) or with rapamycin. In 0% serum, absolute contraction by KCl significantly decreased from Fresh, which was significantly rescued by rapamycin. In 0% serum, mTOR expression significantly increased from Fresh, which was significantly rescued by rapamycin. In 0% serum, expression of myocardin, a key regulator of smooth muscle differentiation markers, significantly decreased from Fresh, which was significantly rescued by rapamycin. However, the decrease in expression of contractile proteins, including SM22α and calponin, was not changed by rapamycin. Basal phosphorylation of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II significantly increased in 0% serum, which was significantly rescued by rapamycin. In 0% serum, absolute contraction by caffeine significantly decreased from Fresh, which was significantly rescued by rapamycin. In conclusion, expression of mTOR increased during serum-free organ culture of rat isolated mesenteric artery for 5 days, which may be at least partly responsible for the decreased smooth muscle contractility perhaps due to the decrease in the stored Ca2+ in smooth muscle.
Obesity is a major health problem, and increased food intake and decreased physical activity are considered as two major factors causing obesity. Previous studies show that voluntary exercise in a running wheel decreases not only body weight but also food intake of rats. We previously produced human growth hormone transgenic (TG) rats, which are characterized by severe hyperphagia and obesity. To gain more insight into the effects on physical activity to food consumption and obesity, we examined whether voluntary running wheel exercise causes inhibition of hyperphagia and alteration of body composition in TG rats. Free access to running wheels completely abolished hyperphagia in TG rats, and this effect persisted for many weeks as far as the running wheel is accessible. Unexpectedly, though the running distances of TG rats were significantly less than those of wild type rats, it was sufficient to normalize their food consumption. This raises the possibility that rearing environment, which enables them to access to a running wheel freely, rather than the amounts of physical exercises is more important for the maintenance of proper food intake.
Alkylphenol polyethoxylate (APEO) derivatives, such as nonylphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO), nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO), nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP), have been detected in the surface water, sediment, food and groundwater of numerous countries. Because groundwater is the main source of water for pig herds, the aim of this study was to measure the concentrations of APEO derivatives in groundwater and blood samples that were collected from pig herds raised near the Wuluo River in Southern Taiwan. The mean concentrations of NP, OP, NP1EO and NP2EO in the groundwater supply for 10 pig herds were 0.04 µg/l, 0.26 ± 0.23 µg/l, 0.74 ± 0.69 µg/l and 0.17 ± 0.22 µg/l, respectively. NP was detected in all blood samples collected from 5 of the 10 pig herds. The highest concentrations detected in the blood samples collected from six-week-old piglets and sows were 12.00 µg/l and 56.94 µg/l, respectively. Blood samples from 4 of the 5 herds showed OP contamination. The highest OP concentrations detected in 6-week-old piglets and sows were 275.58 µg/l and 566.32 µg/l, respectively. These results indicate that APEO derivatives accumulated in the groundwater supply and the bloodstreams of the pigs.
There has been an accumulation of information on frequencies of insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms within the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) and on the number of octapeptide repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region of bovine PRNP related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) susceptibility. We investigated the frequencies of 23-bp indel polymorphism in the promoter region (23indel) and 12-bp indel polymorphism in intron 1 region (12indel), octapeptide repeat polymorphisms and SNPs in the bovine PRNP of cattle and water buffaloes in Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand. The frequency of the deletion allele in the 23indel site was significantly low in cattle of Indonesia and Thailand and water buffaloes. The deletion allele frequency in the 12indel site was significantly low in all of the cattle and buffaloes categorized in each subgroup. In both indel sites, the deletion allele has been reported to be associated with susceptibility to classical BSE. In some Indonesian local cattle breeds, the frequency of the allele with 5 octapeptide repeats was significantly high despite the fact that the allele with 6 octapeptide repeats has been reported to be most frequent in many breeds of cattle. Four SNPs observed in Indonesian local cattle have not been reported for domestic cattle. This study provided information on PRNP of livestock in these Southeast Asian countries.
The effect of tetrapod-shaped alpha tricalcium phosphate granules (Tetrabones® [TB]) in combination with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-binding ion complex gel (f-IC gel) on bone defect repair was examined. Bilateral segmental defects 20-mm long were created in the radius of 5 dogs, stabilized with a plate and screws and implanted with 1 of the following: TB (TB group), TB and bFGF solution (TB/f group), and TB and f-IC gel (TB/f-IC group). Dogs were euthanized 4 weeks after surgery. Radiographs showed well-placed TB granules in the defects and equal osseous callus formation in all the groups. Histomorphometry revealed that the number of vessels and volume of new bone in the TB/f-IC group were significantly higher than those in the other groups. However, no significant differences in neovascularization and new bone formation were observed between the TB/f and TB groups. Furthermore, no significant difference in the lamellar bone volume or rate of mineral apposition was observed among groups. These results suggest that increased bone formation might have been because of the promotion of neovascularization by the f-IC gel. Therefore, the combinatorial method may provide a suitable scaffold for bone regeneration in large segmental long bone defects.
A 9-year-old female dog was referred to Azabu University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for dysuria and dyschezia after ovariohysterectomy. After a series of diagnostic imaging, vaginal obstruction was suspected by vaginal fluid retention. Surgical repair was attempted three times to establish patency through the vagina and the vestibule by episiotomy and laparotomy. Another laparotomy was performed to remove the entire vaginal mucosal layer to prevent recurrence, which resulted in favorable outcome. Histopathological examination revealed that the resected tissue was a cyst originated from mesonephric duct remnant. In the present case, the cyst was curable by the entire resection of the cyst lining membrane, which could eradicate all the secretory cells with least damage to the urethral vasculature and innervation.
It has not been common to perform regular ultrasound examination of the fetus in equine practice, due to the increasing volume of the uterus caused by fetal development. The convex three-dimensional transducer is bulb-shaped and is able to observe wide areas. In addition, its operation is simple, making it easy to create appropriate angles for various indices using a transrectal approach. The aim of this study was to measure Thoroughbred fetal growth indices throughout gestation using a convex transducer and to clarify the detectable period of some indices for clinical use. We demonstrated changes in fetal indices, such as crown rump length (CRL), fetal heart rate (FHR), fetal eye and kidney and the combined thickness of uterus and placenta (CTUP). CTUP increased from 30 weeks of gestation, and FHR peaked at 8 weeks and then decreased to term. CRL could be observed until 13 weeks due to its wide angle, longer than in previous reports. Fetal eye and kidney could be observed from 10 and 28 weeks, respectively, and these increased with pregnancy progress. The present results showed the advantage of transrectal examination using a convex transducer for evaluation of normal fetal development. Although ultrasonographic examination in mid- to late-gestation is not common in equine reproductive practice, our comprehensive results would be a useful basis for equine pregnancy examination.
The aim of study was to evaluate the effects of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on canine sperm function during cooled and freeze-thaw storage. Extenders supplemented with different IGF-I concentrations (0, 100 and 200 ng/ml) were added to canine spermatozoa, and the sperm samples were stored at 4°C for 48 hr or freeze-thawed. Sperm motility, morphology, plasma-membrane integrity (PMI) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were evaluated. IGF-I had no effect on PMI or morphology during cooling and freeze-thawing. However, IGF-I alleviated the reduction in progressive motility and MMP caused by cooled storage and led to an improvement in MMP after freeze-thawing. In conclusion, IGF-I can be helpful to maintain progressive motility of canine spermatozoa during hypothermic storage via increased MMP.
A novel calicivirus, St-Valerien-like virus (SVV), has been identified in asymptomatic swine in Canada, Italy and the U.S.A. In this study, we characterized a new SVV strain (NUP-24/JP) detected in fecal samples of swine in Japan. The NUP-24/JP genome had 6,409 nucleotides and 2 open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2). ORF1 and ORF2 consist of 5,940 and 453 nucleotides, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that NUP-24/JP was closely related to other SVV strains, particularly to U.S.A. strain NC-WGS93C/US. This finding suggests that SVV is prevalent in swine worldwide. Using a baculovirus expression system, we successfully produced virus-like particles, which would be useful for seroepidemiological studies of SVV.
Although many disinfectants are commercially available in the veterinary field, information on the virucidal effects of disinfectants against equine group A rotavirus (RVA) is limited. We evaluated the performance of commercially available disinfectants against equine RVA. Chlorine- and iodine-based disinfectants showed virucidal effects, but these were reduced by the presence of organic matter. Glutaraldehyde had a virucidal effect regardless of the presence of organic matter, but the effect was reduced by low temperature or short reaction time, or both. Benzalkonium chloride had the greatest virucidal effect among the three quaternary ammonium compounds examined, but its effect was reduced by the presence of organic matter or by low temperature or a short reaction time. These findings will be useful for preventing the spread of equine RVA infection.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Coxiella burnetti infection in wild Korean water deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus) in Korea, by using serology and real-time PCR analyses. One hundred ninety-six sera were collected from 4 provinces and tested for anti-C. burnetii antibody detection, by means of CHEKIT Q fever ELISA kit; and C. burnetii IS1111 insertion sequence detection, by means of real-time PCR. Antibodies were detected in 18 of the 196 (9.18%) serum samples, whereas genomes of C. burnetii were detected in 13 of the 196 (6.63%) serum samples. Based on overall high seroprevalence, the public health implications of these findings are important, because they indicate that asymptomatic seropositive or seronegative wild animals may be consistently shedding C. burnetii. This is the first study of C. burnetii prevalence in Korean water deer in the Republic of Korea that has indicated the presence of infected animals throughout the country.