The horizontal transmission ability of fowl adenovirus (FAV) serotype 1 99ZH strain, isolated from chickens exhibiting gizzard erosion, was investigated. Twelve 13-day-old specific pathogen-free chickens were inoculated orally with 106 TCID50/0.05 ml of the strain. An in-pen contact group (chickens in the same pen with inoculated chickens), hedge contact group (chickens in a pen connected with pens housing inoculated chickens), non-contact group (chickens in a separate pen placed at a distance of 70 cm from the connected pens), human exposure group (chickens in the next room and attended last every day) and negative control group were examined. Each group consisted of 11 or 12 uninoculated chickens. Gizzard lesions were grossly or histologically observed from 10 days after exposure (DAE) in the in-pen contact group, and from 15 DAE in the hedge contact and non-contact groups. The FAV gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction performed on cloacal swabs taken on 5 and 13 DAE from chickens in both contact groups, and on 20 and 26 DAE from those in the non-contact group. Serum neutralizing antibodies against FAV serotype 1 were detected in chickens from 13 and 26 DAE in both contact groups and in the non-contact group, respectively. In the human exposure and negative control groups, no infection was observed. We conclude that FAV-99ZH strain spreads rapidly through direct contact with inoculated chickens, and slowly through non-contact transmission, and that adenoviral gizzard erosion is reproduced by this horizontal transmission.
The present study reports colibacillosis of layer chickens in a commercial egg-producing farm in western Japan. Three flocks of chicken at 18-21 weeks of age were affected during the initiation of egg lay. Postmortem examination revealed pericarditis, perihepatitis, airsacculitis, subcutaneous inguinal lesion, and injured cloaca. Escherichia coli was isolated from the lesions of the affected birds. Twenty-two of 26 E. coli isolates (84.6%) obtained from 18 birds in the 3 flocks showed pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns that were considered to be closely associated to each other and arbitrarily designated as pattern A. All the 22 isolates with the PFGE pattern A harbored the putative virulence genes, astA, iss, iucD, tsh, and cva/cvi. Additional 2 PFGE patterns (B and C) were also found in E. coli isolates obtained from the affected flocks and had the putative virulence genes in combinations different from those in the pattern A strains. The results suggested that certain E. coli virulence genes and host factors, such as initiation of egg lay may be associated with occurrence of colibacillosis.
We have examined the presence of hemoplasmas, hemotropic mycoplasmas, among domestic cats (Felis catus) in Japan by using a species specific PCR, and found `Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis', a recently recognized hemoplasma species. A total of 60 feline blood samples collected in 2004 and 2005 were subjected to PCR amplification for the detection of Mycoplasma haemofelis, `Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' and `Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'. Six blood samples collected from domestic cats were found infected with the `Candidatus M. turicensis'. All of them are also infected with other species of hemoplasmas, M. haemofelis and/or `Candidatus M. haemominutum'. This is the first to demonstrate `Candidatus M. turicensis' infections among cat population in Japan.
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is present exclusively in brown adipose tissue, and contributes to body temperature control during cold exposure. We cloned UCP1 cDNA of plateau pika (Ochotona dauurica), a small, non-hibernating, diurnal lagomorph that inhabits in relatively cold climates and at high altitudes in Mongolia and in northern China. The nucleotide sequence of pika UCP1 was highly homologous to UCP1 of other species, and the deduced amino acid sequence had some common domains for UCP, including six mitochondrial carrier protein motifs and a putative purine-nucleotide binding site. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed that both UCP1 mRNA and protein were expressed exclusively in the interscapular adipose tissue. These results suggest that pika UCP1 contributes to heat production in brown adipose tissue, as do those in other species.
The present study evaluated the costimulatory effects of complement receptor type 3 (CR3) and Fc receptor for IgG (FcγR) on superoxide production and intracellular signal transduction in bovine neutrophils. Stimulation with opsonized zymosan (OPZ) and heat-aggregated bovine IgG (Agg-IgG) resulted in much greater superoxide production and chemiluminescent (CL) responses in normal neutrophils compared with those stimulated with OPZ or Agg-IgG only. Superoxide production and CL response were closely associated with the stimulant-induced rise of the intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) concentration, amount of tyrosine phosphorylated 100 kDa protein, and activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). No costimulatory effect was found for these receptors on superoxide production in CR3-deficient neutrophils. Costimulation of CR3 and FcγR on bovine neutrophils leads to enhancement of superoxide production and their signaling pathways and appears to be associated with enhancement of neutrophil functions.
Humic substances are formed during the decomposition of organic matter in humus that found in many natural environments in which organic materials and microorganisms have been present. In the present study, humus extract exhibited antitumor effect on L1210 tumor development in isogeneic DBA/2 mice with the delay of tumor formation and a significant smaller tumor mass that infer a significant increase of life span of mice. The antitumor effect was not due to direct killing of L1210 or induction of apoptosis in tumor cells by humus extract.
We examined effects of an angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitor, benazepril hydrochloride (BH), on renal hypertension and chronic renal failure (CRF) in cats. For experimental CRF, healthy cats (n=5) underwent 7/8 renal ablation. After renal insufficiency and hypertension were confirmed by blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and telemetric recording of systemic blood pressure, BH was administered orally once daily at 0.9 to 2.0 mg/kg/day for 2 to 3 weeks. Within 2 months after renal ablation, renal failure and hypertension developed as evidenced by significant increases in BUN, serum creatinine and systemic blood pressure (p<0.01 or 0.05) and significantly decreased creatinine clearance accompanied by elevated plasma renin activity, angiotensin I and II, and aldosterone (p<0.01 or 0.05). BH administration corrected systemic hypertension (p<0.05) and significantly reduced angiotensin II and aldosterone (p<0.05). Upon discontinuation of BH, these values returned to the pre-administration levels. Studies on spontaneous CRF enrolled 11 cats with spontaneously occurring CRF. BH was administered orally to 6 cats once daily for 24 weeks at a final dose of 1.0 mg/kg/day, while 5 cats served as control. BH administration reduced serum creatinine and urinary protein concentration in every cat. Results demonstrate that in cats, loss of renal mass leads to activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and associated renal hypertension, and indicate that BH is effective in correcting renal hypertension and may provide renal benefits to cats with CRF.
Aminoprotect Care (APC) is a novel diet composed of aminoacids, potato proteins and corn starch. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Maltese-Beagle atopic (MBA) dogs hypersensitive to corn exhibited clinical signs and changes in immunological markers after being fed APC. The study was designed as a blinded randomized controlled crossover experiment. Ten MBA dogs with signs of allergy within five days of ingesting corn were selected. Dogs were randomized to be fed either their maintenance diet with corn or APC for five days. After a washout of two weeks, diets were switched. Before and daily during each intervention, skin lesions were graded by an investigator while pruritus was assessed by another. Before and at the end of each intervention, the percentage of circulating CD4+CCR4+, corn-activated CD4+ T-lymphocytes and serum corn-specific IgE levels were measured and ratios of post:pre values calculated. During this trial, pruritus and skin lesions increased significantly in MBA dogs when ingesting corn while no such increase occurred when fed APC. Total, median and maximal pruritus values were significantly higher in MBA dogs ingesting corn compared to APC. There were no significant differences between interventions in the immunological parameters assessed. In summary, even though APC contains corn starch to which corn-sensitive MBA dogs often react, the ingestion of APC did not lead to significant increases in skin lesions or pruritus. Aminoprotect Care might prove valuable for management of food allergies. These experimental observations must be validated in large field studies.
A 7-month-old male Papillon was presented to us with mild dyspnea, cyanosis and a diastolic murmur detected by cardiac auscultation. Echocardiography revealed severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH), and administration of 1 mg/kg of oral sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, twice daily was initiated. Exercise capacity, cyanosis, dyspnea and cardiac murmur were improved after therapy for 4 weeks. PCV was remarkably high (74%) after therapy for 3 years, however, increasing the dose of sildenafil decreased this value (60%). Follow-up after therapy for 4 years revealed that treatment with oral sildenafil only continued to provide the dog with an excellent quality of life, without any side effects.
The present study examined the Serum 3-methylhistidine concentrations and energy-associated variables of 5 healthy Holstein cows and 5 Holstein cows with ketosis. The serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B-100 concentrations and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity of the ketotic cows were lower than those of the healthy cows 14 days before parturition. The serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration on the day of parturition and 3-methylhistidine concentration 14 days after parturition were higher in the ketotic cows. The serum 3-methylhistidine concentration 14 days after parturition was negatively correlated with the serum LCAT activity 14 days before parturition and was positively correlated with the serum NEFA concentration on the day of parturition. Insufficiency of cholesterol metabolism and acceleration of body fat degradation occur before parturition in cows with ketosis, and these characteristics are correlated with acceleration of protein degradation after parturition.
Combined effects of treatment with trientine, a copper-chelating agent, and X-irradiation on development of fibrosarcoma using a murine transplantation model in vivo and on cellular survival in vitro were examined. Copper contents in the tumors and serum of trientine-treated mice were significantly lower than those of untreated mice. The tumor volumes of mouse fibrosarcoma QRsp-11 cells increased more slowly in the trientine-treated and the X-irradiated mice than in the control mice from 10 to 24 days postinoculation. The extent of inhibition of tumor growth by X-irradiation at 3 Gy was similar to that obtained by treatment with trientine. A combination of trientine and X-irradiation at 3 Gy showed inhibitory effects on tumor growth similar to those obtained by X-irradiation at 6 Gy. The results showed that trientine and X-irradiation interacted additively in inhibition of tumor growth. When QRsp-11 cells and mouse and bovine endothelial cells were treated with trientine after X-irradiation, the surviving fractions of the cells with combined treatments were essentially consistent with the products of the surviving fractions of trientine-treated cells and those of X-irradiated cells. When the cells were pretreated with trientine and X-irradiated, the surviving fractions of the pretreated cells were lower than those of cells without treatment.
Host sialic acid (SA) has recently been suggested to play an important role in erythrocyte (RBC) infection by Babesia spp. The present study attempted to further determine the specific type of SAs important in the RBC invasion. Bovine RBC was found to bear abundant α2-3-linked SA residues but not α2-6-linked SA in nature, confirmed by flow cytometric analysis of the neuraminidase (Nm)-treated RBCs. Lectin-blot analyses revealed the removal of α2-3-linked SAs from the 97-, 33-, and 31-kDa bands by the Nm treatment. Addition of the Nm-treated RBCs into an in vitro culture of B. bovis resulted in a decreased population of the parasitized RBCs. The thin smear samples from the cultures were then observed under a confocal laser scanning microscope after staining with the α2-3-linked SA-specific lectin: a selective invasion of B. bovis was found only in the intact RBCs bearing the SAs, but not in the desialylated RBCs. Furthermore, a significant reduction of the parasitized RBCs was also observed in the culture supplemented with exogenous 3'-sialyllactose containing the α2-3-linked SAs. However, the complete inhibition of parasite proliferation was not achieved in the culture. These findings indicate that while the α2-3-linked SA-dependent pathway is needed for highly efficient invasion of host RBCs by B. bovis, there might also be other potential alternative pathways.
To clarify the role of progesterone in the development of immune responses during pregnancy against Neospora caninum infection, C57BL/6 mice were given a progesterone pellet, and measured on Interferon-γ and interleukin-4 production following the infection. IFN-γ production in the prescribed group was significantly lower than that in the intact group on day 40 post administration. IL-4 producing cell population in the prescribed group was larger than that in the intact group. These results suggest that progesterone may alter the balance of cytokine production, and that the bias toward type 2 immune response may remain for a certain period after the infection.
To investigate Cryptosporidium infection among healthy people, we collected stool samples from 150 healthy individuals in Gokseong, Muan, and Imshil Counties, southwest Korea, where neighbors on both an animal farm and a river repectively. In 12 of 150 samples, Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by means of modified acid-fast staining. The bovine genotype, Cryptosporidium parvum, was identified by PCR/RFLP and 18S rRNA sequencing. C. parvum existed endemically in these areas, and the residents showed a relatively higher infection rate for C. parvum than that for C. hominis. Our results indicate that countermeasures against Cryptosporidium infection must be taken in these areas to ensure human health.
To clarify the immunohistochemical characteristics of canine ovarian cysts, 109 canine ovarian cysts (57 cysts of subsurface epithelial structures: SES, 26 graafian follicle cysts, 12 cystic rete ovarii and 14 cysts difficult to classify morphologically) were examined regarding their lining cells immunohistochemically using antibodies against placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), S100, inhibin α, desmin and AE1/AE3. Both cysts of SES and cystic rete ovarii had a positive immunoreaction to desmin and AE1/AE3, whereas all cysts all but graafian follicle cysts were negative for inhibin α. PLAP-positive immunoreaction was observed only in cysts of SES. Graafian follicle cysts had a positive immunoreaction to inhibin α, but were negative for PLAP, desmin and AE1/AE3. Fourteen cysts were difficult to classify morphologically because these cysts had single-squamous lining cells and lacked other morphological characteristics. However, these unclassified cysts were immunohistochemically divided into two groups, including positive and negative cysts, by the reactivity of PLAP. The PLAP-positive cysts were considered large cysts of SES. These results suggest that PLAP was a useful marker for classification of cysts of SES, although cysts originating from SES are not always positive for this antigen.
Neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD) was examined in two Papillon dogs and a mix breed dog between Papillon and Chihuahua. In addition, cerebellar cortical abiotrophy (CCA) in a Papillon dog, which had similar clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features to those of NAD, was also investigated. The common clinical symptoms of all dogs affected with NAD and CCA, were pelvic limb ataxia and cerebellar ataxia including intention tremor, head tremor, and hypermetria in the early onset. These clinical signs were progressed rapidly, and two dogs with NAD were euthanized by owner's request and the other two were died by aspiration pneumonia. MRI examinations and gross observations at necropsy revealed moderate to severe cerebellar atrophy in all cases of NAD and CCA. The most typical histological change of NAD was severe axonal degeneration with marked spheroid-formation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cords, the nuclei gracilis, cuneatus, olivalis and its circumference in the medulla oblongata. The spheroids were characterized as large eosinophilic or granular globes within the enlarged myelin sheaths, sometimes accompanied by moderate accumulation of microglias and/or macrophages. In contrast, such spheroid formation was minimal in the brain of CCA. In the cerebellum, mild to moderate loss of the Purkinje and granular cells were recognized in three dogs with NAD, whereas these changes were more prominent in a dog with CCA. Although the clinical signs and MRI findings relatively resembled between NAD and CCA, the histopathological features considered to be quite differ, suggesting distinct pathogenesis and etiology. Since both NAD and CCA are proposed as the autosomal recessive hereditary disorders, careful considerations might be needed for the breeding of Papillon and Chihuahua dogs.
Intestinal muscularis resident macrophages distributed in myenteric region may play an important role in the immunological host defense against infection. In this study, we investigated the phagocytic stimulation of resident macrophages on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and smooth muscle contraction in the small intestine of rat. After the injection of FITC-dextran to rat, phagocytosed macrophages could be detected in the myenteric plexus. FITC-positive macrophages were also immunostained with COX-2 antibody. The number of COX-2 immunopositive cells increased in a time-dependent manner reaching its maximum at 4 hr after the injection, which then decreased gradually but considerable number of cells were still remained on 7 days. The injection of FITC-dextran, however, did not change the population of ED2-positive resident macrophages even on 7 days. Production of PGE2 was significantly higher in the dextran treated tissue as compared to control tissue. In the smooth muscle tissue phagocytosed dextran, carbachol-induced contraction was significantly decreased. The suppression of the carbachol-induced contraction was completely restored by COX inhibitor, indomethacin. Finally we demonstrated that, in freshly isolated macrophage cells, addition of dextran induced a slow and sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These results indicate that phagocytotic activation of muscularis resident macrophages induces COX-2 gene expression and then results in production of PGE2 to suppress the smooth muscle contractile activity.
We attempted to isolate Listeria monocytogenes from skin, contents of large intestines and carcasses of cattle introduced to a slaughterhouse in order to identify source of contamination for this pathogen. Sixty skin samples, 60 samples of the contents of large intestines and 30 carcass samples were colleted in June, August and November 2003 for use in this study. Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes were isolated from 30 (50%) and 3 (5%) of the cattle skin samples, respectively. However, no Listeria spp., including L. monocytogenes, were isolated from intestinal contents or carcasses. Seven isolates were obtained, of which five and two strains were serotypes 1/2a and 1/2b, respectively. Genetic analysis suggested that there was persistent inhabitation of the pathogen around the area investigated in this study.
A study was performed to determine the residues in blood and edible tissues of healthy ducks (25 days old, mean body weight 1.0 ± 0.13 kg) after subcutaneous administration of ceftiofur sodium at a dose rate of 2 mg/kg body weight (Group I) and 4 mg/kg body weight (Group II). Blood, muscle, liver, kidney, and fat samples were collected from all of ducks on the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th day after treatment of drug, and ceftiofur was analyzed with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay with results reported as ceftiofur-free acid equivalent (CFAE). To study the spiked recovery, blank plasma and tissues were spiked with two different concentrations of ceftiofur sodium (0.1, 0.5 μg/g). Average recovery values for all samples ranged from 70.3 to 87.3%. In the group I, desfuroylceftiofur acetamide (DCA) was not detected in all of plasma, muscle, liver, and fat tissues on the 1st day after treatment. But, kidney samples on the 1st day were detected DCA (0.059 ± 0.01 μg CFAE/g tissue). On the 2nd day of post-treatment, the concentrations of DCA in all tissues were lower than the detection limit, 0.05 μg CFAE /g tissue. In the group II on the 1st day after treatment, the concentration of DCA was 0.124 ± 0.06 μg CFAE/g tissue, 0.103 ± 0.03 μg CFAE/g tissue, and 0.071 ± 0.010 μg CFAE/g tissue in plasma, kidney, and muscle samples, respectively. On the 2nd day after treatment of ceftiofur, the concentrations of DCA in all tissues were lower than 0.05 μg CFAE/g tissue. According to our results, the concentrations of DCA on the 1st day after treatment with 2 mg/kg body weight were below 0.05 μg CFAE/g tissue equivalent in all tissues except for kidney. On the 2nd day after administration at the dose of 4 mg/kg body weight, no DCA was also detected in all of the tissues although DCA was detected in all samples on the 1st day.
To detect herds including cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), application of the combination of neutralizing antibody detection and virus isolation, so-called spot test, were performed on sera of 3 calves selected from each of 26 farms. Nine farms were judged as positive because 64 or more antibody titers were detected from 2 or more calves or BVDV was isolated from one or more calves. PI cattle were detected from 8 of the 9 farms. The positive judgment on one farm was obtained only when the indicator virus used on the neutralizing test was genotypically identical with the isolate from the farm. These results suggest that the spot test can be effective in detecting herds with PI cattle and that the accuracy may be influenced by the genotypes of the indicator viruses.