Distribution of apoptotic cells and expression of the apoptosis-related factors p53, bcl-2 and bad during morphogenesis of the murine palatine rugae (PR) were examined histochemically using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated UTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) technique and specific antibodies against apoptosis and cell cycle-related molecules. Formation of the PR rudiment was controlled by cell proliferation and apoptosis in the palatal epithelium. TUNEL-positive cells were detected only at the epithelial placode area at 12.5-13.5 days post coitus (dpc), but only a few cells were positive at the protruding PR area at 14.5-16.5 dpc. Bcl-2 protein was expressed mainly in the areas outside of those containing TUNEL-positive cells at 15.5 -6.5 dpc. P53 protein was not detected throughout gestation. Bad was detected in the epithelial layer at 13.5 and 15.5 dpc and overlapping the apoptotic area at 13.5-15.5 dpc. Apoptosis of palatal epithelial cells might therefore involve spatiotemporally regulated expression of bad during murine PR development.
The cone-beam type CT (Computed Tomography) enabled us to collect the three-dimensional (3D) digitalized data directly from the animal carcass. In this study, we applied the techniques of the cone-beam type CT for a carcass head of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) to obtain the 3D images easily without reconstruction process, and could morphologically examine the sections from the 3D data by means of non-destructive observations. The important results of the study represent the two following points. 1) We could show the morphological relationships between the muscles of mastication and the mandible in non-destructive status from the 3D data. The exact position of the coronoid process could be recognized in the rostro-lateral space of the temporal fossa. 2) By the serial sections from the 3D data sets, the morphological characteristics in the nasal cavity were detailed with high resolution in this rare species. The nasal concha was well-developed in the nasal cavity. The ethmoidal labyrinth was encountered immediately caudal to the nasal cavity and close to the region of the olfactory bulb. The ethmoidal labyrinth consisted of the complicated osseous structure in this area. The data will be useful to discuss the olfactory function in the reproduction behavior of this species.
The meq gene encoding a 339-amino-acid bZIP transactivator protein has been identified as a candidate oncogene of Marek's disease virus serotype 1 (MDV1), which induces malignant lymphomas in chickens. We have previously reported that, in addition to meq, L-meq, in which a 180-bp sequence is inserted into the region encoding the transactivation domain of meq, is also detected in chickens experimentally infected with MDV. To further analyze the diversity in meq, PCR was performed using a primer set which specifically amplify the proline-rich repeat (PRR) region in the transactivation domain of meq. In CVI988/R6, a vaccine strain of MDV1, and JM, an MDV1 strain attenuated by prolonged passage in vitro, a major band of a 0.8 kb corresponding to L-meq as well as a minor band of 0.6 kb corresponding to meq was detected by PCR. Furthermore, extra 0.5- and 0.3-kb bands, corresponding to genes termed as short meq (S-meq), and very short meq (VS-meq), respectively, were also detected. These genes were also detected in MDV-transformed cell lines, MSB1 and MTB1. In Md5, an oncogenic MDV1, attenuated by prolonged passage in vitro, the 0.6-kb meq was consistently detected, and 0.5-kb S-meq was occasionally detected. This diversity in meq was due to the difference in the copy number of the PRR region: L-meq and meq contained 9 and 6 copies of PRR while 4 and 2 copies of PRR were present in S-meq and VS-meq, respectively. Thus, the meq gene is polymorphic in the attenuated MDV1 and the MDV-transformed cell lines, and gene products from different meq genes may have different functions from each other.
An automatic counting method was developed for fish blood cells using a fluorescent dye, 3, 3-dihexyloxacarbocyanine (DiOC 6(3)), that selectively stain lipid bilayers in living cells. In the present study, the DiOC6(3) method was applied to quail (Cotumix cotumix japonica) blood cells. After quail blood cells were stained with DiOC6(3), absolute counts and relative proportions of erythrocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes plus thrombocytes in whole blood were obtained by means of flow cytometry (FC). The number of each cell types by the FC was in good agreement with those counted microscopically. This method will offer new possibilities for routine blood cell counting for avian medicine.
The intergenic spacer region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes of Mycoplasma haemomuris, previously classified as `Haemobartonellamuris', was amplified by PCR and sequenced for analysis of the primary and secondary structures of the RNA transcript. The spacer region consisted of 219 base-pairs and lacked the spacer tRNA gene. A hypothetical secondary structure predicted in the RNA transcript of the spacer region was tentatively assigned boxA and boxB loci peculiar to the members of the Mycoplasma. Mycoplasma haemomuris and the other species of the genus Mycoplasma are consistent with these characteristics of the spacer region.
Cats experimentally infected with a British isolate of Chlamydophila felis (C. felis), B166 strain, by droplet into the eye and nose developed conjunctivitis, mild rhinitis and fever. The chlamydophila were first isolated from conjunctiva, nictitating membrane and then from lung, tonsil, liver, spleen, kidney, nasal and vaginal swabs and blood. These results indicate that C. felis B166 strain first infected and replicated in the conjunctiva and nictitating membrane in cats with symptoms which were mostly limited to conjunctivitis, and then pervaded the whole body by bacteremia.
Fifty-three strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cows affected with mastitis from 21 prefectures in Japan were characterized by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Thirty-three (62.3%) strains showed biotype K-β+CV:A, coagulase type VI, and sensitivity to bovine phages of group III or IV. These 33 strains could be subdivided into two groups on the basis of the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) and on toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1). By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the 16 SEC- and TSST-1-producing strains showed similar patterns that differed by only a few fragments, suggesting that they were genetically closely related. Fifteen of 17 non SEC-producing strains which did not produce any other SEs and TSST-1 were genetically different from the SEC-producing strains and showed genetic diversity.
We determined the cDNA sequences of the type I interferon-inducible proteins, pig Mx1 from PK(15) and LLC-PK1 cells, and compared the antiviral activities of both Mx proteins, including Mx1 polymorphisms against vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Mx1 cDNA derived from PK(15) cells had an 11 bp-deletion in the 3' end of the coding region, and was estimated to encode 8 amino acid substitutions and a 23 amino acid extension compared to that from LLC-PK1 cells. VSV replication was inhibited in the 3T3 cells expressing Mx1 mRNA after the cDNA was transfected. However, the efficiency of this inhibition was not different between the cells expressing Mx1 mRNA from both PK and LLC. These results indicate that pig Mx1 protein confers resistance to VSV.
Bovine milk contains various immunoreactive components, and the activation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) function in breast-fed infants has been reported. In this study, the effect of milk on the oxidative burst of bovine PMNLs was investigated in vitro. When PMNLs were incubated with 0.1% colostrum or normal milk, the oxidative burst induced by serum-opsonized Staphylococcus aureus was enhanced, and the enhancement declined dose-dependently. The enhancement of the oxidative burst by milk was not due to opsonins but the priming activities. Also, the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced oxidative burst increased after incubation with 0.1% colostrum, but the colostral enhancement of the oxidative burst was unaffected by the incubation time. These results suggest that bovine milk contains oxidative burst promoting factor(s).
Changes in interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in serum, and their mRNA expression on neutrophils from a 4.6-month old Holstein young calf with bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) during the acute phase were evaluated. IL-1β concentrations in the serum of the calf with BLAD at age 143-162 days ranged from 8.7 to 16.6 ng/ml, whereas the values were less than 2.7 ng/ml in control calves. Serum IL-6 (0.04 ng/m l) was only detected on the 1st day when the animal was diagnosed with the BLAD. IL-1β and IL-8 mRNA expression on neutrophils from the affected calf appeared to be similar to those of controls. Serum cytokine levels and their mRNA expression on neutrophils from the calf with BLAD appeared to be little affected by the deficient expression of β2-integrin on leukocytes, and are considered to be modulated by the inflammatory stimuli.
A female stillborn Holstein calf with shortened cervical and thoracic regions, protrusion of the tongue, and bilateral symmetric flexural contraction of the anterior limbs was delivered on gestation day 281. Multiple hemivertebrae, fused and misshaped vertebrae, synostosis and scoliosis of cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebral column were found in the affected calf by radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) analysis. Ten pairs of ribs were present and the sternum consisted of 9 sternebrae. Multiple morphologic abnormalities including fusion, malformation, and displacement, were found in the ribs and sternum. Cardiac anomalies, including atrial septal defect and hypertrophy of right ventricle, were observed. DNA-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis demonstrated that amplified product from the liver DNA of the affected calf had identical pattern to that associated with complex vertebral malformation (CVM) of Holstein calves and that her dam was a heterozygous carrier of CVM. The affected calf was diagnosed as having CVM based on the DNA-PCR results and the characteristic findings, and was recorded as a first documentation of CVM confirmed in a Holstein calf in Japan.
A total of 187 dogs, 110 with clinical signs of otitis externa (OE), and 77 without history or clinical signs of OE, were examined microenvironment and microbiological analysis of their ear exudates made. The aural temperature and humidity of 160 dogs were measured. There were no significant differentce between healthy dogs and OE dogs. German shepherd showed relatively lower temperature (p<0.01) and higher humidity (p<0.01). The mean log10 number of microbial organisms of ears of OE dogs (4.16 ± 0.31 cfu/g) was significantly increased, compared to that from the ears of non-OE group (2.55 ± 0.24 cfu/g). Pseudomonas spp. and Proteus spp. were detected only from OE dogs. In addition, three enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from ear specimens.
The effect of 1.35% isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (ISB) administered intravenously on acid-base equilibrium was examined in 18 acidemic Japanese black beef calves with spontaneous diarrhea. The infusion volumes of ISB were decided based on the first half volumes of base needed. In 72.2% (13/18) of calves, improvement of acidemia was detected. There was good correlation (r=0.693, p<0.01) between infused volume of ISB and changes in base excess (y=1.097x + 4.762). Infusion volumes of ISB were 7.5, 10.2, 12.9 and 15.7 ml/kg, respectively, enough to correcting the first half of 5, 10, 15 and 20 mEq/l of base deficit in acidemic calves. Our finding suggested that ISB could be used to correct metabolic acidosis without altering electrolyte concentrations in calves.
A total of 713 strains of fecal Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from laboratory animals in the colonies of 4 research laboratories and 4 commercial breeders in Japan in 1994 were examined in regard to resistance to 8 antibacterial agents. The incidence of resistance to sulfadimethoxine (Su), streptomycin (Sm), ampicillin, cephaloridine, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, kanamycin, and gentamicin was 99.9%, 32.5%, 6.7%, 0.7%, 7.0%, 2.6%, 6.6% and 0.7%, respectively. These results indicated that Su and Sm resistance are penetrating into normal E. coli strains isolated from laboratory animals.
Prosthogonimus ovatus infection was detected in 5 of 130 chickens in the oviduct and 4 chickens in the bursa of Fabricius. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the spines of the P. ovatus were densely distributed on the cuticula of the entire dorsal surface of body, but on the ventral surface, they were densely present to the level of ventral sucker but gradually decreased in density posteriorly, and they could not be seen in the posterior 1/3 area. The spines were finger-shaped and denticulate at the tip. Histopathological examination showed that polypous elevations, degeneration and exfoliation of the mucosal epithelium were detected in the bursa of Fabricius possibly by the suction of flukes, in addition to the stratification of the mucosal epithelium, and interstitial cell infiltration.
Causes of bovine abortion were surveyed in Korea within a designated period from the cases submitted to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University. One hundred and eighty aborted fetuses and maternal sera were evaluated by necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology, virology, PCR, and serologic tests. The causes of abortion were identified in 108 (60%) cases, of which 38 (21.1%) were due to the infection with Neospora caninum. None of the 38 cases showed any co-infection with either virus or bacteria. Viral and bacterial causes were diagnosed in 28 (15.5%) and 13 (7.2%) aborted fetuses, respectively. Non-infectious causes such as multiple pregnancy, maternal weakness or torsion of umbilical cord were observed in 22 (12.3%) cases. Results of the present study suggest that N. caninum is believed to be the leading cause of bovine abortion in Korea. Thus, more attention should be paid to this emerging disease in Korea. However, the causes of many aborted fetuses remain undiagnosed in this study. Therefore, this enigma should be clarified through further studies such as chromosomal analysis.
Renal allograft transplantation was performed in four beagles. Immunosuppressive treatment using cyclosporine, mizoribin and prednisolone was continued from Day 5 pre- until Day 20 post-transplantation. Between Days 28 and 32 post-transplantation, an abrupt elevation of the serum creatinine values followed by the development of uremia was seen in all recipients. Histopathology of the allografts examined between Days 28 and 37 revealed edema, necrosis, hemorrhage and severe diffuse interstitial cellular infiltration as well as tubulitis. Glomerular changes notably included swelling of the tufts due to hypercellularity, which was consistent with transplant glomerulitis. The intrarenal arteries exhibited fibrinoid necrosis of the walls and intimal or transmural cellular infiltration. These renal lesions were consistent with those of acute vascular and interstitial rejection in humans.
A four-year-old male cat was presented with regurgitation. Thoracic radiography and contrast radiogram showed a large oval mass and elevated esophagus. Exploratory thoracotomy showed omental herniation into the posterior mediastium through the esophageal hiatus. Because the mass of the omental herniation was so large, celiotomy through a paracostal incision was combined in order to return the omentum to its normal position. The diameter of the esophageal hiatus was approximately 1 cm but no fibrous adhesion was observed around the hiatus. Continuous 1-0 surgical sutures on the hiatus reduced the diameter of the hiatus. The cat made a successful postoperative recovery without complications.
Dogs, cats, and pigs have a bicornuate uterus, and transuterine migration of embryos occurs in 40% or more of pregnant animals. However, the mechanism of the transuterine migration has not been elucidated in dogs. Thus, we investigated the occurrence of transuterine migration of embryos when embryos were retained in an unilateral uterine tube with more ovulated ova (Experiment 1), when one ovary was excised (Experiment 2), and when ova ovulated from the right and left ovaries were fertilized with sperm from male dogs with different blood types (Experiment 3). Transuterine migration of embryos was observed in 7/8 (87.5%), 10/10 (100%), and 11/17 (67.4%) fertilized animals in Experiments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In Experiment 3, intrauterine embryo mixing reported in pigs did not occur. These findings suggest that transuterine migration of embryos occurs due to the number of embryos that enter the uterus but that differences in the number of ovulated ova between the right and left ovaries or the number of embryos retained in the uterine tube do not affect the migration.
meq is one of the candidate oncogenes in the MDV1 genome. We previously reported a difference in the meq open reading frame (ORF) between oncogenic and non-oncogenic MDV1: L-meq, in which a 180-bp sequence is inserted into the meq ORF, is detected in non-oncogenic MDV1. To study the functions of a gene product of L-meq (L-MEQ), transactivation by L-MEQ was analyzed by dual luciferase assay using a reporter gene under the control of long (-1--873 bp) and short (-1--355 bp) meq promoter (LMP and SMP, respectively). LMP showed higher promoter function than SMP. L-MEQ transactivated the expression of the reporter gene, but less than MEQ did. In the presence of SMP or the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter, the same or slightly higher transactivation was observed in cells cotransfected with both meq and L-meq than cells transfected only with meq. However, in the presence of LMP, lower transactivation was observed in cells cotransfected with both meq and L-meq than cells transfected only with meq, suggesting that L-MEQ can be a transrepressor. Replication of a vvMDV1 was enhanced in the cells with meq. Interestingly, however, replication of vvMDV1 was suppressed in the cells with L-meq or with both L-meq and meq, compared to untransfected cells. Thus, L-MEQ could suppress replication of vvMDV1 displaying the meq gene in coinfetced cells.