The pancreata of four six-month-old dogs of the same mother, two with both the pancreatic and accessory pancreatic ducts (X-type) and two with only the accessory pancreatic duct (Y-type), were examined in this study. To clarify the relationships between the type of pancreatic duct system and the composition of pancreatic endocrine cells, the pancreata were examined immunohistochemically using antiserum against four types of pancreatic hormones (glucagon, insulin, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide). In all areas of the X- and Y-type duct system pancreata, B cells accounted for 52-82% of the total number of islet cells, and D cells accounted for 4-15%. In the X-type ducts system, the percentages of A and PP cells in the right and left lobes of the pancreas differed greatly. It was found that A and PP cells appear in inverse proportion to each other and that there exist A cell-rich and PP cell-rich pancreatic islets. The A cell-rich pancreatic islets appeared in the left lobes along the accessory pancreatic duct, while the PP cell-rich pancreatic islets were observed in the right lobes along the pancreatic duct. The body of the pancreas contained both A cell-rich and PP cell-rich pancreatic islets. In the Y-type duct systems, A cell-rich pancreatic islets appeared in the right lobes. These findings indicate that the composition of A and PP cells in pancreatic islets is closely related to the type of duct system.
To study how long-term testicular damage depends on the patency of the efferent ductules (EFDs), rat testes and epididymides were examined after a single exposure to carbendazim (methyl 2-benzimidazole carbamate; MBC). The number of patent EFDs was determined in sections of the caput epididymides at 8, 16, 32 and 70 days post-treatment, and the testes were grouped into the following categories: those with intact EFDs, those with partially patent EFDs, or those with totally occluded EFDs. In each testis, 100 seminiferous tubules were examined for the presence of abnormalities. The mean weight of testes with partially patent EFDs was significantly higher compared with the control, whereas that of testes with totally occluded EFDs was significantly lower. Histologically, most seminiferous tubules of the testes with intact EFDs were normal. The testes with partially patent EFDs contained normal, degenerative and atrophic seminiferous tubules at various frequencies depending on the number of patent EFDs, and it was evident that as the number of patent EFDs increased, the number of normal seminiferous tubules also increased at any interval. In these testes, the number of normal seminiferous tubules increased progressively as the post-treatment interval increased, irrespective of patency of the EFDs. In the testes with totally occluded EFDs, atrophic seminiferous tubules were the most numerous. These results indicate that whether or not the testis is able to survive the long-term deleterious effects of MBC depends largely EFD patency.
Regional distribution and relative frequency of endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the common tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) were studied immunohistochemically. Ten types of immunoreactive endocrine cells were localized in the gastric mucosa, i.e., chromogranin-, serotonin-, gastrin-, somatostatin-, bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP)-, enteroglucagon-, pancreatic glucagon-, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY)-, motilin-, and substance P (SP)-immunoreactive (IR) cells. In the intestine, 13 types of immunoreactive cells were observed, i.e., chromogranin-, serotonin-, somatostatin-, gastrin-, BPP-, enteroglucagon-, PYY-, secretin-, cholecystokinin (CCK)-, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)-, motilin-, neurotensin-, and SP-IR cells. The regional distribution and relative frequency of the cell types varied along the gastrointestinal tract. Basically, the types, distribution, and relative frequency of the gut endocrine cells were similar to those reported in other mammalian species. However, some characteristic findings were noted in the present study: (1) the considerably large number of gastrin-IR cells in the pyloric region; (2) numerous serotonin-IR cells in the stomach; (3) appreciable number of BPP-IR cells in the transitional region of the stomach; and (4) wide distribution of PYY- and motilin-IR cells in the gut.
ICR-derived strain with glomerulonephritis (ICGN) is a strain of mice with hereditary nephrotic syndrome with an unidentified cause. Based on histopathological and biochemical data, ICGN mice are considered to be a good experimental model for human idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. In the present study, we histochemically investigated the changes in localization of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Strong immunohistochemical staining of basal membrane ECM components (collagen IV and laminin) and interstitial ECM components (type III collagen and fibronectin) were demonstrated in glomeruli and tubulointerstitum of ICGN mice as compared with those of sex and age-matched ICR mice, used as normal healthy controls. Marked type I collagen and tenascin deposition, which were not detected in the glomeruli of ICR mice, were seen in the glomeruli of ICGN mice. A remarkable increase in active-TGF-β1 was also detected only in glomeruli of ICGN mice, but not in those of ICR mice. Furthermore, strikingly increased α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of activated glomerular mesangial cells, was demonstrated in the glomeruli, mainly in the mesangial cells, of ICGN mice. These findings indicated that ECM components are increased in the glomerulus and tubulointerstitum of ICGN mice, and that active-TGF-β1 induces such increases in ECM components. The present findings may contribute to elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms of hereditary nephrotic syndrome in ICGN mice and, in future, human idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.
High affinity folate binding protein (HFBP) in porcine serum was purified 2, 000-fold to a specific activity of 1.4 nmol of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF) bound per mg of protein, using folic acid (FA) coupled EAH-Sepharose gel affinity chromatography. Binding activity of purified HFBP to folate was examined by ultrafiltration method linked to high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection or to liquid scintillation counting. Binding affinity of HFBP to folate was characterized by dissociation constants (Kd): 13, 17, and 31 pM for tritiated FA (3HFA), THF, and N5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (5MF), respectively. FA, THF, and 5MF significantly inhibited binding of HFBP to 3HFA, and according to the magnitude of intensity of the binding inhibition, the order of affinity of each folate was confirmed to be FA > THF > 5MF. Binding activity was rather high and stable for THF and 5MF at pH ranging from 6.0 to 10.0. The binding activity, however, rapidly decreased at pH below 6.0 and over 10.0. No binding activity was observed pH below 3.0 and over 12. Gel filtration analysis showed that the prepared HFBP solution had specific binding activity at around 77 kDa of apparent molecular weight, which was 82 kDa by SDS-PAGE. It is considered that this specific and stable binding enables THF to distribute in porcine plasma.
Interleukin-12, Interferon-γ and Interleukin-4 mRNA levels in cells of the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of cats following primary and secondary infection with Toxoplasma gondii were examined by a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Expression of Interleukin-12p40 mRNA and Interferon-γ mRNA was observed after primary and secondary oral infection with Toxoplasma gondii. In contrast, no expression of IL-4 mRNA in the spleen and little expression in the mesenteric lymph nodes were observed after primary infection when the cats shed oocysts, however, the expression of IL-4 mRNA observed in the cats after secondary inoculation.
The effects of crude thymus extract on the immune response and protection against challenge with virulent infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were studied in one-day-old chick. Oral administration of thymus extract (1 ml/kg) markedly and significantly increased the total protein, albumin, globulin, Tri-iodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4) and the body weight gain in one-day-old chick. In addition, it increased the total lymphocytic count over four weeks after administration. Although vaccination also increased total protein, globulin, T4 and the total lymphocytic count but it significantly decreased the body weight gain of the chick and administration of thymus extract, before, during or after vaccination markedly improved the vaccination effectiveness with significant elevation of the globulin level and body weight gain of the chick. It also prevented the decrease in the relative weights of bursa, spleen and thyroid gland which commonly prevailed during vaccination. Chicken administered thymus extract and vaccinated with infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine showed 100 % protection against challenge with IBDV. Meanwhile the vaccinated non-thymus treated group exhibited 80% protection against IBDV challenge. These results indicate a potentiating effect of thymus extract on the immune system in baby chick. These findings are supported by ELISA results that showed a marked increase in antibody titers in thymus treated groups. Additionally, microscopical examination of the bursa and the existent lymphoid hyperplasia in thymus treated groups but not vaccinated group support our findings.
The cytotoxic effects of canine NK cells on CL-1 target cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). NK cell mediated cytotoxicity on CL-1 target cells was detected by 51Cr release assay. SEM showed that a canine NK cell extended projections to the CL-1 target cell. Furthermore, the surface of CL-1 target cells changed a mesh-like structure. Therefore, the cytotoxic effects of canine NK cells on CL-1 target cells were morphologically demonstrated.
Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze β2-microglobulin and albumin in bovine urine. The urine samples were chromatographed on TSK-gel ODS-120T column with an acetonitrile gradient. Urinary β2-m and albumin were detected at 220 nm. For the pre-treatment, there were two steps proceeding injection: dialysis of urine with distilled water overnight, followed by concentration by solid-phase extraction method using a Sep-Pak cartridge. The retention times of β2-microglobulin and albumin were 25.35 ± 0.85 and 32.20 ± 0.20 minutes (n=5), respectively. The mean analytical recoveries of β2-microglobulin and albumin added to 0.1 ml of urine samples were 94.5 and 100.5%, respectively. The within-run coefficients of variation ranged from 1.5 to 5.3% for β2-microglobulin and from 2.3 to 7.0% for albumin. The sensitivity for quantification of each protein was 0.5 μg in 100 μl injected urine samples. Urine samples from healthy cows and from cows with different types of proteinuria were analyzed by this reversed-phase HPLC. Results revealed albumin was remarkable in the urine from a cow with glomerulonephritis, and β2-microglobulin was, in the urine from a cow with tubular dysfunction.
Tail blood flow (TBF) in the rat markedly increases during sympathetic withdrawal such as hyperthermia or lumbar sympathetic blockade. However, a long-term alteration of TBF after chronic sympathetic denervation is not well understood. In the present study, TBF following lumbar sympathectomy (LSX) was observed to ascertain whether subsequent changes in TBF occur in the absence of the sympathetic nervous activity in the rat tail. Assessed by recording tail and rectal temperature, the LSX immediately caused an increase in TBF. TBF was gradually decreased along with time and returned to the sham operated (SO) control level within 4 days. About a week after the surgery, a rapid increase in TBF in response to whole body heating was almost abolished in denervated animals. Neither hexamethonium (20 mg/kg, i.v.) for ganglion blockade nor intra-arterial infusion of α-receptor antagonist, phentolamine (10, 100 μg) produced vasodilation in LSX animals. Nitroprusside, a donor of nitric oxide, produced an increase in TBF in both LSX and SO animals. These results indicate that the tail vasculature after LSX constricts with capability to be vasodilated independent of sympathetic reinnervation. Quantification of the tail vascular mRNA expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction showed less endothelial nitric oxide synthetase in LSX group than that in SO group whereas endothelin-1 was not significantly different in both groups. It is suggested that functional changes in tail vascular endothelium takes at least a part in the reduction in TBF after LSX.
The dissection of polygenic traits is made possible with the development of microsatellite markers. Linkage study of this kind involves many markers with tens of hundreds of samples. Although typing essentially contains only two steps: PCR amplification and gel electrophoresis. Such work is still heavy when a large number of samples had to be genotyped. Multiplex PCR may reduce the work, but one has to optimize the conditions from marker to marker. Here we describe a dye-compatible multiplex PCR that works under standardized condition without the need to pre-determine the combinational primer concentration and the time-consuming step to mix many samples with gel loading dye before electrophoresis. This successful protocol should greatly reduce the cost and labor for genetic study of polygenic traits
We identified and determined the nucleotide sequence of Marek’s disease virus serotype 2 (MDV2) UL25, UL26 and UL26.5 homologous genes of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). The UL25, UL26 and UL26.5 genes of HSV-1 encode virion proteins (UL25 and UL26.5) and serine protease (UL26). The deduced amino acid sequences of the three proteins show a high degree of homology to counterparts of HSV-1. By northern blot analyses we found that four transcripts whose sizes are 4.9, 3.9, 2.0 and 1.3 kb are transcribed from the domains of MDV2 genome containing the three genes. This is the first report dealing with UL25, UL26 and UL26.5 homologues of HSV-1 in MDV serotypes.
Histological and immunohistochemical studies were carried out on the pancreas of twelve cattle of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). They showed clinical signs such as persistent hyperglycemia, glycosuria and decreased glucose tolerance, and some cases accompanied with or without ketonuria. Histopathologically, eight cattle were diagnosed as chronic IDDM, while others were acute IDDM. The most characteristic lesions of the pancreas in chronic IDDM showed a decrease in the size and number of pancreatic islets, interlobular and interacinar fibrosis, mild lymphocytic insulitis, and vacuolation of a few islets. Almost all cells in the atrophied islets had a small amount of ungranulated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the atrophied islet cells did not react to anti-insulin antibody, but occasionally reacted to anti-glucagon or somatostatin antibodies. A few solitary islets with mild lymphocytic infiltration, necrotic islets with occasional calcification, and atrophied islets with mild fibrosis were also observed. A few islets consisted of many islet cells with vacuolated cytoplasm including a small number of insulin-positive granules. Accumulation of glycogen granules was occasionally observed in these islets. Islet fibrosis was due to the proliferation of collagen fibers reactive to both anti-collagen type I and type III antibodies. In acute IDDM, the major islets consisted of the cells with vacuolated cytoplasm indicating the degranulation of islet cells. These islets contained many islet cells with shrunken cytoplasm and karyorrhectic nuclei. Lymphocytic infiltration was frequently observed in the islets which consisted of many islet cells having karyorrhectic nuclei and vacuolated and severely degranulated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, islet cells with vacuolated cytoplasm had a small amount of insulin-positive granules, suggesting severe degranulation of β-cells. An increase in acinar islet-cells and proliferation of ductal epithelial cells showing insulin-immunoreactivity were observed. Bovine IgG-immunoreactive islet cells were frequently seen in the vacuolated islets. In summary, pathological observations suggested that β-cells were being destroyed by an inflammatory process which selectively affected the pancreatic islets. Lymphocytic insulitis and anti-bovine immunoreactive islet cells were thought to be the most significant changes in determining the etiology and pathogenesis of bovine IDDM, and suggested their role in anti- islet autoimmunity in this form of diabetes
Previously we reported that tissue destruction characterized by the presence of karyopyknotic, karyorrhectic and mitotically arrested cells was seen in alimentary epithelial cells and lymphocytes in the lymphoid and hemopoietic systems of cattle experimentally administered with autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale L.). This report deals with the mechanism of acute cellular injury following experimental autumn crocus poisoning in cattle as demonstrated by the in situ DNA strand break analysis and electron microscopy. The analyses revealed that cellular injury caused by autumn crocus was closely associated with apoptosis.
Multicystic renal dysplasia was found in a 6-day-old Japanese black bull. Grossly, both kidneys were markedly small (2.0 × 3.5 cm) with numerous cysts ranging from 1 to 8 mm in diameter. Histopathologically, both kidneys consisted of many irregularly enlarged cysts, immature glomeruli, small ducts and anomalous stromal connective tissues containing focal persistent mesenchyme characterized by a proliferation of stellate cells with myxomatous area. These features are compatible with those of multicystic renal dysplasia in humans and other mammals.
A neuroendocrine carcinoma originating in the thymus was found in a 7-month-old, castrated male, Japanese Black calf. The neoplasm consisted largely of very primitive cells, characterized by the paucity of cytoplasmic organelles, but a few cells were immunoreactive for somatostatin or neurofilaments. The expression of both cytokeratin and neurofilament protein was a feature of neuroendocrine differentiation. This neoplasm considered to be a tumor of a thymic stem cell, with little but indubitable evidence of differentiation into somatostatin-producing cells.
The present trial examined the possibility that diazepam (DZP, 1 mg/kg) induces hyperphagia by acting on the dopaminergic system. Quinpirole (QP), dopamine D-2 receptor agonist, was used for this purpose. Mice fasted for 24 hr were treated with QP 1 (QP-1) or 2 (QP-2) mg/kg 30 min prior to termination of the starvation. DZP was given to untreated mice and half of the QP-1 and QP-2 treated mice 10 min before the termination of the starvation. Food consumed during six 30 min intervals (30 min-feeding), food consumed for 3 hr (total feeding), time required to enter the room containing food by passing through a maze with four multiple routes (time to banquet), latent period to commencement of eating food after entering the banquet room (latent period), and feeding frequency for the 30 min intervals as well as for 3 hr were measured. DZP stimulated feeding, shortened the latent period without affecting the time to banquet and increased the feeding frequency. The hyperphagic effect was restricted to the first 30 min interval only. Both QP-1 and QP-2 first reduced, then progressively stimulated, and finally reduced feeding without modifying total feeding, thus making a bell-shaped profile. They also prolonged both the time to banquet and the latent period, and reduced the feeding frequency of the first 30 min interval but not that for 3 hr. Both QP-1 and QP-2 canceled all the effects of DZP. These results imply that dopamine D2 receptor is involved in the induction of hyperphagia by DZP.
Responses of nasal receptors to capsaicin and water were studied from afferent recordings of the posterior nasal nerve (PNN) in 12 anesthetized dogs. Out of 12 non-respiration-modulated nasal receptors, 7 responded only to capsaicin, 3 responded to both water and capsaicin, and 2 to neither of them. All the fibers showed a rapid adaptation to mechanical probing of the nasal mucosa. These results indicate that the presence of sensory receptors responding to capsaicin and water are involved in PNN afferents of the dog.
Transcription of Borna disease virus (BDV) in persistently infected MDCK (MDCK/BDV) cells increased in the fetal bovine serum free media as detected by Northern blot analysis. Especially, the amount of 1.9-kb RNA without cap formation at the 5' end and polyadenylation at the 3' end, increased as compared to other mRNA molecules of BDV. Growth arrest of MDCK/BDV cells observed in the condition of serum starvation might be important for increasing viral transcription. Since N-cadherin is the responsible factor for cell-to-cell contact, MDCK/BDV cells were cultured in calcium free medium which inhibits the interaction of N-cadherin. However, inhibition of cell-to-cell contact by N-cadherin is not effective on up regulation of viral transcription. Our finding in this study indicates that enhancement of BDV transcription by serum starvation is a useful technique for further investigation in understanding of mechanisms of BDV transcription.
Twenty epidemiologically unrelated Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from different animals, locations and on different dates in Japan were classified into 18 types by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique with four primers. Further, seven epidemiologically related L. monocytogenes strains isolated from raw milk and a bulk tank on a dairy farm represented the same RAPD type suggesting that they were all of the same origin. Therefore, RAPD-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, which is rapid, simple and inexpensive to perform, can be used in surveys as a convenient epidemiological technique.
Experimental studies on the bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with low concentration trichloroethylene (TCE) and cis1, 2-dichloroethylene (DCE) were performed with two sets of bioreactors. Reactors No. 1 and No. 2 were operated without and with methane supplement, respectively. No inoculum was used. The concentrations of TCE and DCE in the effluent and the off gas from reactor No. 2 were much lower than those from reactor No. 1. When air and an H2O2 solution were supplied to reactor No. 2, concentrations of TCE and DCE in the effluent and the off gas were lower than the lowest detectable limit. The population of methane-utilizing bacteria in reactor No. 2 was 1, 000 times higher than that in groundwater or in the effluent from reactor No. 1. These methane-utilizing bacteria were apparently attributable to the treatment of TCE.
An experiment using 16 Beagle bitches (aged 11 months to 6 years and 2 months) in their 56th to 58th day of pregnancy was carried out to investigate the effects of two injections of a low dose of fenprostalene, a long-acting prostaglandin F2α analogue, and pretreatment with prifinium bromide, a parasympathetic nerve blocking agent, on the induction of parturition and severity of side effects. The bitches were divided into three treatment groups: one injection of 5 μg/kg of fenprostalene (group I, n=5); one injection of 7.5 mg/head of prifinium bromide followed by one injection of 5 μg/kg of fenprostalene at 5 min after prifinium bromide injection (group II, n=6); and one injection of 7.5 mg/head of prifinium bromide followed by two injections of 2.5 μg/kg of fenprostalene, one injection at 5 min after prifinium bromide injection and the next at 1 hr after the fenprostalene first injection (group III, n=5). Following the injection of fenprostalene, side effects such as salivation, vomiting, colic symptoms, and watery diarrhea occurred most frequently (80-100% of cases) in group I bitches. Apart from colic symptoms, no side effects were observed in group III bitches. Group III bitches also showed the smallest increase in plasma cortisol concentration. No significant difference in the time to initiation of parturition was found between the three groups. The one-week survival rate of newborn puppies was highest in group III. The results showed that pretreatment with prifinium bromide and two injections of 2.5 μg/kg of fenprostalene can alleviate side effects following fenprostalene administration and have no adverse effect on the survival of newborn puppies, indicating that this method is a reliable and safe way of inducing parturition in bitches.
Fluorescence expression by bovine embryos was examined after pronuclear microinjection with an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) cDNA under control of the chicken beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer, as a first step in evaluating the applicability of EGFP for non-invasive selection of transgenic bovine embryos. After injection, developmental competence of the embryos was reduced, and light was emitted in 11.9% of them (37/310) under a fluorescence microscope. Although 2.9% of the injected embryos developed to the fluorescent blastocysts (9/310), a majority of the fluorescent embryos showed mosaic expression including the negative blastomeres (26/37, 70.3%). These results suggest the feasibility of EGFP for in vitro selection of transgenic bovine embryos by fluorescence microscopy. However, the impaired development and high frequency of mosaicism were observed in these injected embryos.
Ten strains, eight field and two reference laboratory strains, of canine coronavirus (CCV) were comparatively examined with respect to antigenic relationships and pathogenic potential in dogs. With monoclonal antibodies and hyperimmune antisera to feline coronavirus and CCV, respectively, varying degrees of antigenic diversities were found among the strains by neutralization and immunofluorescence assays, but it was felt that they belong to one serotype. Specific-pathogen-free puppies experimentally inoculated with some CCV strains manifested clinical symptoms, but there was a difference in their virulence. In order to elucidate the prevalence of CCV infections in dogs in Japan, we tested for neutralizing antibodies to CCV in 467 field dogs, and found a prevalence of 44.1%. Moreover, by using nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on rectal swabs of 100 diarrheic dogs recently presented in veterinary clinics, evidence of CCV in 16% of these specimens was found. The results suggested that CCV infection is more widespread than expected in dogs, and that CCV is a significant etiologic factor in canine diarrhea also in Japan.
A disease characterized by papules, nodules, vesicles and, rarely, pustules and ulcers on teats was seen among cattle on a farm in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. A virus was isolated by inoculation of fetal bovine lung cell cultures from a vesicle on a teat of an infected cow. The virus was subsequently passaged in fetal bovine lung and muscle cells in which it produced complete cytopathic changes. The virus was identified by physicochemical examinations and electromicroscopic observation as a parapoxvirus. A seroepidemiological survey was performed on antibody to the isolated virus by the agar gel immunodiffusion test. The isolated virus formed a precipitation line which cross reacted with other parapoxviruses isolated previously in Japan. The positive rate was more than 50% among cattle in the Kanto district. The positive rate increased with age. It was suggested that parapoxvirus infection might have already been prevalent among cattle in Japan.
Two pairs of PCR primers were designed to perform nested PCR targetting of a 540 bp fragment of the nucleocapsid (N) protein gene (N gene) of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). The N gene of PEDV was amplified with 4 PEDV strains and 11 small intestines of PEDV-infected piglets collected from 2 farms in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. Nucleotide sequences of the PCR products from a Korean and two Japanese strains (KKN96-1 and S1) of PEDV isolated in 1993 and 1996, respectively, were almost identical. These results suggest that the PCR is an available tool for detection of PEDV from pigs in the field, and that the two Japanese strains (KKN96-1 and S1) were genetically similar to the Korean strain.