To investigate the role of growth factors (epidermal growth factor [EGF], betacellulin, and activin A) in the development of islet B cells of rat fetal pancreatic explants in vitro, pancreases from rat fetuses at day 18 of gestation were cultured for 96 hr, with or without these growth factors. Culture medium was changed every 24 hr, and the level of insulin released in the culture medium was measured. After 72 hr of culture, pancreases were examined histologically. As a result, EGF promoted cell proliferation, but reduced B cell volume. Whereas, betacellulin and activin A inhibited cell division, but promoted increased B cell volume and insulin secretion, especially activin A, which stimulated insulin release in a time dependent manner. These results suggest that EGF, betacellulin, and activin A promote pancreatic cell proliferation, islet B-cell differentiation, and islet B-cell differentiation and functional maturation, respectively, and that EGF, betacellulin, and activin A, in this order, regulate islet B-cell neogenesis.
From 2002 to 2005, we collected 118 serum samples from 34 species belonging to 13 families of zoo animals in Korea and determined the prevalence of antibodies for 18 serovars of Leptospira spp. using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Twenty-nine (25%) of the serum samples tested were positive for one or more of the serovars. There were no significant differences in relation to genders: 23% and 26% of positives occurring in male and female animals, respectively (P>0.05). However, the seroprevalence for the Leptospira spp. was significantly higher (P<0.05) in herbivores (45%) than in either carnivores (17%) or omnivores (17%). Among the 5 serovars detected in this study, the most common was sejroe (n=27; 87% of all positive reactions). All positive reactions showed low titers (≤1:200) and the positives were most frequently detected in 1:25 (58%) and 1:50 (23%) serum dilutions. The highest antibody titer (1:200) was observed for the serovars sejroe (n=1) and bratislava (n=1). We conclude that the exposure of zoo animals to Leptospira spp. is relatively common in Korea and produces low MAT titers, with sejroe being the most commonly encountered serovar.
A bioassay was developed to measure feline interleukin-5 (IL-5). Human IL-5 receptor α chain transfected murine Ba/F3 cells (Ba/F3-IL-5R) showed feline IL-5-dependent proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. IL-5 levels in serum samples from 54 cats with suspected allergic dermatitis and from 11 control cats could be successfully measured using Ba/F3-IL-5R cells. The number of eosinophils in peripheral blood was not correlated with serum IL-5 level.
In the present study, the concentrations of serum amyloid A and surfactant protein D in sera were measured to evaluate them for identification of the clinical condition of horses with bacterial pneumonia. The study utilized 185 clinically healthy control thoroughbreds and 9 thoroughbreds for experimental infectious study with S. zooepidemicus. Blood samples were collected from the 185 healthy control thoroughbreds. The 9 thoroughbreds were experimentally infected S. zooepidemicus using an endoscopic injection to a lung lobe and were then observed of clinical conditions. Blood samples were collected before inoculation and on the 1-15th, 22nd, and 29th days after inoculation (follow-up group). The levels of SAA and SP-D in the healthy control thoroughbreds were very low. In the follow-up group, the levels of SAA and SP-D changed in parallel with the horses' clinical condition. The pyrexia observed after bacterial inoculation faded by the 11th day, and the changes in SAA and SP-D occurred simultaneous to disappearance of the clinical signs. Measurement of SAA and SP-D proved useful for monitoring the clinical condition of the horses with bacterial pneumonia. Changes in the SP-D value were preceded by changes in the SAA value. Since the changes in SP-D occurred approximately simultaneous to the changes in the horses' clinical signs, we believe that they reflect the condition of the alveolar membranes. We conclude that measurement of SAA and SP-D in sera is useful for identification of the clinical condition of horses with bacterial pneumonia.
IgE-reactive beef components were examined by an immunoblot analysis using a serum from a dog with food hypersensitivity against beef. The immunoblot analysis revealed a distinct band at approximately 66 kDa and a faint band at approximately 50 kDa. The immunoblot analysis for serum IgE reactivity to bovine serum albumin (BSA) also revealed a positive band at 66 kDa. Serum IgE reactivity to the 66-kDa protein of beef was diminished by pre-incubating the serum sample with BSA. Furthermore, a positive reaction to BSA was detected in intradermal testing in the dog. These results clearly indicated that BSA was an IgE-reactive beef component in the dog with food hypersensitivity against beef.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamics of the anesthetic isoflurane in healthy cats given angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI). The 7 healthy young cats and 3 old cats were received placebo or enalapril 0.5 mg/kg orally. The change in systolic arterial pressure from the baseline to 30 min postanesthesia in the ACEI group was significantly higher than in the placebo group (mean ± SD: -39 ± 13% vs. -17 ± 12%, respectively). The present study indicated that general anesthesia may induce hypotension after the administration of an ACEI.
The effect of low reactive-level laser therapy (LLLT) with a He-Ne laser on operative wound healing was investigated in a rat model. 10-millimeter surgical wounds were created on the backs of Sprague Dawley rats, and animals were assigned to one of eleven groups (n=5). Ten groups received either 8.5 mW or 17.0 mW irradiation of 15 seconds LLLT a day with one of five different irradiation frequencies, i.e. daily (from the 1st to 6th day following surgery), every other day (the 1st, 3rd, and 5th day), on only the 1st day, on only the 3rd day, and on only the 5th day; the 1st day was the day following the surgery. The control group received no irradiation. A skin specimen was harvested from the dorsal thoracic region on the 7th day to measure the rupture strength. The control group had the lowest rupture strength (5.01 N), and the 17.0 mW every other day irradiation group had the highest rupture strength (13.01 N). Statistical differences were demonstrated in the 8.5 mW irradiation setting between the every other day irradiation group and the control group (p<0.05); and in 17.0 mW irradiation setting between the every day irradiation, the every other day, and the 1st day only groups vs. the control group (p<0.01). Histological examination demonstrated that wound healing in the 17.0 mW every other day irradiation group was promoted most significantly such as the prevention of excessive inflammation, increased formation of collagen fibers, and recovery in continuity of tissues. The control group showed poor wound healing and the other experimental groups showed intermediate healing. Thus LLLT with a He-Ne laser was found to promote the healing of operative wounds in the present rat model, in which the most favorable application of LLLT was the 17.0 mW setting of 15 seconds a day with a frequency of every other day.
Assessment of spleen size using the ultrasonography has become a standard practice in human. However, the assessment is not established method in experimental animals. To establish the index to assess the spleen size using ultrasonography, we measured the cross-section image of rabbit spleen during endotoxin shock. The image of the cross-section was appeared as triangle, and the height of the triangular image was defined as the spleen index. This spleen index showed strong correlation with the spleen weight. In conclusion, this method is suitable for observation of changes in rabbit spleen size and may reduce the number of rabbit in the longitudinal studies.
Pyelonephritis, in which Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated, was diagnosed in a 4-year-old female Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). At necropsy, the renal pelvis was dilated with a large amount of purulent exudates. Microscopically, the lesions of renal pelvis and medulla consisted of necrotic foci intermingled primarily with numerous degenerative neutrophils and a few lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. Bacteriology showed the presence of S. intermedius. This is the first report on pyelonephritis associated with S. intermedius in wild felidae.
A solitary mass of 6 × 6 × 5 cm was found in the smooth muscle layer of the pyloric part in the stomach of a Shetland sheepdog. The excised mass was solid, gray-white in color, and had central necrosis with hemorrhages. Microscopically, the neoplasm was composed of irregular bundles of spindle-shaped tumor cells and round tumor cells. A few multinucleated cells and gangliocyte-like cells were observed. The nuclei exhibited a high degree of atypia and many cells contained mitotic figures. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were positive for vimentin and desmin, but negative for c-kit antibody. Ultrastructurally, tumor cells contained cytoplasmic myofilaments and pinocytotic vesicles. Based on these pathological findings, the tumor was diagnosed as gastric pleomorphic leiomyosarcoma.
One hundred twenty Salmonella Enteritidis isolates collected from1992 to 2005 in Nagasaki prefecture (65 isolates from 40 outbreak cases, 44 from sporadic diarrhea patients, and 11 from chicken-related products) were investigated by their antibiotic susceptibility profiles, phage typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) typing. Out of them, 18 were identified as lysine decarboxylase (LDC)-negative isolates, and 15 showed resistance toward streptomycin. Based on the PFGE typing, the isolates were classified into five clusters by UPGMA clustering method. Three LDC-negative isolates belonged to cluster A and were of phage type (PT) 4 and isolated between 2000 and 2004. Other 15 LDC-negative isolates belonged to cluster E. They were PT1, reacted but did not conform (RDNC), or untypable and were isolated between 2001 and 2004. LDC-negative isolates of the cluster A differed from LDC-negative isolates of the cluster E in antibiotic susceptibility profiles, phage typing, and PFGE typing. LDC-negative isolates of the cluster E were isolated after 2001 in Nagasaki prefecture.
In Nepal, mycobacterial isolates obtained from the milk and feces of buffaloes and cattle that were positive for the single intradermal cervical tuberculin (SICT) tests were genetically identified. A total of 36 mycobacterial strains were isolated from 39% of the buffaloes (14 of 36) and 34% of the cattle (11 of 32). Of the 36 strains, 13 were identified as M. bovis, and these strains were isolated from 17% of the buffaloes (6 of 36) and 16% of the cattle (5 of 32). M. bovis was isolated from both the milk and feces of one buffalo and one cattle, the milk alone of three buffaloes and three cattle, and the feces alone of two buffaloes and one cattle. These results suggest that milking buffaloes and cattle infected with M. bovis exist in Nepal. The remaining 23 strains were atypical mycobacteria. A program for the elimination of bovine tuberculosis should be implemented as soon as possible, and the public health education and proper hygienic practices may be required.
This is the first report regarding isolation of Campylobacter in caecum and bile samples obtained from ruminants in Vientiane, Lao PDR. Campylobacter was isolated from 3 (1.6%) of the 184 caecum samples and 1 (1.0%) of the 100 bile samples obtained from buffaloes. Three of the 4 isolates were determined to be C. jejuni, which was detected in 2 caecum samples and 1 bile sample; the other caecum sample contained C. fetus. Campylobacter was not isolated from any of the 82 cattle caecum samples. Our results suggest that cattle and buffaloes may not be important sources of Campylobacter food poisoning in Lao PDR.
Porcine bioprosthetic valves cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and polyepoxy compound were newly developed for mitral valve replacement (MVR) in dogs. Five beagle dogs were performed a left thoracotomy and underwent MVR using the porcine bioprosthetic valves during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A vein catheter inserted into right atrium and a vent catheter inserted into the right ventricle to drain. The hemodynamic conditions of CPB were excellent during surgery. The left atrial pressure was measured before and after MVR; there was no significant difference and it was normal. Thrombosis and the prosthetic valve regurgitation were not observed one week after MVR. Pressure half time (PHT) prolonged significantly (P<0.05) from 31.40 ± 4.0 msec presurgery to 99.20 ± 19.4 msec at seven days after MVR, although it indicated the normal range as the bioprosthetic valve. The symptom of the prosthetic valve failure was not observed. This study indicated that the MVR using porcine bioprosthetic valves under CPB might have been effective in dogs as a short-term evaluation.
Protein expression and subcellular localization of E-cadherin, α-catenin, and β-catenin in 8 feline mammary tumor cell lines were examined by western blot analysis and fluorescence immunocytochemistry. A low E-cadherin expression was observed in FNN-m cells. Furthermore, compared to other cell lines, two E-cadherin bands existed in FMC-p1 cells and were localized in the perinuclear region; distinct radial lines were observed in the cytoplasm. A low α-catenin expression was observed in FON-m cells, but there were no apparent abnormalities in its localization. In contrast, similar levels of β-catenin expression and cytoplasmic localization were observed in all cell lines.
To clarify the contribution of autologous transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), an atelocollagen gel containing or not containing fluorescently-labeled canine MSCs was transplanted into an osteochondral defect which did not repair spontaneously and the histological repair of the defect was compared. Although an early repair of the cartilage was not observed in either defect, the reproduction of subchondral bone was remarkable in the MSCs-implanted defect. Moreover, in 2 weeks after operation, the implanted MSCs were located in the deeper regions of the defect, suggesting the differentiation of osteoblasts. There was a possibility that the movement of the implanted MSCs was due to an increase in intra-articular pressure from postoperative inflammation.
Surgical outcome and complications following evisceration and implantation of intraocular silicone prosthesis (ISP) in 20 canine eyes with end-stage glaucoma were analyzed, including clinical signs, complications, cosmetic appearance, and owners' responses. The mean postoperative follow-up time was 312 days. Major short-term surgical complications were central corneal ulceration (6/20) and infections (3/20), while long-term complication was keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) (2/20). All patient owners (100%) showed satisfied with the surgical outcome and postoperative cosmetic effect including 85% of the owners gave an excellent or good rating of satisfaction. No more medication needed for long term control except the KCS cases. With careful case selection and post-operative care, evisceration with ISP implantation proves a good and safe surgical procedure with minimal complications for end stage glaucoma.
We performed a retrospective study of 56 dogs with Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) to evaluate the indications for and efficacy of transarterial PDA coil embolization. Transarterial PDA coil embolization was conducted in 37 cases (66.1%) and surgical ligation was conducted in 16 cases (28.6%). Three cases (5.4%) were diagnosed as pulmonary hypertension and were excluded from surgical intervention. Although coil dislodgement was observed in the pulmonary artery in one case, no death occurred during coil embolization or surgical ligation. Echocardiography showed that fractional shortening decreased from 35.4 ± 6.8% to 30.2 ± 5.9% (P<0.05) after transarterial PDA coil embolization. Although slight residual shunts were observed in 18 cases, transarterial PDA coil embolization was effective treatment of PDA.
A total of 384 Thoroughbred mares were investigated to determine and evaluate the features of early embryonic death at nine equine farms on Jeju Island, South Korea, from 2001 to 2003. Overall, 771 matings for 384 mares resulted in 376 pregnancies 15 days after ovulation. Subsequently, 12.2% (46/376) of these early conceptuses were lost within 45 days after ovulation. Furthermore, about three quarters of the 46 embryonic deaths occurred between 16 and 25 days after ovulation. The incidence of embryonic death was highest in the barren (17.2%), more than 15 years old (15.4%), and more than 10 parities (18.2%) groups compared with the other groups (9.1-16.9%). Mares mated in March, April, and during the first estrus postpartum had higher embryonic death rates, (19.6%, 17.2%, and 24.6%, respectively). Mares with abnormal fluid and cysts in the uterus (18.0%) or multiple embryonic vesicles (23.1%) had higher embryonic death rates than those with normal uterine conditions (9.8%) or single embryonic vesicles (10.5%). The condition of mares, such as breeding condition and the environment of the embryo or fetus, are the major factors in relation to occurrence of early embryonic death.