Since the International Society of Veterinary Acupuncture (IVAS) was founded in 1974, acupuncture (AP) has received greater acceptance by veterinary professionals throughout the world. This article introduces some important animal diseases that respond well to AP therapy. These include resuscitation of small animals, treatment of anoestrous gilts and sows, bovine reproductive disease, canine vertebral problems and equine backpain, etc. Conventional medicine considers these to be difficult cases to treat. Veterinarians have become more aware of the benefits of AP especially for those diseases, thanks to the efforts of experienced practitioners and scientists, and the many published reports on veterinary AP that have introduced some good indications for AP therapy in veterinary practice. Possible mechanisms behind the effectiveness of AP are discussed. This article aims to introduce veterinarians to good indications for AP to initiate their interest in the practice of AP. Although this is a rapidly expanding field, a long march must begin with one step. We wish this article to be the shoes for such a march. For more information on veterinary AP, contact IVAS <firstname.lastname@example.org>, P.O. Box 1478, Longmont, CO., 80502, USA (http://www.ivas.org), or your national veterinary acupuncture society (http://www.komvet.at/ivadkom/vapsocs.htm).
Immunological protection of hosts against tick infestation is at present the most practically sustainable alternative tick control method to the current use of acaricides that is riddled with serious limitations. The current focus of tick vaccine research is the identification, cloning and in vitro production of recombinant tick vaccine candidate antigens. We have examined a selected number of reports on the roles of parasite-encoded members of the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) superfamily in modulation of mammalian anti-parasite defense and developed some food for thought commentaries on the possibility of targeting this class of proteins for anti-tick vaccine development.
In a male Korean native calf 14 days of age, polymelia (notomelia) was observed macroscopically and radiographically. External features included two normal forelimbs, two normal hindlimbs and two undeveloped extra forelimbs. The extra forelimbs were attached to the caudal regions of the right scapula and devoid of muscular tissues. In the extra forelimbs, a scapula-like bone formed a joint with the incompletely duplicated humerus. The humerus fused with the incompletely duplicated radius. The ulna, carpal bones, metacarpal bones and phalanges were completely duplicated. But one set of the duplicated carpal bones consisted of five bones: radial, accessory, fourth carpal, fused second and third carpal, and fused ulnar and intermediate carpal bones. The hoof and the rudimentary hoof of accessory digit were duplicated.
Facilitated diffusion of glucose across the plasma membrane is mediated by a family of glucose transporter (GLUT). GLUT1 is ubiquitously present in all tissues and involved in cellular glucose uptake, while GLUT4 plays a key role in cellular glucose uptake stimulated by insulin in skeletal muscles and adipose tissue. To examine the postnatal change in the GLUTs of ruminants, the protein levels of GLUT1 and GLUT4 were measured by Western blot analysis of skeletal muscles, adipose tissue and brain of Holstein male calves aged from 0 to 12 months. Analysis of rumen short chain volatile fatty acids revealed that rumen fermentation increased around 2-3 months old. The GLUT1 level did not change in all tissues examined during the postnatal period, while the GLUT4 levels in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue decreased gradually, and at 12 month old, it was about 40% of those seen at 0 month old. These results are contrast to those in non-ruminant species, in which GLUT4 increases during postnatal development, and may be related to the insulin-resistance seen in adult ruminants.
Mammary tumors are the most common neoplasm in female dogs, Canis canis, and in women. Mutations in human Brca2 confer an increased risk of female breast cancer. Previous studies have shown that the Brca2 tumor suppressor protein interacts with the recombinational repair protein Rad51. We cloned the full-length cDNA of the canine homologues of Brca2 and Rad51 to obtain a basis for studying their relationship with susceptibility to mammary tumors. The canine Brca2 and Rad51 cDNAs are 11 and 1.5 kb long, encoding 3,471 and 339 amino acids, respectively. The amino acid sequence of canine Brca2 showed 68% homology with the human protein, and 58% homology with a murine protein. There were highly conserved regions in the C-terminus of all three proteins, where the Rad51 interacting domain and putative nuclear localization signals are located. Comparing with the partial genomic sequence previously reported, we found possible nuclear polymorphisms in exon 11, some of which result in amino acid substitutions. On the other hand, canine Rad51 protein had extremely high homology (99%) to the human and murine proteins. Expression of both Brca2 and Rad51 was detected in the mammary gland, suggesting that these two genes interact in the canine mammary gland.
Leptin, the product of the obese (ob) gene, is an adipocyte-derived hormone involved in regulating food intake and energy expenditure in humans and rodents. To determine the primary structure of feline leptin, we cloned the feline leptin cDNA using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends (RACE) methods. The full-length feline leptin cDNA was 2935 bp with a 501 bp open reading frame encoding the precursor peptide of 167 amino acids including 21 residues of signal peptide. The sequence of a 146-amino acid mature leptin was 81.5-91.8% homologous to those of other species. RT-PCR analysis revealed that the leptin mRNA was expressed in adipose tissues and not detected in liver, heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, brain and skeletal muscle. These data show that feline leptin is highly homologous to leptins of other species, and expressed in adipose tissues in cats.
To determine the role of leptin in endotoxin-induced anorexia in ruminants, circulating leptin levels were measured during acute experimental endotoxemia in sheep. Injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (450 ng/kg, i.v.) induced anorexia accompanied with fever and increases in serum levels of cortisol, insulin and glucose which are known to stimulate leptin secretion in rodent and human, while it did not affect serum leptin levels at all. These results indicate that serum leptin levels in sheep during acute endotoxemia are differentially regulated from those in rodent and human, and that leptin might not be involved in the endotoxin-induced anorexia in sheep.
Salivary or secreted carbonic anhydrase (CA), which constitutes a new class of CA, designated CA-VI, was isolated. Swine CA-VI purified from swine saliva by inhibitor-affinity chromatography and ion exchange chromatography had a specific activity of 5,468 units/mg. The molecular weight was 250,000, as determined by gel filtration under non-denaturing conditions, and the subunit molecular weight was found to be 37,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that swine CA-VI consists of 7 subunits. The treatment of the enzyme with endo-N-acetylglucosaminidase F reduced its subunit molecular weight from 37,000 to 35,000 and 32,000. We raised a rabbit antibody against purified swine CA-VI. Double immunodiffusion showed that anti-swine CA-VI serum reacted with swine CA-VI and swine saliva, but not with hemolysate (containing CA-I and CA-II) or muscle extracts (containing CA-III). The concentration of CA-VI in swine saliva, measured using single radial immunodiffusion, was 0.027 ± 0.017 mg/mg total protein.
The present study was conducted to clarify the mechanism underlying the oxidative process in erythrocytes infected with Babesia gibsoni. The parasite B. gibsoni was cultured together with erythrocytes from normal dogs for 7 days. When parasitemia reached 12.0-13.4% at Day 7, the production of superoxide in erythrocytes was significantly higher in the parasitized culture than in the control culture (p<0.005). The concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in erythrocytes in parasitized culture was also significantly increased compared with the control culture (p<0.005), indicating that lipid peroxidation was greater in infected erythrocytes than in non-infected cells. In addition, the rates of superoxide generation in the blood of B. gibsoni-infected dogs were also significantly higher than in non-infected dogs (p<0.001). These results indicate that superoxide anions are increased in erythrocytes parasitized with B. gibsoni, and suggest that oxidative damage, due to lipid peroxidation, might be caused in host erythrocytes by the parasite.
In order to confirm the effects of matching of expressed feline major histocompatibility complex (FLA) class II DRB genotype on transplantation immunity in cats, skin-allogeneic transplantation was carried out between cats, in which DRB genes expressed were genotyped by the RT-PCR-RFLP method using group-specific primers. Duration until grafts were rejected was 14.63 ± 1.69 days (mean ± standard deviation) in the pairs that had the same type of subgroups, 7.25 ± 0.71 days in the pairs that had one different type of subgroup and 6.88 ± 0.35 days in the pairs that had two different types of subgroups. The duration of graft survival in the pairs with the same type of subgroups was significantly longer (P<0.01) than those in the pairs with different types. Although FLA components involved in transplantation immunity should not only be DRB genes, it was suggested that the expressed FLA-DRB genotype might associate with feline transplantation immunity, and that typing and matching of expressed FLA-DRB genes might be one of the important factors in the control of feline transplantation immunity.
Fifteen healthy castrated male dogs were separated into three treatment groups that were administered etodolac, aspirin and a placebo orally, respectively. All treatments were continued for 28 days. The animals were examined endoscopically on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24 and 28. There were no gastrointestinal mucosal lesions in either the etodolac or the placebo group, whereas some gastric lesions developed in the aspirin group after day 17. We considered that etodolac could be used for long-term treatments in dogs with fewer side-effects on the gastric mucosa than aspirin.
The amounts of DNA single strand breaks that are oxidative damage produced by copper were examined by comet assay in the liver cells of an inbred strain of Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats that spontaneously develops fulminant hepatitis. At 4 weeks of age, copper contents in the liver of LEC rats were approximately 30-fold higher than those of WKAH rats that are control rats used in the present study. Copper accumulated in the liver of LEC rats in an age-dependent manner and no significant differences were observed between copper contents in the livers of males and females at each week of age from 4 to 15 weeks. No significant amounts of DNA strand breaks were found in the liver cells of both male and female WKAH rats from 4 to 15 weeks of age. DNA strand breaks were produced in the substantial population of LEC rat liver cells at 10 weeks of age and induced in an age-dependent manner from 10 to 15 weeks of age. The amounts of DNA strand breaks produced by copper accumulation in the liver cells of female LEC rats are not more abundant than those in the cells of male rats, although it has been reported that hepatitis in female rats is more serious than that in male rats.
A survey of Theileria parasite infection in cattle in Cambodia and Vietnam was carried out by using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. A total of 137 blood samples from draught animals in Cambodia and 40 blood samples from dairy cattle in Vietnam were analyzed. In Cambodia, 69 out of 137(50.4%) samples were PCR-positive containing mainly the Thai and the C type parasites. In Vietnam, 11(27.5%) samples were positive and all were of the Thai type parasite.
Serum samples from horses in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil were examined for diagnosis of equine piroplasmosis by both the latex agglutination test (LAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with recombinant antigens. Of the 47 samples analyzed, 38 (81%) and 42 (90%) samples were positive for B. equi infection and B. caballi infection, respectively. In addition, 35 (75%) samples were positive for both B. equi and B. caballi infections. These results indicate that equine piroplasmosis is widespread and therefore a cause for serious concern in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.
Hepatoblastomas (HBs) were induced in B6C3F1 male mice by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and sodium phenobarbital (PB). Six-week-old mice received a single intraperitoneal dose of DEN followed by a continuous treatment with PB in diet at a concentration of 0 (group 1) or 500 (group 2) ppm for 50 weeks. HBs were observed in 13 of 21 (62%) group 2 mice, with typical histologic features as reported previously, while no such tumors were observed in group 1. Seven of 13 (54%) HBs were found in and/or adjacent to hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) or hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Immunohistochemically, all HBs were positive for S-100 protein but negative for keratin, α-fetoprotein (AFP), albumin (ALB) and vimentin, while HCC cells occasionally reacted positively for AFP with a mosaic pattern. HCC and HCA cells were occasionally positive for ALB. Non-neoplastic hepatocytes and normal bile ducts were positively stained for ALB and keratin/S-100 protein, respectively. S-100 protein is known to be expressed in many mesenchymal tissues and neoplasms including neuroectodermal elements but negative in cells of the hepatic lineage. Thus, the present immunohistochemical results suggested that mesenchymal differentiation occurs in mouse HB cells as observed in human HBs, one of the most frequent infant liver tumors in humans. Although the susceptibility of mouse HBs to PB-promotion suggests a hepatocytic histogenesis, the present immunohistochemical results support the hypothesis that the mouse HB is derived from pluripotent endodermal stem-like cells.
A 5-month-old, male, Shih Tzu dog manifesting polyuria and polydipsia since 2-month-old was presented to our hospital with additional clinical complaints of vomiting and depression during recent a few days. Despite the symptomatic therapy for chronic renal failure, he died on the day after medication. Macroscopically, both kidneys were small in size with rough surface. Microscopical examination revealed bilateral renal fibrosis with dysplastic changes consisting of immature glomeruli and tubules, and foci of adenomatoid proliferation of tubular epithelium. In addition, incomplete lobulation of medulla with pelvic structures was also noticed in the right kidney. From these findings, the present case was diagnosed as renal dysplasia in Shih Tzu dog which was documented in the literatures.
A transplantable rat pulmonary carcinoma line (IP) in F344 rats is a useful animal model for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM). The present study analyzed the degree of HHM by implanting IP into F344 female rats aged 6, 20 or 45 weeks. IP-bearing females developed elevated plasma parathyroid hormone-related protein levels, hypercalcemia and increased osteoclastic activity as well as calcification in various organs. The severity of such HHM differed depending on age; particularly, calcification showed age-dependent reduction. HHM development in IP-bearing females may be influenced by age-related factors.
A symptomatic relief by hyaluronic acid (HA, MW: 3.5 × 106), which is synthesized by Streptococcus spp, was investigated in experimental ovine osteoarthrosis. Bilateral osteoarthrosis (OA) of the temporo-mandibular joints (TMJs) was induced by perforating discs and by scrapping subchondral condylar surface. HA was intra-articularly injected into the left joints of 6 sheep on 7, 10, 14, 17 and 21 days after the operation and physiological saline as the control was injected into the contralateral (right) joints on the same day. Three sheep were killed at 1 month post-operation (MPO) and the remaining three sheep were killed at 3 MPO. Various responses such as proliferation of fibrous tissue, denudation, erosion, osteophyte formation, subcortical cyst formation and ankylosis were observed radiographically and histopathologically. The treatment of HA ameliorated the degenerative changes and lowered the osteoarthrotic score in the left joints at 1 MPO (9.96 vs 5.81) and 3 MPO (10.86 vs 5.29) compared to the right joints. These results indicate that a repeated intra-articular injection of HA inhibits the progression of OA in ovine TMJs by inducing the development of articular cartilage and by reducing the proliferation of fibrotic tissue.
The effects of unilateral and bilateral ovariectomy and passive immunization against inhibin on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretions and follicular development in the guinea pig were investigated. Bilateral ovariectomy decreased plasma immunoreactive (ir-) inhibin rapidly and increased plasma FSH significantly. Unilateral ovariectomy decreased plasma ir-inhibin and increased plasma FSH temporarily, and doubled the number of ova released from the remaining ovary at the subsequent ovulation in guinea pigs. Injection of 1.0 ml inhibin antiserum significantly increased concentrations of plasma FSH at 6 hr onwards and the number of small follicles (100-200 μm in diameter) at 48 hr after the injection in guinea pigs bearing progesterone-containing implants. In vitro bioassay showed that inhibin antiserum could neutralize the suppression of ovarian homogenate on FSH secretion from cultured rat anterior pituitary cells. These results confirm the evidence that the ovary is the main source of inhibin secretion and both in vitro bioassay and passive immunization against inhibin show that the inhibin is a major regulator in the follicular development through FSH secretion in guinea pigs.
The ability of frozen-thawed fetal skin was examined to generate viable cell lines for nuclear transfer. Fetal skin frozen at -35°C or -80°C in the presence of 5% DMSO were used as tissue explants to generate somatic cells. The resultant confluent cells were then used as donors for nuclear transfer (NT). Of the bovine NT embryos reconstructed from the somatic cells, 78% to 81% showed cleavage, 43% to 48% reached the stage of morula formation and 34% to 35% reached blastocyst formation. There were no significant differences in development (P>0.05) when the NT embryos were compared with those reconstructed from fresh somatic-cell-derived skin tissues (75%, 45%, and 38%, for cleavage, and development to morula and blastocyst stages, respectively). The results indicated that cell lines derived from bovine fetal skin cryopreserved by a simple method could be used as donors in nuclear transfer. The resulting embryos showed similar development in vitro to those reconstructed from unfrozen fetal-skin-derived somatic cells.
The defective growth of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) was analyzed in non-permissive murine embryo fibroblast, BALB/3T3 A31-1-1 (A31) cells. BHV-1 was able to attach and penetrate into A31 cells at similar levels that were seen in semi-permissive cells. Once penetrated into A31 cells, BHV-1 was efficiently transported to nuclei, but the onset of expression of immediate early (IE) protein and viral DNA replication was not observed. These data suggest that the viral replication of BHV-1 in A31 cells is arrested at the point prior to the expression of IE proteins.