Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease of cervids such as deer and elk in North America. Unlike other transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) such as scrapie, CWD occurs in both captive and wild ranging animals, but not in domestic ruminants such as sheep and cattle. In this paper, the history of the disease, pathogenesis of CWD, susceptibility of animals, its transmission mechanisms, potential origins of the disease, diagnostic methods in the field and laboratory tests, surveillance and survey systems in the USA and Canada, control strategies, economic impact of the disease, food and feed safety, and the risks in human and animals are reviewed and summarized. Although there is no evidence that CWD has been transmitted to humans, it may have the potential to infect humans.
The neural-cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM) consists of three major types of polypeptides (180, 140, and 120 kDa) whose predominant differences exist within the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. In this study, we generated a monoclonal antibody, termed SZK1, reactive to feline CD56 (fCD56) molecules (140 kDa form of N-CAM) expressed by the baculovirus expression system and investigated fCD56 expression in feline lymphoid cells. In flow cytometric analysis, SZK1 was reactive to a feline T-lymphoblastoid cell line MYA-1. Further, SZK1 was reactive to a very small population (1.1-1.7%) of freshly isolated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of three specific pathogen-free cats, and the reactivity was increased by culturing of PBLs in the presence of interleukin-2 following concanavalin A-stimulation (>10%). In immunoblotting analysis, SZK1 detected an approximately 160 kDa antigen from MYA-1 cells, while from RNA of the cells reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplified the fragment resembling 140 kDa form of N-CAM. These finding suggest that fCD56 has similar characteristics with human CD56.
To obtain basic information on the state of proinflammatory cytokines in newborn calves, we determined the kinetics of 5 cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-1 receptor antagonist) in sera of newborns during the first 4 weeks of life. At birth, none of the 5 cytokines were detected in almost all serum samples, but the cytokines became detectable within 12 hr after being fed colostram. The mean concentrations of the cytokines reached peak levels by 24 hr and then gradually decreased and became undetectable by 4 weeks after birth. Cytokine mRNA expressions in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of newborns were observed without reference to the cytokine concentrations in sera. Serum cytokines detected in newborn calves are probably colostral origin.
To clarify the cellular immune condition in Japanese Black (JB) calves with a weak syndrome, peripheral leukocyte populations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Twenty JB calves were divided into two groups based on clinical observations; one group of calves was weak, because they had experienced an onset of diarrhea within 3 days after birth and needed treatment (Group 1;n=10), and the other group of calves was healthy (Group 2; n=10). With regard to leukocyte populations, CD8+ cells and γδ T cells in Group 1 were markedly lower than those in Group 2 during the experimental periods. It is possible that immune-insufficiency might be based on T lymphocyte function in weak syndrome JB calves during the growth process.
Since the RPR (rapid plasma regain) test was found to be useful for the diagnosis of rabbit syphilis, serological survey by this test has been carried out in Japanese companion rabbits. A hundred virgin household rabbits kept alone and without signs and history of syphilis were examined by RPR test from April 2001 to March 2002, in Tokyo, Japan. The test was positive in 35 cases and negative in 65 cases. RPR negative rabbits should be selected for breeding to prevent the spread of rabbit syphilis in companion rabbits in Japan.
Growth hormone secretion was evaluated in cattle. Clinically healthy bovine growth hormone (bGH) concentrations were 10.7 ± 1.6 ng/ml in Holstein and 7.8 ± 3.9 ng/ml in Japanese black cattle. The bGH concentration alternated at three-hour intervals, and tended to be higher at midnight and lower in the morning and before feeding. Insulin tolerance test (ITT) at an insulin dosage of 0.25 U/kg showed a significant increase of bGH concentration to 331 ± 153% at 60 to 90 min after injection. In ITT applied to five under-growth calves of Japanese black cattle, the basal bGH concentrations were lower and peak values after insulin injection were shown to be significantly low. The ITT is useful for the clinical examination of bGH secretion in cattle.
A new method for catheterization of the portal and hepatic veins in cattle by means of the over-the-wire system was investigated to maintain more reliable long-term patency of catheters. Four cattle were used to evaluate the success rate, patency and safety of the procedure. The catheters, coated by urokinase were patent as long as they were in situ. In addition, the introducer was useful to prevent the catheter from being broken. No complications developed during the10 days after the procedure. Two cows were then euthanized. Post mortem findings were minimal. The results of the study reported here are promising, the benefits are significant and there is no apparent disadvantage to its use.
To evaluate the possibility that Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S.z) the causative bacterial agent of equine shipping fever pneumonia (ESFP), as well as to investigate its pathogenesis, 10 horses (seven Thoroughbreds and three Anglo-Arab species, ranging from 2-4 years in age) were experimentally inoculated, via an endoscope, into bronchus of the lung lobe with a dose of 30 ml of 1-7 × 108 CFU/ml of S.z. After inoculation, autopsy and pathological examinations were sequentially conducted 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 4, 17, 20 hr and 2 weeks later. Pneumonia induced by the intrapulmonary inoculation of S.z was characterized by small purulent pneumonic foci in the inoculated areas. With the lapse of time, these foci developed into serous hemorrhagic pneumonia, hemorrhagic purulent pneumonia, and then purulent, coagulation necrotic pneumonia. These pathomorphological characteristics of experimental pneumonia closely resemble those naturally occurring ESFP. There is strong evidence that S.z. is implicated as a causal factor in ESFP. S.z. grew in the mucus, exudate, and pulmonary effusions. Further, the bacteria showed resistance against phagocytosis by pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM) and neutrophils. Inhibition of PAM and neutrophil function is considered to be important in the development of pneumonia. With the progression of the disease, the neutrophils often adhered to the endothelial surface of the alveolar capillary lumen and played a role in generating coagulation necrosis of lung tissues.
Perchloric acid-soluble protein (PSP) is a members of a new hypothetical family (YER057c/YJGF family) of small proteins with presently unknown function. The high degree of evolutionary conservation of these proteins reflect an involvement in basic cellular regulation. The expression of PSP was examined in rat hepatoma cell dRLh 84-beared rats. The tumor weight increased to 4.24 g at 3 weeks after the transplantation of hepatoma cells and hepatoma which has less differentiated characteristics were observed in rat liver. The expression of PSP in rat hepatoma was down regulated as compared with intact tissue. Thus the expression of PSP seems to be associated with the differentiation process in these transformed cells. On the other hand, some positive cells against the PSP-antibody were observed in the central region of tumor tissue by immunohistochemistry. These cells were shown to be the lymphocytes and the macrophages. The involvement of PSP to cellular growth and differentiation is discussed.
Four dogs diagnosed as pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism were treated with transsphenoidal hypophysectomy and postoperative hormone supplementation therapy. On histological examination of the resected tissues, the tumors were ACTH-producing adenoma of the anterior lobe. Clinical signs such as alopecia and calcinosis cutis, as well as endocrinological abnormalities, were markedly alleviated after surgery. The clinical courses of these 4 dogs suggest that transsphenoidal hypophysectomy may be a useful treatment for pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism.
To evaluate clinical usefulness of xylazine (1.0 mg/kg)-midazolam (20 μg/kg)-propofol (3.0 mg/kg) anesthesia in horses, 6 adult Thoroughbred horses were examined. The quality of induction varied from poor to excellent and 5 out of 6 horses presented myotonus in the front half of the body. However, paddling immediately after induction observed in other reports of equine propofol anesthesia was not observed. Recovery time was 35.3 ± 9.3 min and the quality of recovery was calm and smooth in all horses. Respiration rate decreased after induction and hypoxemia was observed during lateral recumbency. Heart rate also decreased after induction, however mean arterial blood pressure was maintained above approximately 100 mmHg.
The effects of lincomycin-spectinomycin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim combinations on the hyaluronidase enzyme of serum and semen and on sperm characteristics in rams were determined. Thirthy-two Akkaraman rams were used. The rams were randomly divided into four groups. Group A and group B were determined as control groups of group C (lincomycin-spectinomycin) and D (sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim), respectively. Combinations of lincomycin-spectinomycin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were administered at doses of 15 mg.kg-1 intramuscularly and 12 mg.kg-1 body weights orally, respectively. Blood and semen samples were collected at 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, 192 and 384 hr. Semen hyaluronidase activities of rams in group C increased significantly (p<0.001, <0.05) compared with the control group at 24 and 48 hr, respectively. Semen hyaluronidase activities in group D rams also increased significantly (p<0.001) in comparison with the control group at all times except 72 and 384 hr. Serum hyaluronidase activities increased significantly (p<0.01, <0.001) at 24 and 48 hr after treatment of lincomycin-spectinomycin. Additionally, significant (p<0.05, <0.001) increases were detected in the serum hyaluronidase activities of group D at 48 and 72 hr, respectively. No significant correlation was found between serum and semen hyaluronidase activities. Furthermore, significant increases (p<0.05) were observed in the percentages of motile sperm in the rams of group C and D compared with the control groups. The values of sperm concentration and total number of sperm in group C and D rams decreased significantly (p<0.001) in comparison with control groups. No significant correlations were found between the semen hyaluronidase activities and sperm characteristics. In conclusion, these findings show that the combinations of lincomycin-spectinomycin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim do not have any harmful effects on hyaluronidase activities and sperm motility. However, the use of both antibiotic combinations in breeding rams during the ramming season is not advisable due to the decrease of sperm concentration.
The effectiveness of the water test, short hypoosmotic swelling test with ultrapure water was examined in canine epididymal spermatozoa to evaluate tail membrane integrity. Spermatozoa during epididymal transit were also characterized. Sperm suspension obtained from cauda epididymis was diluted 1:4 with ultrapure water, and incubated for 5 min. The percentage of swollen spermatozoa in the water test was significantly correlated with both the sperm motility and the swelling value obtained by the conventional hypoosmotic swelling test. Canine spermatozoa collected from the caput epididymis were not motile, but revealed membrane integrity in a water test. The water test can be used as a simple and short hypoosmotic swelling test to evaluate the tail membrane integrity of canine epididymal spermatozoa.