Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of hereditary diseases caused by mutation of extracellular matrix-related genes. Recently, spondylodysplastic EDS-Zip13 (spEDS-Zip13: OMIM 612350) was recognized as a new EDS type. This current study could reveal various morphometric differences of collagenous population in the proper substance of cornea between the wild type and spEDS-Zip13-knockout (Zip13-KO) mice. Blockade of Smad-signaling pathway might initiate these alterations. Predilected dissimilarity in level of transcriptional activity probably dictated morphology of keratocyte and shape and electron density of its nucleus. In addition, the imbalance of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans would also affect the diameter and arrangement of collagen fibrils. These findings would be considered as vulnerable characteristics of corneal stroma of the Zip13-KO mice.
Rhodococcus equi was isolated from the granulomatous lesions of the lung, kidney, liver, and hepatic, mesenteric, and abomasum lymph nodes of a Japanese black heifer. R. equi isolates were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for virulence-associated protein genes. The vapN gene was detected in all the isolates examined. This is the first report in which vapN-positive R. equi was isolated from cattle in Japan.
In Haemophilus parasuis, the rfa cluster has been identified as a virulence-associated factor that is involved in lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis. In this study, we assessed the roles of rfaD and rfaF genes in H. parasuis SC096 on LOS-induced pro-inflammatory factors and the related signaling pathways in porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) by real-time PCR and western blotting. The results showed that the LOSs of both rfaD and rfaF mutants (ΔrfaD-LOS and ΔrfaF-LOS) significantly decreased the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) in PAMs compared with H. parasuis SC096 LOS (WT-LOS). Furthermore, in ΔrfaD-LOS- and ΔrfaF-LOS-treated cells, IκBα degradation was significantly inhibited and levels of phospho-p65 and phospho-p38 were significantly reduced in PAMs. These findings suggested that the rfaD and rfaF genes mediated LOS induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PAMs by regulating the NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways during H. parasuis infection.
Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae (BSFL) are rich in protein and have the potential to be used in animal feed. The aim of the present study was to determine the immunoprophylactic effect of BSFL against Salmonella Gallinarum in broiler chicks as an alternative feed additive. Results showed that BSFL improved body weight gain and increased frequency of CD4+ T lymphocyte, serum lysozyme activity, and spleen lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, BSFL reinforced bacterial clearance and increased survivability of broiler chicks against S. Gallinarum. These data suggested that BSFL has prophylactic properties with stimulating non-specific immune responses, as well as reduced bacterial burden against S. Gallinarum.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of varying degrees of water salinity on the ultrasonographical and histopathological appearance of the liver and kidneys in Barki sheep. Thirty Barki sheep (initial weight, 29.48 ± 0.81 kg) were allocated into three groups (n=10 per group) based on the type of drinking water for 9 months: the tap water (TW) group (350 ppm total dissolved solids [TDS]); the moderate saline water (MSW) group (4,557 ppm TDS); and the high saline water (HSW) group (8,934 ppm TDS). After 9 months, the body weight was significantly decreased in sheep subjected to MSW (P=0.0347) and HSW (P=0.0424). Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, urea, and creatinine were significantly increased (P<0.05) in sheep subjected to MSW and HSW. Ultrasonographic examination of the right and left kidneys revealed an increased length of both kidneys with crystal formation, particularly in male sheep. Ultrasonographic examination of the liver showed hyperechogenic dots varying in size and number between males and females. Histopathological examination of kidney revealed significant changes in both MSW and HSW groups such as hyaline matrix formation, atrophied glomerular tufts, and intramedullary congestion. Histopathological examination of the liver revealed slight fatty liver changes, slight fibrosis around the bile duct, massive inflammatory cell infiltration and vacuolar changes of hepatocytes in both MSW and HSW groups. In conclusion, water salinity negatively affects the body weight, liver and kidney appearance of Barki sheep and thus sheep production.
The intestinal microbiota was revealed with the recent advances in molecular techniques, such as high-throughput sequencing analysis. As a result, the microbial changes are thought to influence the health of humans and animals and such changes are affected by several factors including diet, genetics, age, sex, and diseases. Similar studies are being conducted in dogs, and the knowledge of intestinal microbiota in dogs is expanding. Nonetheless, basic information on intestinal microbiota in dogs is less than that of humans. Our aim was to study toy poodles (n=21), a popular companion dog, in terms of basic characteristics of the faecal microbiota by 16S rRNA gene barcoding analysis. In the faecal microbiota, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the dominant phyla (over 93.4% of faecal microbiota) regardless of the attributes of the dogs. In family level, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Lachnospiraceae were most prevalent. In case of a dog with protein-losing enteropathy, the diversity of faecal microbiota was different between before and after treatment. This study provides basic information for studying on faecal microbiota in toy poodles.
Five Japanese Black embryo transfer calves from a single embryo flush, 30 to 45-days-old, including 4 live animals for clinical examination and 1 dead for necropsy, were presented with a history of decreased milk intake and hypoproteinemia. Consistent clinicopathological abnormalities in the 4 calves presented for clinical evaluation included hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, increased creatine phosphokinase activity, and proteinuria. Four calves ultimately were necropsied and all had histologic evidence of immune complex glomerulonephritis. Glomerulonephritis in these calves was hypothesized to have resulted from the interaction of passively acquired antibodies at birth and active immunization at 7 and 28 days of age with a Salmonella Typhimurium core antigen vaccine.
This case report describes a congenital ganglioneuroblastoma in a 38-day-old male Japanese Black calf. The cervical multinodular mass was present at birth and grew rapidly. The cut surface was pale gray-to-yellow and had a gelatinous appearance. Hemorrhagic cysts of various sizes were observed in the nodule. Histologically, the mass contained clusters of neuroblastic cells, ganglionic cells, and Schwann-like cells. Immunohistochemically, the ganglionic cells showed strong positivity for neuron-specific enolase, neurofilament, synaptophysin, and chromogranin A, whereas the Schwann-like cells strongly expressed S-100, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and vimentin. Ultrastructurally, neurosecretory granules resembling catecholamine were observed in the neuroblastic and Schwann-like cells. Based on the pathology, the diagnosis was congenital cervical nodular ganglioneuroblastoma.
Folinic acid (FA) is generally administered to patients with CNS tumors in order to treat severe neurological disorders caused by methotrexate (MTX); therefore, we herein examined the effects of the co-administration of FA on MTX concentrations in the rat brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as well as the pharmacokinetics of MTX. MTX was intravenously or intrathecally administered to rats with or without FA. MTX concentrations were assessed by HPLC. No significant differences were observed in pharmacokinetic parameters, including kel, Vd, AUC, Cltot and t1/2, between the FA-treated and non-treated groups. MTX concentrations were not significantly different in the brain or CSF 6 hr after the intrathecal administration of MTX. However, compare to intravenous administration of MTX, intravenous administration of both FA and MTX significantly decreased MTX concentrations in the brains and CSF. These results suggest that FA inhibits the influx of MTX into the brain and CSF, possibly by competing with folate carriers, but has no effect on its efflux from these regions. Therefore, FA may be administered to CNS tumor patients receiving intrathecal MTX therapy in order to treat the adverse effects of MTX without affecting its concentrations in the brain and CSF.
Exposure to chronic hypoxic conditions causes various gastric diseases, including gastric ulcers. It has been suggested that gastric smooth muscle contraction is associated with aerobic metabolism. However, there are no reports on the association between gastric smooth muscle contraction and aerobic metabolism, and we have investigated this association in the present study. High K+- and carbachol (CCh)-induced muscle contractions involved increasing O2 consumption. Aeration with N2 (hypoxia) and NaCN significantly decreased high K+- and CCh-induced muscle contraction and O2 consumption. In addition, hypoxia and NaCN significantly decreased creatine phosphate (PCr) contents in the presence of high K+. Moreover, decrease in CCh-induced contraction and O2 consumption was greater than that of high K+. Our results suggest that hypoxia and NaCN inhibit high K+- and CCh-induced contractions in gastric fundus smooth muscles by decreasing O2 consumption and intracellular PCr content. However, the inhibition of CCh-induced muscle contraction was greater than that of high K+-induced muscle contraction.
Bacteria of the genus Providencia are opportunistic pathogens of clinical significance due to their association with diarrhea and urinary tract infections. The present study was conducted to examine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Providencia spp. in retail meats sold in Guangzhou, China and Osaka, Japan. Out of 158 meat samples including beef, pork and chicken, 67 Providencia (42%) belonging to four species viz., P. alcalifaciens, P. rustigianii, P. stuartii and P. rettgeri were isolated, and most of them were resistant to tetracycline (91%) followed by ampicillin (69%) and streptomycin (49%). Of 67 isolates, 29 (43%) were MDR, which is defined to be resistant to more than three classes of antimicrobials. No statistically significant differences were observed between Chinese and Japanese retail meat samples regarding contamination rate of Providencia spp. as well as frequency of the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates including MDR. Class 1 and/or class 2 integrons were detected in six of the eight isolates that were resistant to more than 4 antimicrobials, however none of the isolates harbored class 3 integron. A P. rustigianii harboring the blaOXA-10 gene was isolated, which is the first report of Providencia with blaOXA-10 gene of food origin. These data suggest that retail meats in China and Japan are substantially contaminated with Providencia spp., which displayed a high frequency of antimicrobial resistance, and establishing the surveillance of Providencia spp., especially antimicrobial resistant one, in retail meats is imperative.
The aim of the study was to correlate the clinical severity of pectus excavatum with its type and degree based on objective radiographic evaluation. Twelve brachycephalic dogs were included. Grading of the clinical severity was done based on a 6-point grading score. Thoracic radiographs were used to calculate the frontosagittal and vertebral indices at the tenth thoracic vertebra and the vertebra overlying the excavatum. Correlation between the clinical severity score and frontosagittal and vertebral indices was evaluated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Typical pectus excavatum was recorded in the caudal sternum in seven dogs, with a mean clinical severity score of 1.7 ± 1.4, whereas in five dogs, atypical mid-sternal deviation was recorded with a mean clinical severity score of 3.8 ± 0.7. A strong correlation (r=0.7) was recorded between the clinical severity score and vertebral index in the atypical form, whereas a weak correlation (r=0.02) was recorded in the typical form (P<0.05). The clinical severity and degree of pectus excavatum was poorly correlated (r=0.3) in the typical form of pectus excavatum, whereas it was strongly correlated (r=0.9) in the atypical form. Pectus excavatum in dogs is associated with compressive cardiopulmonary dysfunction, which depends mainly on the site/type of deviation rather than the degree of deviation.
The cases of 4 Pomeranians with injury of the triceps brachii tendon that underwent surgical treatment were retrospectively reviewed to evaluate some clinical findings including signalment, cause of injury, clinical signs, pattern of injury, surgical technique, external coaptation after operation, complications, and outcomes. While all of the dogs showed non-weight bearing posture of the affected limbs and severe pain shortly after injury onset, the pain level decreased over time. A characteristic finding of the 4 cases was an absence of tension in the triceps brachii tendon when the elbow joint was flexed. The pattern of triceps brachii tendon injury was either laceration of the central part of the tendon (n=1) or tendon rupture at its insertion to the olecranon (n=3). Although there were no major complications after surgery in 3 cases, the remaining case required a revision surgery. Long lateral splint was effective method for external coaptation after operation. Diagnosis of triceps brachii tendon injury was not difficult if we even recognize this trauma. This form of injury can have a good prognosis with adequate surgery and postoperative coaptation.
This report summarizes the clinical, hematobiochemical, ultrasonographic, histopathological and bacteriological findings in a male Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) with bilateral renal abscessation and chronic active pyelonephritis. Owner complaint included a decreased appetite and loss of body condition with occasionally voiding red urine. In the right kidney, ultrasonographic changes included a hypoechoic fluid surrounding the renal parenchyma. Within the left kidney, a large volume of hypoechoic contents were imaged. Bacteriological examination yielded only Escherichia coli. To the authors’ knowledge this is the first reported case of bilateral renal abscessation and chronic active pyelonephritis in dromedary camels. In conclusion, renal ultrasonography provides a precise and non-invasive technique for diagnosis and subsequent clinical decision making of renal abscessation and chronic pyelonephritis camels.
We present a case of an intact 14-year-old male dog with a prostate B-cell lymphoma recognized in the contents of an irreducible perineal hernia. The enlarged prostate was replaced after reducing its size by partial excision, and the perineal hernia was repaired using the tunica vaginalis communis. However, the pelvic cavity was largely occupied by the replaced prostate, and urinary retention developed. The prostate was resected on the next day via abdominal median incision, and a bladder-urethra anastomosis was performed. Lymphoma has rarely been demonstrated to develop in the prostate, with the lesion comprising the hernia contents. The present study suggests the necessity of early treatment for perineal hernias and the possibility that lymphoma may be present in the hernia contents.
Rotavirus A (RVA) G9 genotype is recognized as an emerging genotype which is spreading worldwide, however, our knowledge on pathogenicity of this virus is limited. In this study, porcine RVA strain HN03 was successfully isolated on MA-104 cells, and the isolate was propagated continuously for 7 passages after a virus cloning at passage 3. The virus titers from 4 to 10 passages ranged from 107.1 to 108.1 TCID50/ml. The growth curve of HN03 strain in cell culture was determined, and the virus production dynamics was confirmed by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA). Sequence and phylogenetic analyses based on full-length VP7 and partial VP4 genes indicated that HN03 strain belongs to genotype G9P. In addition, the sixth passage of strain HN03 in cell culture was subjected to 3-day-old piglets. All infected piglets developed severe watery diarrhea within 24 hr post-inoculation (hpi), but recovered from disease after 72 hpi. RVA antigen could be detected by IHC in the cytoplasm of villous enterocytes as early as 2 hr after appearance of clinical symptoms and virus antigen load kept increasing in the next 30 hr. The dynamics of RVA HN03 strain proliferation on cells and in pigs extended our understanding of rotavirus pathogenicity.
Using an ORF1b-based astrovirus-specfic reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay, a novel astrovirus-like was detected from domestic geese in China. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analyzes suggested that a novel group of goose astrovirus, different with previously known astroviruses in the genus Avastrovirus, was found circulating in geese. This study has expanded our understanding about the role of domestic waterfowls as reservoirs for diverse astroviruses.
Antisperm antibodies potentially inhibit sperm functions causing the sterility in humans and experimentally treated animals. However, there is no information about antisperm antibodies emerging spontaneously in wildlife. In this study, we searched for the sperm-reactive antibodies, spontaneously produced in wild sika deer (Cervus nippon), and identified the sperm antigens. We collected 529 fecal masses of sika deer in Japanese cities, from which we extracted the mucosal antibodies to test them for reactivities to deer sperm proteins by ELISA. Two of the extracts contained IgAs that were highly reactive to the sperm proteins. The molecular weights of the active IgAs, partially purified by DEAE-sephadex A-50, were estimated at more than 100 kDa, suggesting that the IgAs evaded drastic digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblotting detected three major antigens, and the following LC-MS/MS analysis identified them as alpha-enolase, phosphoglycerate kinase 2 and acrosin-binding protein. The antibodies were cross-reactive to a recombinant human acrosin-binding protein. To our knowledge, this is the first research to find that the sperm-reactive antibodies are produced spontaneously in wildlife and they recognize a common antigen found in humans.
We documented a case of a free-living Formosan sambar deer (Rusa unicolor swinhoei) infected with a newly discovered ruminant Rhadinovirus (RuRv). Non-purulent encephalitis was the primary histological lesion of the sambar deer. We conducted nested PCR to screen for herpesvirus using generic primers targeting the DNA polymerase gene. In addition, we found that DNA polymerase gene of the sambar deer RuRv was present in the macrophage distributed in the Virchow Robin space with histopathologic lesions by chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH). The phylogenetic analysis indicated a high similarity between the viral sequence isolated from fallow deer and our case. This result suggests the possibility of cross-species transmission from other exotic Cervidae reservoir to the Formosan sambar deer.
We examined the organization of the olfactory organ and assessed the lectin histochemistry to investigate the glycoconjugate distribution of the olfactory bulb in premetamorphic larvae of Cynops ensicauda. The nasal cavity was an oval chamber that contained olfactory epithelium and a primitive vomeronasal organ. Secretory products were found in the supporting cells of the two sensory epithelia and in the respiratory cells. Ten lectins bound to the olfactory and vomeronasal nerve fibers as well as to the glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. The binding intensity in larvae was weaker than that reported previously in mature animals. This difference suggests a functional correlation between the expression change of glycoconjugates and the developmental refinement of the olfactory system during metamorphosis.