Using light microscopic immunohistochemistry, neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-positive endocrine cells were quantitatively analyzed in the sheep lung during different stages of development from the canalicular stages to adulthood. In all stages, NSE-positive endocrine cells were usually located in the bronchi and bronchioles as solitary cells, although a few NSE-positive cell clusters, the so-called neuroepithelial bodies, were found in some places. The number of NSE-positive endocrine cells decreased with advanced stages of gestation. In the late alveolar stage, the number of NSE-positive endocrine cells reached its bottom during the fetal period. There was a gradual upturn after birth. The overall pattern of growth and differentiation of the endocrine cells is most likely species-related and depends on the state of airway development; the number of the endocrine cells of almost all animals, excluding the sheep, in relation to the size of the lung reaches a peak in the late fetal and early neonatal periods and decreases shortly thereafter. NSE-positive endocrine cells were also predominantly located in the large airways during the early stage of development (canalicular stage), and were found more frequently in the small peripheral airways towards the term. These results show the number of NSE-positive endocrine cells in the sheep to be different from that seen in other species.
The ICR-derived glomerulonephritis (ICGN) mouse, a new inbred mouse strain with a hereditary nephrotic syndrome, is considered to be a good model of human idiopathic nephrotic syndrome and notably exhibits proteinuria and hypoproteinemia from the neonatal stage. In chronic renal disorder (CRD), anemia is a major subsequent symptom (renal anemia). The precise cause of renal anemia remains unclear, primarily owing to the lack of appropriate spontaneous animal models for CRD. To establish adequate animal models for anemia with CRD, we examined the hematological-biochemical properties and histopathological characteristics. With the deterioration of renal function, ICGN mice developed a normochromic and normocytic anemia, and exhibited normochromic and microcytic at the terminal stage. The expression of erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA both in the kidneys and liver and the EPO leak into the urine were observed in ICGN mice, indicating a disrupted metabolism of EPO in ICGN mice. In addition, a lack of iron induced by the hemolysis in the spleen and the leak of transferrin into urine as proteinuria aggravated the anemic condition. In conclusion, the ICGN mouse is a good model for anemia with CRD.
Lactoferrin concentration (LFC) in normal and mastitic milk of dairy goats were examined. LFC in bulk milk collected from 70 dairy goat farms and individual milk samples from 10 goats with mastitis were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and their reaction time in methylene blue reduction test (MBRT) monitored. Bulk milk samples were categorized into three grades, such as high, normal and low, based on the reaction time in MBRT. The mean LFC in milk that was considered high quality (167 μg/ml) was significantly lower than that of those graded as normal (218 μg/ml) and low quality (304 μg/ml), while mean LFC in mastitic milk was 587 μg/m l. The correlation coefficient between milk LFC and MBRT time was found to be -0.7. Three goats were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus into one of their udder halves. The mean milk LFC was found to be significantly higher (1500 μg/ml) than the control (30 μg/ml). These findings suggest that milk LFC may be useful as an index for intramammary infection in goats.
The present study was designed to determine the effects of physiological stress on milk-somatic cell counts (SCC) and function of bovine peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Nine healthy lactating cows were used in the examination. Five cows were transported 100 km for 4 hr (transported group; TG), and 4 cows were penned (non-transported group; NTG). Blood and milk samples were collected at 0, 2, and 4 hr after loading, and at 2 hr, and 1, 2, 3, and 6 days after unloading. The following activities were measured: adhesion receptor (CD 18 and L-selectin) expression of neutrophils and monocytes, migration capacity and percentage of apoptotic cells of neutrophils, serum soluble L-selectin (sL-selectin), plasma cortisol, and SCC. A significant increase in plasma cortisol and milk SCC was observed in TG. Leukocytosis, derived from neutrophils was recorded in TG, and was indicated by apoptotic measurement as an increase of young cells from the marginal pool. Increased migration and decreased surface expression of both L-selectin and CD 18 in neutrophils were observed after transportation. Elevated serum sL-selectin was also noted as a result of transportation. The present study indicated that transport stress modulates peripheral blood neutrophil function, particularly enhancing migration capacity, and causes diapedesis across the mammary epithelium. Increased milk SCC in transported cattle might be due to these phenomena, and severe physiological stress may bring about an increase in SCC in milk.
In February 2002 the first cases of a "blind newborn calves" syndrome with hydranencephaly appeared in Israel. Eighty-one serum samples, from 54 animals on farms where the syndrome was recorded and 27 others from unaffected farms were examined by neutralization of Akabane virus (AKAV, strain OBE-1) by the micro-titer method. Forty-seven of the 54 samples from the affected farms contained high serum neutralization titers against AKAV (mean SN titer 79.5 and ± 44.7, standard deviation), whereas only one of the 27 samples from the unaffected farms was positive (titer of 8). These results suggest that the vector(s) of AKAV was circulating in Israel in August through December, 2001.
Nitric oxide (NO·) synthesis is induced within many tumors. The timecourse of NO· synthesis was evaluated during intraperitoneal Meth A fibrosarcoma progression. While increasing macrophage recruitment into ascites was noted, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) antigen and function peaked between days 3-6 after tumor implantation. The capacity of cells to respond to LPS and IFNγ stimulation was markedly depressed on day 9 and 11. Cellular proliferation correlated in an inverse fashion with levels of NO· synthesis. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and nitrotyrosine immunostaining failed to show accumulation of characteristic target cell lesions induced by NO·. These findings lead us to conclude that NO· production was increasingly suppressed during Meth A tumor progression. Depression of NO· production did not correlate with levels of the inhibitory cytokines TGFβ and IL-10, but could be partially overcome by addition of sepiapterin (a tetrahydrobiopterin prodrug). Thus, depletion of essential co-factors necessary for iNOS function may contribute to depressed NO· responses during cancer progression.
The present study was conducted to determine the cause of low parasitemia and simultaneous reticulocytosis in canine babesiosis. The parasitemia was significantly decreased in in vitro cultures of Babesia gibsoni by the pretreatment of host canine erythrocytes with lead acetate, which is a specific inhibitor of pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase subclass I (P5N-I). The serum from dogs chronically infected with B. gibsoni did not decrease the activities of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase or 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in canine reticulocytes, although it was previously reported that this serum had inhibitory effects on both the maturation of reticulocytes and the canine P5N-I and purine-specific 5'-nucleotidase activities. Furthermore, the in vitro multiplication of B. gibsoni was significantly inhibited by pyrimidine nucleotides such as cytidine 5'-monophosphate (5'-CMP), which is preferentially catalyzed by P5N-I and also inhibits the morphological maturation of canine reticulocytes. Purine nucleotides such as inosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-IMP) also had an inhibitory effect on the multiplication of this parasite. These results suggest that nucleotides such as 5'-CMP and 5'-IMP might accumulate in young erythrocytes and/or serum in dogs infected with B. gibsoni as a result of the decreased activity of erythrocyte 5'-nucleotidase, and the accumulation of these nucleotides might inhibit the multiplication of this parasite and simultaneously retard the maturation of reticulocytes. The results obtained from the in vitro examinations in the present study may partially clarify the relationship between low parasitemia and simultaneous reticulocytosis in vivo in canine babesiosis.
A novel colitis model using Syrian hamsters was developed. Colitis was induced by intracolonic administration of 1% acetic acid, and the ulcer area, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and luminal neutrophil elastase (NE) activity of the colon were determined at 1, 3, 8, 24 and 48 hr after colitis induction. The histopathological changes of the colon were also examined in this model. An increase of tissue MPO activity and NE activity was evident at 3 hr after induction of colitis, peaked at 24 hr, and decreased subsequently. The increase of luminal NE activity was well correlated with the colonic ulcer area. In histopathological examination, ulceration, erosion, crypt abscesses, neutrophil infiltration, hemorrhage, and edema were seen. The effects of prednisolone were examined to evaluate the adequacy of our colitis model. Syrian hamsters were treated orally with prednisolone at 18 and 1 hr before and at 6 hr after induction of colitis, and the ulcer area, tissue MPO activity, and luminal NE activity were evaluated at 24 hr after colitis induction. Prednisolone therapy had little effect on the tissue MPO activity. However, the NE activity of the prednisolone-treated group was significantly decreased. In addition, although prednisolone did not significantly decrease the ulcer area, a tendency toward decrease was noted. We conclude that this new model of experimental colitis in Syrian hamsters is useful for investigating the pathophysiology of colitis, especially useful for studying the relationship between colitis and NE activity.
The characterization of five chicken monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that were developed against apical complex antigens of Eimeria acervulina sporozoites is realized and the mAbs reactivity to merozoites belonging to this species is tested. Using immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA), one mAb (HE-4) that recognized apical antigens common to sporozoites of E. acervulina and E. brunetti bound antigens localized on the apical tip of merozoites from all stages of development examined. The mAb 8E-1, reactive with antigens found on the apical tip of all chicken Eimeria sporozoites, also showed binding to antigens common to merozoites from all generations. Another mAb, 8C-3, which identified an antigen shared by sporozoites apical tip and sporocysts wall of E. acervulina reacted very weak and inconstantly with the merozoites from all generations whereas the mAbs 5D-11 and 8D-2 that recognized antigens shared by the sporozoites of E. acervulina and E. maxima (mAb 5D-11) and E. acervulina and E. brunetti (mAb 8D-2) did not react with the merozoites from any generation. Collectively, these results showed that the invasive stages of chicken Eimeria share cross reactive apical complex antigens which are inter-species and inter-generation-specific that might be components of a potential recombinant vaccine.
An abortion storm associated with acute neosporosis involving 18 cattle was observed in a dairy farm in Taiwan. Aborted fetus age ranged from 3 to 8 months. Of the 38 cattle in that farm examined during the abortion storm, 52.6% (20/38), 13.2% (5/38) and 10.5% (4/38) contained both IgG and IgM, only IgG and only IgM antibodies to Neospora caninum, respectively. No antibody to N. caninum was detected prior to the abortion storm. Follow-up study conducted a year later showed that 23 out of 28 cattle had sero-converted. Since some cattle were positive to either only IgG or IgM, we suggest that both IgG and IgM should be tested for diagnosing neosporosis. Neosporosis surveillance of naive cattle herd is recommended.
Triamcinolone acetonide (TAC), a synthetic glucocorticoid, induces cleft palate resulting from poor development of palatal shelves in mice. However, TAC has no effect on medial edge epithelial cells (MEE cells) in secondary palatal shelves. In the present study, we examined the relationship between the pathogenesis of cleft palate and the effects on MEE cells and palatal mesenchymal cells in rat embryos/fetuses exposed to TAC. Pregnant Wistar Hannover rats were given TAC intramuscularly at 0.5 mg/kg at gestation days (Day) 12, 13, and 14, then embryos/fetuses were harvested on Days 14.5, 15, 16 and 20. The effects of TAC were as follows; an inhibition of palatal mesenchymal cell proliferation on Day 14.5, a decrease in the density of palatal mesenchymal cells and MEE cells, and expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors in MEE cells on Day 15, and stratified squamous differentiation of MEE cells with expression of cytokeratin and EGF receptors on Day 16. These findings indicated that TAC inhibited the proliferation of mesenchymal cells and affected the differentiation of MEE cells into stratified squamous epithelia in the palatal shelves of rat embryos. However, these stratified squamous MEE cells partially fused with each other. Thus, we suspected that a major contributing factor to the formation of TAC-induced cleft palate might not be the altered differentiation of MEE cells, but the inhibition of mesenchymal cell proliferation.
A 10-month old male Shi-tzu was presented with a week history of scurfy skin and whitish masses located in the ventral portion of tongue. Grossly, two whitish prominences with diameters of 3 to 4 mm were found on the underside of the tongue. Microscopically, in ulcerative epidermis, deposition of dense, amorphous granular basophilic calcium salts was separated by thin fibrous connective tissue containing mild inflammation. Many fascicles were characterized by replacement of degenerating myofibers with calcification. The precise cause of calcification could not be determined; however, it is interesting that two different lesions shown in calcinosis circumscripta and slight nutritional myopathy were also observed simultaneously only in the tongue.
Intranuclear eosinophilic inclusion bodies were seen in the lactiferous duct and sinus epithelium of mammary tissues collected from a cow with clinical mastitis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed herpesvirus particles in these cells. Immunolabeling against anti bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BHV-4) rabbit serum was detected in nuclei that had intranuclear inclusion bodies. In addition, BHV-4 was isolated from the mammary tissue. The viral DNA was detected by nested PCR from the same tissue. This is the first report to describe mammary lesions in association with BHV-4.
A 7-year-old male Golden Retriever with swelling of the rostral bridge and right wing of the nasal areas, sneezing, and inspiratory difficulty was referred to a neighbor veterinarian. Except for those in the nasal area, no lesions were noted during routine physical examination. The mass occupying the nasal cavity was not observed radiographically. Punch biopsy of the affected lesions revealed nonepitheliotropic lymphoma. Immunohistochemical staining for CD3 antigen was positive. The dog was diagnosed with solitary nonepitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma. Local radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy with doxorubicin were instituted and resulted in total clinical remission. The dog has remained disease free for 30 months.
An 8-year-old female Shetland sheep dog had hyperproteinemia with a monoclonal gammopathy and a solid mass on the liver, which was histologically diagnosed as a plasma cell tumor. After the treatment of surgery and chemotherapy, serum protein level reduced to the normal range and the gammopathy was disappeared. These findings indicate the plasma cell tumor developed primarily from the liver.
Since the isotopes can not be utilized for veterinary patients in Japan, the authors developed a simple calculation formula of shunt fraction of portosystemic shunt based on the hepatic circulation model. The shunt fraction can be calculated utilizing only 2 portal pressure measurements of pre-shunt ligation and temporary or permanent shunt ligation. The calculated shunt fraction can obtained pre-ligation and post-ligation either temporally or permanent complete shunt ligation: complete ligation group of PSS (n=59) had 48.2 ± 16.9% of shunt fractions, whereas the partial ligation group (n=48) had 71.6 ± 10.7% of shunt fractions.
The expression of three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were examined in the testis and epididymis of a thoroughbred horse. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated the presence of eNOS immunostaining in some germ cells in the seminiferous tubules and in vascular endothelial cells in the interstitial tissues. Interstitial cells, most likely Leydig cells, were also intensely immunopositive for eNOS. The pattern of immunostaining for nNOS was similar to that for eNOS in the testis. Weak expression of iNOS was detected in the seminiferous tubules of the testis, but intense expression was found in interstitial cells. Inducible NOS was also strongly detected in stereocilia, sperm, epithelium and connective tissue of the epididymis of normal horses. These findings suggest that three isoforms of NOS are expressed in the testis and epididymis of horse and that they play important roles in the biology of interstitial cells that produce testosterone, as well as in spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules.
Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (HEV) causes encephalomyelitis, or vomiting and wasting disease, in suckling piglets. The mortality rate for piglets under 3 weeks old is 100%, but they are usually protected by maternal antibodies. Recently, the risk of an HEV outbreak has increased in the pig industry, because of widely using specific pathogen-free pigs that have no antibodies to HEV. We developed reverse transcription (RT) PCR and nested PCR to detect HEV. Primer sets of polymerase, non-structural protein, and spike protein were designed for RT-PCR and nested PCR based on the nucleotide sequences of the HEV 67N strain. The PCR designated primer sets of spike protein detected only HEV viral RNA among other related nidoviruses. Detection of HEV viral RNA by nested PCR was more sensitive than virus isolation in cell cultures. Nested PCR detected HEV viral RNA from experimentally infected samples of mice and field samples of piglets. The RT-PCR and nested PCR methods to detect HEV is considered a good way to show the HEV etiology on pig farms.
Several studies have indicated that viruses require a specific cytoskeletal structure for replication in host cells. In this study, we examined the role of actin fiber in the replication of canine distemper virus (CDV), belonging to the Morbillivirus genus of the family Paramyxoviridae. For this purpose, we used two actin depolymerizing agents, cytochalasin-D (C-D) and mycalolide-B (ML-B). In Vero cells, C-D disrupted actin fibers distributed in the cytosol, but peripheral actin fibers remained intact. On the other hand, ML-B completely disrupted the actin fibers distributed in both areas. Treatment of Vero cells with C-D or ML-B inhibited the replication of CDV. Double staining of CDV-infected Vero cells with antibody to N-protein and rhodamine-phalloidin revealed the presence of N-protein in mid-cytoplasm. However, the N-protein was specifically localized at the submembrane region in the presence of C-D, whereas it was clustered in the presence of ML-B. Viral mRNA levels of N- and H-proteins were rather increased by treatment with C-D or ML-B. The treatment with ML-B strongly inhibited N-protein expression, whereas C-D only slightly inhibited N-protein expression. These results suggest that actin microfilaments distributed in the cytoplasm and on the membrane region in host cells may have a different role in the process of CDV replication.
Mouse BALB/3T3-A31-1-1 (A31) cells are non-permissive to bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1) but permissive to pseudorabies virus (PrV). The promoter activity of the immediate early gene of BHV-1 (BICP4) was very weak when compared with that of PrV in A31 cells. Infectious BHV-1 genomic DNA co-transfected into A31 cells with plasmids expressing BICP4 and BICP0 by a strong promoter failed to yield any progeny virus. Growth of BHV-1 in non-permissible A31 cells is restricted in many phases of the growth. The fact that expression of BICP4 and/or BICP0 in A31 cells does not improve the yield of progeny virus from infectious BHV-1 genomic DNA suggests that some more growth restrictions exist beyond the expression of BHV-1 immediate early proteins.
To determine the characters of receptors on target cells for avian rotaviruses, the receptors on MA104 cells for the pigeon rotavirus PO-13, the turkey rotaviruses Ty-1 and Ty-3, and the chicken rotavirus Ch-1 were analyzed. Pretreatment of MA104 cells with neuraminidase greatly reduced the infection by all of the four avian rotavirus strains. Binding of the cell-attachment protein, purified VP8 expressed in bacteria, of strain PO-13 to MA104 cells was also inhibited by pretreatment of cells with neuraminidase. These findings suggest that avian rotaviruses primarily utilize sialic acid-containing molecules as receptors on MA 104 cells.