In the olfactory organ of lungfish, recesses at the bases of lamellae comprise sensory and nonsensory epithelia. The sensory epithelium of the recesses, the recess epithelium, is distinguished from the olfactory epithelium covering the lamella by the absence of ciliated olfactory receptor cells. Therefore, it has been suggested that the recess epithelium is a primordium of the vomeronasal organ of tetrapods. However, developmental changes in the number and distribution of recesses in the olfactory organ of lungfish were unknown. We examined four Protopterus aethiopicus specimens of body lengths 215–800 mm to determine the localization of recesses in their olfactory organs. Histological examination showed recesses at the bases of lamellae in all individuals examined. The recesses were localized mainly in the medial and caudal parts of the olfactory organs, especially in juveniles. Compared to smaller fish, larger fish had a larger number of recesses, distributed more broadly in their olfactory organs. Significance of the recess localization and its relationship to the function of lungfish olfactory organ warrants further investigation.
This study was organized to investigate the prevalence, antibiotic and disinfectant resistance phenotypes and genotypes as well as plasmid profiles of Shigella species isolated from raw cow milk and milk products in Egypt. Genotypic analysis was performed to determine the presence of β-lactamase encoding genes (blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaOXA-1 and blaSHV), tet(A) and qacE∆. Forty-two (7%) Shigella isolates (S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, and S. sonnei) were recovered, with S. dysenteriae as the predominant type. Antibiotic sensitivity tests showed that 71.4% of Shigella isolates were resistant to three or more antibiotic classes (multidrug-resistant). High resistance rates were observed against tetracyclines (100%), ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate (90.5%, each) and cefaclor (66.7%), while no resistance was detected against imipenem, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and azithromycin. Disinfectant susceptibility test of Shigella isolates revealed resistance to phenolic compound (vanillic acid), while 85.7% of the Shigella isolates were resistant to benzalkonium chloride. Uniplex PCR analysis declared the existence of β-lactamase encoding genes (blaTEM in all isolates and blaCTX-M in 28.6% of isolates) and, tet(A) in all isolates and 85.7% of the isolates were positive for qacE∆1, while all isolates were negative for blaOXA-1 and blaSHV. All Shigella extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producers (12, 100%) were positive for the blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and qacE∆1 genes. Furthermore, plasmid profiling revealed seven distinct plasmid patterns (P1–P7), ranging from 1.26 to 33.61 kb, among all the Shigella strains; S. dysenteriae exhibited the greatest variance. The co-transfer of β-lactamase genes (blaTEM and blaCTX-M) and qacE∆1 genes was observed by conjugation from all ESBL producers to a recipient strain. These findings indicate the emergence of Shigella species in Egypt that exhibited multi-resistance to either antibiotics (particularly ESBL producer strains) or disinfectants. Thus, the resistance of Shigella species should regularly be monitored and appropriate measures should be taken to manage this problem.
Although the biliary system is generally aseptic, gallbladder microbiota has been reported in humans and some animals apart from dogs. We screened and analyzed the bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid in canine gallbladders using bile sampled from 7 healthy dogs and 52 dogs with liver- or gallbladder-associated disease. PCR screening detected bacteria in 17.3% of diseased dogs (9/52) and none in healthy dogs. Microbiota analysis of PCR-positive samples showed that the microbial diversity differed between liver- and gallbladder-associated disease groups. Thus, a specific bacterial community appears to occur at a certain frequency in the bile of diseased dogs.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence at both farm-level and calf-level and to identify the risk factors of respiratory bacterial pathogens in dairy calves in Taiwan. The status of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) was evaluated by using the Wisconsin scoring system from a total of 400 pre-weaned calves from 32 different farms in Taiwan, then the nasopharyngeal swabs were collected. The prevalence of respiratory pathogens was 84.37% at farm-level and 45.50% at calf-level, and Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) was the most prevalent pathogen. The presence of Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis), P. multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica (M. haemolytica) and Histophilus somni (H. somni) were all higher in BRD positive calves than BRD negative calves, but only in H. somni was significant (P<0.001). Then nine farm management risk factors were analyzed by using multivariate logistic regression models to determine the risk factors of respiratory bacterial pathogens (farm and calf-level). In the result at farm-level, only unheated colostrum was significantly associated with pathogen positive farms (Odds Ratio (OR)=11.43). At calf-level, the predominant risk factor for each pathogen, M. bovis, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and H. somni, was late first colostrum feeding (OR=272.82), unheated colostrum (OR=3.41), waste milk feeding (OR=6.59) and high pneumonia treatment cost (OR=2.52), respectively. For effective preventive measures, farmer education on milk and colostrum feeding are urgently warranted.
The urinary corticoid to creatinine ratio (UCCR) is one of the most commonly used screening tests for canine hypercortisolism (HC). In this study, a reference interval was established for UCCR using IMMULITE 2000 XPi, the latest chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. The diagnostic performance of this method for UCCR in canine HC was also evaluated. The median UCCR was 1.06 × 10−5 (range: 0.28–2.49) for 58 healthy dogs, and an upper reference limit of 1.98 × 10−5 (90% confidence interval: 1.76–2.15) was determined. The median UCCR in the 12 dogs with HC (7.38 × 10−5, range 1.86–29.98) was significantly higher than that in the 16 dogs with mimic-HC (1.59 × 10−5, range 0.47–3.42, P<0.001). The area under the curve for UCCR to differentiate HC dogs from mimic-HC dogs was 0.971, with a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 100% when the cut-off value was set at 3.77 × 10−5. The UCCR of 16 paired urine samples collected at home and in hospital showed that the UCCR of samples collected in the hospital was significantly higher than that of samples collected at home (mean difference 3.30 × 10−5, 95% confidence interval: 0.70–5.90, P=0.001). In summary, we established the upper reference limit for UCCR using IMMULITE 2000 XPi in dogs and confirmed that UCCR is a useful diagnostic test for HC in dogs if urine samples are collected at home.
The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy for bovine acute Klebsiella pneumoniae mastitis. We evaluated data from cattle in Ehime, Japan, with naturally occurring acute mastitis due to K. pneumoniae (n=208) or Escherichia coli (n=201). Survival was significantly shorter in cattle with acute K. pneumoniae mastitis (median, 76 days) compared with the disease caused by E. coli (median 464 days). In 2004–2008, because both species were highly susceptible to cefazolin, cases of K. pneumoniae and E. coli mastitis were treated solely with cefazolin, yielding clinical cure rates of 52.8% for K. pneumoniae and 86.0% for E. coli. However, since 2009, the efficacy of treatment of K. pneumoniae mastitis with cefazolin alone has decreased. When cefazolin administered on the first disease day led to clinical improvement, treatment with cefazolin was continued. However, when cefazolin administered on the first disease day failed to yield clinical improvement, the antibiotic was switched to a fluoroquinolone on the second day, resulting in cure rates of 76.7% for K. pneumoniae and 80.0% for E. coli. These findings suggest that, when the first-line drug (e.g., cefazolin) is ineffective, promptly changing to a second-line drug (e.g., a fluoroquinolone) increases the cure rate for bovine K. pneumoniae mastitis.
A 10-year-old castrated male cat showing behavioral (irritation, prowling, and tumbling) and cutaneous abnormalities such as dermal fragility was diagnosed as hyperadrenocorticism with pituitary macroadenoma, concurrent with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Pituitary enlargement (18.0 mm) was observed during magnetic resonance imaging. High endogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone levels (>2,500 pg/ml) were also observed. Although trilostane treatment (5–10 mg/head, daily) was commenced, the clinical signs did not disappear. Insulin and trilostane treatment were discontinued on day 86 after first day of radiation therapy (4 Gy/12 fractions). After radiation therapy, a decreased pituitary tumor size (10.7 mm) was observed on day 301; neurological and dermatological signs exhibited remission. Radiation therapy is the treatment of choice for feline hyperadrenocorticism with pituitary macroadenoma with neurological signs.
Reproductive performance affects the efficiency of the production of animals. Therefore, knowing the reproductive properties of each species or strain of animal is important for proper management of breeding stocks. To elucidate the reproductive properties of female F344/N rats, frequently used for longevity and gerontology research, we monitored the breeding duration, number of deliveries, litter size and weaning rate of their pups. The first delivery was observed at 2.9 ± 0.1 (mean ± standard deviation) months of age (M) and the last delivery was at 15.1 ± 1.8 M. The number of deliveries was 10.4 ± 2.8 (range of 7–16) within the life span of the mother (24.7 ± 5.6 M). The litter sizes at the third (10.0 ± 3.0) or fourth (10.3 ± 2.7) deliveries were higher than for other deliveries. The breeding outcome declined after the fifth delivery yielding reduced litter size or weaning rate, number of delivered mother. These results suggests that though female F344/N rats are able to deliver more than 10 times, the reproductive performance lowered after fifth delivery.
Toxoplasmosis is a widespread protozoan zoonosis. Since ingesting undercooked meat harboring Toxoplasma gondii cyst is considered one of the major transmission routes to humans, the screening of T. gondii in meat-producing animals can reduce the risk of food-borne toxoplasmosis in humans. Among serological diagnostic methods, Luciferase-linked Antibody Capture Assay (LACA) has been found to be a promising platform with high sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate recombinant nanoluciferase fused-T. gondii antigens (rNluc-GRA6, rNluc-GRA7, rNluc-GRA8 and rNluc-BAG1) for their potential use in LACA for pigs. As a result, the sensitivity of GRA6-, GRA7-, GRA8- and BAG1-LACA were 70.0%, 80.0%, 80.0% and 30.0% with specificity 87.0%, 81.5%, 74.1% and 50.0%, respectively. The cocktail LACA using a mixture of rNluc-GRA6, rNluc-GRA7 and rNluc-GRA8 indicated higher sensitivity (90.0%) and a similar specificity (96.3%) in comparison with the commercial ELISA kit. Compared to the Dye-Test as a reference test, cocktail LACA showed strong agreement (kappa value=0.811) when we assessed pig sera collected at the slaughterhouse. In addition, we also successfully established the rapid LACA format for the detection of Toxoplasma infection in pigs (called Rapid-LACA) in which the test could be performed within 30 min. In Rapid-LACA, the protein A pre-coated/blocked plates could be preserved at −30°C, 4°C or room temperature conditions for at least two months without compromising on the quality of assay.
Wild medicinal plants have been traditionally used as antimicrobial agents. Here, we evaluated the in vitro activity of extracts from wild Egyptian desert plants against Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum. From 12 plant extracts tested, the methanolic extracts from Artemisia judaica, Cleome droserifolia, Trichodesma africanum, and Vachellia tortilis demonstrated potent activity against the growth of T. gondii, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of 2.1, 12.5, 21.8, and 24.5 µg/ml, respectively. C. droserifolia, an ethanolic extract of P. undulata, T. africanum, A. judaica, and V. tortilis demonstrated potent efficacy against N. caninum, with mean IC50s of 1.0, 3.0, 3.1, 8.6, and 17.2 µg/ml, respectively. Our data suggest these extracts could provide an alternative treatment for T. gondii and N. caninum infections.
Peroxiredoxin (PRDX) is an antioxidant enzyme family with six isoforms (PRDX1–6). The main function of PRDXs is to decrease cellular oxidative stress by reducing reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide, to H2O. Recently, it has been reported that PRDXs are overexpressed in various malignant tumors in humans, and are involved in the development, proliferation, and metastasis of tumors. However, studies on the expression of PRDXs in tumors of animals are limited. Therefore, in the present study, we immunohistochemically investigated the expression of PRDX1 and 2 in spontaneous canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) and hemangioma (HA), as well as in selected normal tissue and granulation tissue, including newly formed blood vessels. Although there were some exceptions, immunolocalization of PRDX1 and 2 in normal canine tissues was similar to those in humans, rats, or mice. In granulation tissue, angiogenic endothelial cells were strongly positive for PRDX1 and 2, whereas quiescent endothelial cells in mature vessels were negative. Both PRDX1 and 2 were significantly highly expressed in HSA compared to HA. There were no significant differences in the expression of PRDX1 and 2 among the subtypes and primary sites of HSA. These results suggest that PRDX1 and 2 may be involved in the angiogenic phenotypes of endothelial cells in granulation tissue as well as in the behavior in the malignant endothelial tumors.
There has been an increase in temperature and the incidence of extreme weather events, such as heat wave, due to global warming, which has promoted the incidence of livestock diseases. Therefore, it is important to examine the effect of changes in environmental parameters on livestock performance. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between ambient environmental conditions in livestock pen and the physiological parameters of Holstein dairy cows. The results showed that there was a decrease in the red blood cell counts, hemoglobin concentrations, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration of the cows with increasing pen temperature, wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), and temperature humidity index (THI). Additionally, high daily variation in temperature caused a decrease in the serum albumin levels of the cows. Moreover, the lowest serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and magnesium concentrations were observed in November, and were negatively correlated with the 24-hr temperature, WBGT, and THI range of the pen prior to sampling. Multiple regression analysis showed a positive correlation between serum cortisol concentration and 24-hr WBGT range of the pen prior to samplings and packed cell volume. However, serum cortisol and total protein concentrations were negatively correlated. Overall, the findings of the study suggest that large variation in temperature induced stress in the cows, which could be overcome by increased water consumption and improved protein digestion and absorption by the animals, and the addition of minerals, such as calcium to the diet.
This study examined the safety and productivity data analysis of a dairy farm over a 3-year period following the implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system in 2018. The CCP was “the selection of milking cows” and the critical limit was “the withholding period has passed”. No deviation from the critical limit was observed, the safety of the milk is ensured. In addition, the average daily milk yield per cow increased, while the average number of somatic cells/ml decreased. The number of cows with newly diagnosed mastitis increased, and the product excluded. These results suggest that the HACCP system had a positive effect on milk yield per cow and led to a decrease in somatic cells.
As free-living crows are a potential source of Campylobacter infections in broilers and cattle, we characterized Campylobacter spp. isolated from crows using multilocus sequence typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We obtained 82 samples from 27 birds captured at seven different times using a trap set in Tochigi prefecture, Japan. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 55 (67.1%) of the 82 samples and classified into 29 sequence types, of which 21 were novel. Tetracycline and streptomycin resistance rates were 18.2% and 3.6%, respectively. These results show that most types of C. jejuni infecting crows differ from those isolated from humans, broilers, and cattle. Thus, the importance of free-living crows as reservoirs of Campylobacter infections in broilers and cattle may be limited.
A 36-day-old Japanese Black calf exhibited wheezing associated with dyspnea from birth. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed a low oxygen partial pressure of 51 mmHg, low oxygen saturation of 83%, and high carbon dioxide partial pressure of 58.8 mmHg. Computed tomography, endoscopy, and ultrasonography showed cyst formation under the epiglottis. When the cyst was aspirated under ultrasonic guidance to secure the airway, 30 ml of viscous white turbid content was aspirated. The cyst shrank immediately after aspiration, but the wheezing and respiratory symptoms resumed 7 days after aspiration. Therefore, the cyst was surgically removed from the ventral side of the neck. No cyst remodeling was observed 30 days after surgical removal.
After improvement of hygiene protocols on boots in a bovine operation (farm A) in Ibaraki, Japan in September 2017, mortality of calves and the detection of 4 viral pathogen indicators, including bovine rotavirus A (RVA), became significantly low for one year. Subsequently, in the present study, these indicators and mortality were monitored and confirmed all were still low, except for the detection rate of bovine RVA in calves less than 3 weeks old. The present study aimed to investigate G and P genotypic profiles of RVAs in farm A from 2018 to 2020. Molecular analysis using semi-nested multiplex RT-PCR of positive RVAs (n=122) and sequencing of selected samples revealed the presence of G6, G8, G10, P, P and P genotypes and the prevalence of G and/or P combination and mixed infections. The most common combination of G and P types was G10P (41.8%), followed by mixed infection with G6+G10P (11.5%). Phylogenetic analysis of RVAs showed clustering with bovine and other animal-derived RVA strains, suggesting the possibility of multiple reassortant events with strains of bovine and others animal origins. Noteworthy as well is that vaccinated cattle might fail to provide their offspring with maternal immunity against RVA infections, due to insufficient colostrum feeding. Our findings further highlight the importance of RVA surveillance in bovine populations, which may be useful to improving effective routine vaccination and hygiene practices on bovine farms.
The present study investigated severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) infection in raccoons in Wakayama Prefecture from 2007 to 2019. To perform surveillance, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established, and the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA were 100% in comparison with a 50% focus-reduction neutralization assay. Using the established ELISA, we performed serosurveillance of SFTSV infection in 2,299 raccoons in Tanabe region, Wakayama Prefecture from 2007 to 2019. The first anti-SFTSV-positive raccoon was captured in October 2009. The seroprevalence of SFTSV infection was <10% between April 2009 and March 2013, 23.9% between April 2013 and March 2014, 37.5% between April, 2014 and March 2015, and over 50% from April 2015. Next, we performed detection of SFTSV genes in sera of raccoons captured in Wakayama Prefecture after April 2013. The results indicated that 2.4% of raccoons were positive for SFTSV genes and that the frequency of SFTSV infection among raccoons between January and March (0.7%) was lower than that between April and June (3.4%). In addition, virus genes were detected from many specimens, including sera and feces of two raccoons, and viral antigens were detected in lymphoid cells in lymphoid follicles in the colon by immunohistochemical staining. In conclusion, SFTSV had recently invaded the area and had rapidly spread among wild animals. The first patient in this area was reported in June 2014, indicating that raccoons are good sentinels for assessing the risk of SFTSV in humans.
In Japan, hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes hepatitis in humans through the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, including game meat. In the present study, nationwide surveillance of HEV infection among a total of 5,557 wild animals, including 15 species, was conducted in Japan. The prevalence of anti-HEV antibodies in wild boar was 12.4%, with higher positive rates in big boars (over 50 kg, 18.4%) than in small individuals (less than 30 kg, 5.3%). Furthermore, HEV RNA was more frequently detected in piglets than in older boars. Interestingly, the detection of HEV among wildlife by ELISA and RT-PCR suggested that HEV infection in Sika deer was a very rare event, and that there was no HEV infection among wild animals except for wild boar, Sika deer and Japanese monkeys. In conclusion, wild boar, especially piglets, are at high risk of HEV infection, while other wild animals showed less risk or no risk of HEV transmission.
Rat bocavirus (RBoV) and rodent bocavirus (RoBoV) have previously been detected in Rattus norvegicus; however, these viruses have not been reported in rodent populations in Malaysia. We investigated the presence of RBoV and RoBoV in archived rodent specimens. DNA barcoding of the rodent cytochrome c oxidase gene identified five different species: Rattus tanezumi R3 mitotype, Rattus tiomanicus, Rattus exulans, Rattus argentiventer, and Rattus tanezumi sensu stricto. Three spleens were positive for RBoV (1.84%; 3/163), but no RoBoV was detected. Phylogenetic analyzes of the partial non-structural protein 1 gene grouped Malaysian RBoV strains with RBoV strains from China. Further studies among rats from different geographical locations are warranted for this relatively new virus.
Sea turtles have well developed lacrimal glands for their electrolyte homeostasis. In turtles, stapedial artery and palatine artery send branches to supply orbital region, but supply artery for lacrimal glands was not identified. Micro-CT scans showed dorsoventrally large lacrimal glands of sea turtle are supplied by both stapedial artery and palatine artery. The circulatory pattern in cranial region was reconstructed based on the micro-CT scans, showing that sea turtle has basically similar pattern with the common snapping turtle: stapedial artery supplies orbital region and mandibular artery is ramified from stapedial artery. We also investigate the foramen stapedio-temporalis in turtles using osteological specimens. The foramen stapedio-temporalis, where the stapedial artery passes through, has different size among four families of turtles. We compared the sum of cross sections of left and right foramen stapedio-temporalis since homeostasis of one individual is maintained by a pair of lacrimal glands. The size difference may reflect primarily the share of stapedial artery against palatine artery in cranial circulation pattern and blood supply of orbital regions. Our observations confirmed a significantly larger cross-section in the foramen stapedio-temporalis of sea turtles than other freshwater/terrestrial turtles. Since the circulatory pattern is shared, the size difference of foramen stapedio-temporalis reflects the amount of arterial blood supply to lacrimal glands. Therefore, the size of the foramen stapedio-temporalis may indicate marine adaptation of turtles and are applicable to both fossil and osteological specimens.
In this study, we isolated eight strains of Candida albicans from the blowhole air cultures of eight dolphins (one Pacific white-sided dolphin and seven bottlenose dolphins) housed at the Enoshima Aquarium. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungals for these isolates were determined by conducting E-test and broth microdilution assays using the CLSI M27-A3 protocol antifungal susceptibility testing method. Only one of the eight dolphins from which Candida had been isolated had been treated with amphotericin B (AMB), and four had been treated with itraconazole (ITZ). All isolates were identified as Candida albicans, and all were resistant to both ITZ and voriconazole, though the isolates exhibited susceptibility to AMB and micafungin. Based on our findings, we suspect that the frequency of occurrence of azole-resistant Candida species is increasing in captive dolphins as well as in their aquarium environments.
A geriatric female giant panda developed grave signs of illness and was diagnosed with suspected hepatobiliary tract obstruction or other severe hepatic disease such as advanced cholangiohepatitis. The giant panda was euthanized and post mortem computed tomography was performed prior to necropsy. Common bile duct obstruction at the major duodenal papilla by a mineral attenuating calculus causing dilatation of common bile and gallbladder with concurrent multiple areas of liver abscess were detected by postmortem computed tomography. These were confirmed with gross necropsy. This is the first case report of common bile duct obstruction by mineral calculus with concurrent severe cholangiohepatitis in a giant panda.
Trichodectes pinguis, referred to commonly as the bear-biting louse, has been reported in several bear species. However, graphical (blurred or coarse) and genetic information on the louse is limited. In this study, we identified T. pinguis collected from Japanese black bears in the Aomori Prefecture, Japan. We confirmed 12S rDNA sequences derived from the collected T. pinguis and performed molecular phylogenetic analysis based on 12S rDNA. The analysis revealed the parasitic louse to be T. pinguis. Interestingly, the body size of T. pinguis found in this study was smaller than the previous recorded body size of them in Japan and Turkey. To better understand the biting louse infesting bears, morphometric and genetic information from other bear hosts needs to be accumulated.