We compared the effects of acupuncture and electroacupuncture on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation using specific markers, Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (SZDG) in 13-week old Wistar rats. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture were applied simultaneously in the acu-points, ST36 (Zusanli) and GV20 (Baihui), once a day for 3 weeks. Acupuncture and electroacupuncture at these acu-points significantly increased the number of Ki67-positive cells and DCX-immunoreactive neuroblasts compared to the control or sham acupuncture group. Electroacupuncture treatment significantly increased the number of well-developed (tertiary) dendrites in the SZDG compared to acupuncture treatment. These results suggest that both acupuncture and electroacupuncture increase neurogenesis in the normal, but that electroacupuncture has greater effects on neuroblast plasticity than acupuncture in the dentate gyrus.
The yeasts of the Malassezia genus are opportunistic microorganisms in the skin and auricular canal of human and animals, mainly cats, and can cause otitis externa and dermatitis disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of different species of Malassezia in the external ear canal of cats with and without otitis externa. Thirty-one normal cats and 82 animals with otitis externa were clinically examined. Sterile cotton swabs were used to collect specimens from the external ear canal and streaked onto the surface of Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and modified Dixon agar. Malassezia yeasts were isolated from 95.1% and 48.4% of the cats with and without otitis externa, respectively. The rate of isolation in affected animals versus normals was highly significant (P<0.05). Out of the 137 isolates obtained from cats with otitis, 57.7% were identified as M. pachydermatis (with significant frequency; P<0.05), 15.4% as M. obtusa, 11.4% as M. globosa, 7.3% as M. slooffiae, 4.1% as M. sympodialis, 2.4% as M. furfur and 1.6% as M. restricta. Malassezia species were frequently isolated from subjects with age range from 1to 4 years old (42.7%). Our finding of Malassezia isolates indicated that feline otitis externa can be associated with lipid-dependent Malassezia species in addition to the non lipid- dependent species M. pachydermatis.
The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 23 Treponema phagedenis-like spirochetes isolated from dairy cattle with papillomatous digital dermatitis (PDD) lesions in Japan were investigated by a broth microdilution method using 15 antimicrobial agents. Although all MIC values showed a monomodal distribution, the MICs of the antimicrobial agents for 90% (MIC90) of the isolates tested varied among the agents examined. The MIC90 values for penicillin G, ampicillin, and erythromycin were <0.06 μg/ml. In contrast, the MIC90 values for kanamycin, streptomycin, rifampicin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and colistin were >128 μg/ml. Oxytetracycline, lincomycin, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, ceftiofur, and gentamicin showed intermediate values, i.e., 0.5~32 μg/ml. The present study suggested that no isolate had acquired resistance to the antimicrobial agents examined, although they may have natural resistance to some agents. Furthermore, the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility data would provide helpful information for PDD treatment and the development of a selective medium for isolating the organism effectively.
Previous studies revealed that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) induces commitment to the adipocyte lineage in pluripotent stem cells. The present study explored the role of endogenous BMP activity in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The expression of phospho-Smad1/5/8 was monitored because BMP transmits its signal through Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation. Phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 was higher in proliferating preadipocytes, and lower in differentiating adipocytes after removing differentiation inducers. Reporter assays revealed that dorsomorphin predominantly inhibits the BMP pathway but not the structurally related TGF-β/activin pathway. The addition of dorsomorphin to the culture medium prior to treatment with differentiation inducers impaired lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. The present study indicated that activation of BMP signaling in preadipocytes is required for these cells to initiate the adipogenic program.
Acetone and its metabolite isopropanol are produced by gut microbes as well as by the host's metabolism. To evaluate the production of acetone and isopropanol in alimentary tracts, a total of 80 pair-samples of feces and ruminal fluid were taken in lactating dairy cows that had been fed silage-containing diets. Acetone and isopropanol were analyzed, together with ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Isopropanol was detected in 57 fecal and all the ruminal samples; however, the ruminal isopropanol and ethanol concentrations were distinctly lower than those in the feces. Acetone was detected in 13 fecal and 53 ruminal samples; however, there was no significant difference in acetone concentrations between the feces and the ruminal fluid. The group with higher fecal isopropanol concentration showed higher fecal proportions of acetate accompanied by low proportion of minor VFA, which consisted of isobutyrate and iso- and n-valerate. In the group with higher ruminal isopropanol concentration, ethanol concentration was higher; the ruminal VFA profiles showed only a negligible difference. Fecal and ruminal ethanol concentrations were not affected by feed ethanol. Thus, the colon showed an accelerated alcoholic fermentation compared with the rumen of dairy cows; however, acetone was present at higher frequency in the rumen than in the feces.
We performed continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in clinically healthy dogs (n=7) to evaluate the utility of nafamostat mesilate (NM) as an anticoagulant. In 3 of the 7 dogs, CRRT had to be discontinued before the target duration due to coagulation in the extracorporeal circuit, into which NM was administered constantly at the rate of 2.0-6.0 mg/kg per hour. The rate of administration of NM was greater than the recommended dose of NM in humans. Further, all the dogs suffered vomiting during CRRT with NM infusion. We therefore recommend that NM is not used as an anticoagulant during CRRT in dogs.
The effects of down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, by small interfering RNA (siRNA) against the canine Bcl-2 genes, on apoptosis were investigated by transfecting MCM-N1 (canine malignant oral melanoma cell line) cells with siRNA using cationic liposomes. The siRNA against the canine Bcl-2 genes increased the number of apoptotic cells. In addition, sequence-specific down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression was measured by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. The siRNA directed against these genes reduced both mRNA and protein expression in the MCM-N1 cells. Our study suggests the importance of Bcl-2 in canine melanoma tumors for inducing apoptosis and reinforces using Bcl-2 as a putative therapeutic target in canine malignant melanoma tumor.
Prolonged interference or suppression of maternal antibodies of the humoral immune response of newly hatched chicks to active immunization has been documented; however, the immunological mechanisms responsible for such suppression are still unclear. Laying hens were immunized with dinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH). Purified maternal anti-DNP or non-specific IgY antibodies were transferred by yolk sac inoculation to newly hatched chicks, and they were immunized with DNP-KLH or rabbit serum albumen (RSA) at 1 and 4 weeks of age. The concentrations of anti-DNP and anti-RSA antibodies in serum samples of these chicks were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The immune responses of the chicks that received a high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and were immunized with an appropriate dose of DNP-KLH were suppressed. However, those of the chicks that received the same high dose of maternal non-specific IgY antibodies and were immunized with an appropriate dose of DNP-KLH and those of the chicks that received a high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and were immunized with RSA were not suppressed. On the other hand, suppression of anti-DNP antibody production would not be induced if the chicks received a high dose of antigen specific maternal antibodies and were immunized with a high dose of the same antigen. These results revealed that the immune suppressive effect of maternal antibodies on the immune response of the newly hatched chicks was antigen specific and depended mainly on the ratio of antigen/maternal antibody at the time of immunization.
Plasma iohexol clearance (PCio) is a practical method for measuring the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in clinical settings. However, it is too time-consuming for routine application and requires hospitalization for at least half a day. Therefore, the development of a simpler procedure for plasma clearance is necessary to allow the frequent measurement of GFR in clinical settings. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a single sampling method for estimation of PCio in dogs and cats with various kidney functions. The PCio determined by the 1-compartment model using 3 samples (PCio 3samples) was used as a reference for the evaluation of the single sampling method (PCio single). Plasma iohexol concentration was determined by a cerium arsenite colorimetric method. PCio single was calculated using the equation obtained by nonlinear regression analysis. PCio single was significantly correlated with PCio 3samples in both dogs and cats (dogs: R2=0.985, P<0.001, cats: R2=0.986, P<0.001). In a receiver operating characteristics analysis, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity for detecting decreased GFR were 0.995 [SE, 0.003], 98%, and 93% for dogs and 0.993 [SE, 0.003], 98%, and 93% for cats, respectively. These results demonstrate that PCio single may be very useful for the detection of decreasing GFR in dogs and cats.
We report a cervical intraspinal cyst in a dog that was initially tetraparetic but spontaneously recovered completely. MRI revealed a well-demarcated intraspinal cyst located dorsally to a degenerated intervertebral disc. The location of the cyst and its signal features on MRI resembled those of discal cysts previously reported in humans. It has been reported in dogs that clinical signs of a intraspinal cyst are similar to those of intervertebral disc herniation and both conditions require surgical intervention. Unexpectedly, our case showed rapid spontaneous recovery and the follow-up MRI revealed complete resolution of the intraspinal cyst and spinal cord compression. Spontaneous recovery of degenerative intraspinal cyst may occur in dogs, similar to rare human cases as reported previously.
To evaluate whether canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can migrate and adopt neural phenotypes in the developing mouse brain we transplanted fluorescently labeled BMSCs into the lateral ventricle of immunocompromised neonatal mice. Most fibroblasts, used as a control, and BMSCs isolated from adult dogs remained around the injection site and exhibited a spindle-shaped appearance. A small number of BMSCs from young dogs were found in the subventricular zone, rostral migratory stream, and olfactory bulbs, and retained expression of neuron marker. Our findings suggest that BMSCs isolated from adult dogs have limited ability of migration and differentiation toward neural cells in the developing brain. Bone marrow of young dogs may contain a primitive stem cell population with neural differentiation capacity.
In clinical practice, photophobia resulting from persistent mydriasis may be associated with dysfunction of ocular parasympathetic nerves or primary iris lesions. We encountered a 5-year-old Miniature Dachshund and a 7-year-old Shih Tzu with mydriasis, abnormal pupillary light reflexes, and photophobia. Except for sustained mydriasis and photophobia, no abnormalities were detected on general physical examination or ocular examination of either dog. We performed pharmacological examinations using 0.1% and 2% pilocarpine to evaluate and diagnose parasympathetic denervation of the affected pupillary sphincter muscles. On the basis of the results, we diagnosed a pupillary abnormality due to parasympathetic dysfunction and not to overt primary iris lesions. The test revealed that neuroanatomic localization of the lesion was postciliary ganglionic in the first dog.
In order to clarify whether cytokeratin (CK) 8/18 is a useful immunohistochemical marker for hepatocellular proliferative lesions in mice, partially hepatectomized male ICR mice were given 0.6% piperonyl butoxide (PBO) for 8 (Experiment I) or 25 weeks (Experiment II) after N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) initiation treatment, and the livers were subjected to histological examinations on hematoxylin and eosin (HE) stained sections, CK8/18 immunohistochemistry and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) histochemistry. In Experiment I, the multiplicity of hepatocellular foci in paraffin-embedded sections which were observed in HE-stained sections and positive for CK8/18 was 10.17 and 18.50, respectively, while that of hepatocellular foci in frozen sections which were observed in HE-stained sections and positive/negative for GGT was 6.17 and 8.17, respectively. In Experiment II, the total multiplicity of hepatocellular foci in paraffin-embedded sections which were observed in HE-stained sections and positive/negative for CK8/18 was 4.47 and 23.17, respectively, while that of hepatocellular foci in frozen sections which were observed in HE-stained sections and positive/negative for GGT was 2.50 and 3.50, respectively. Most of the hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas observed in HE-stained sections were positive for CK8/18, but some of the adenomas were negative for CK8/18. These findings indicate that more hepatocellular proliferative lesions can be detected in CK8/18 immunohistochemistry in addition to those observed in HE-stained sections, and suggest that CK8/18 may become a useful immunohistochemical marker for detecting hepatocellular proliferative lesions in mice.
Although the increase in the number of wild crows is causing social problems in urban areas, crows play an increasingly important role in monitoring serious infectious diseases, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza and West Nile fever. To gain a better understanding of normal conditions and common disorders in crows, we conducted a retrospective study of wild crows captured in central Japan in the 1990s and examined the necropsy findings from 166 jungle crows (Corvus macrorhynchos) and 74 carrion crows (Corvus corone). We found frequent development of lymphoid foci and inflammatory lesions in the kidneys of both species of crows. These findings were unrelated to place or date of capture, indicating the universality of renal lesion developments in the Corvus species. In the kidneys, suppurative granulomas were concentrated in the renal cortex and the vein wall, indicating the haematoegenous spread of causal agents. However, the glomeruli remained intact, unlike the spreading of causal agents via arterial blood, which strongly suggested the renal portal blood as a possible entry route of causal agents. The renal lymphoid foci showed the same distribution as the granulomas, supporting the possibility of external agents entering through renal portal blood. We also identified types of parasites in Japanese wild crows by means of histopathological analysis. We hope that our data will contribute to the appropriate evaluation and a better understanding of pathological conditions in Japanese wild crows.
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major contributing factors in atherosclerosis and the development of cardiovascular disease. Platelets from hypercholesterolemic rabbit have an increased cholesterol content and a hypersensitivity to endogenous aggregating agonists. Although rabbit has been widely used in studies of hypercholesterolemia, the precise role of platelet cholesterol in rabbit platelet activation has not been studied. In the present study, to determine the direct role of cholesterol on rabbit platelet activation, we examined the effect of in vitro modulation of cholesterol content on platelet activation. Cholesterol-depleted rabbit platelets by the treatment with methyl-β-cyclodextrin showed decreased platelet aggregation by physiological agonists such as thrombin, adenosine diphosphate, and collagen. The inhibition of thrombin-induced aggregation in cholesterol-depleted platelets was restored by cholesterol repletion in platelets. The cholesterol depletion also inhibited Ca2+ mobilization, which plays a pivotal role in the platelet activation induced by physiological agonists. We showed that the Ca2+ influx pathway is strongly suppressed by cholesterol depletion more than Ca2+ release from intracellular Ca2+ stores in platelets stimulated with thrombin. Furthermore, platelet aggregation induced by PMA, a potent protein kinase C activator, was also depressed by cholesterol depletion. On the other hand, cholesterol enrichment in platelets augmented thrombin-induced aggregation and Ca2+ mobilization. These findings suggest that cholesterol plays a critical role in regulating rabbit platelet activation, and provides fundamental information regarding hypercholesterolemia-mediated effects on cells in the rabbit model.
We investigated the pharmacokinetics of penciclovir after oral administration of its prodrug famciclovir to horses. Following an oral dose of famciclovir at 20 mg/kg, maximum plasma concentrations of penciclovir occurred between 0.75 and 1.5 hr (mean 0.94 ± 0.38 hr) after dosing and were in the range 2.22 to 3.56 μg/ml (mean 2.87 ± 0.61 μg/ml). The concentrations of penciclovir declined in a biphasic manner after the peak concentration was attained. The mean half-life of the rapid elimination phase was 1.73 ± 0.34 hr whereas that of the slow elimination phase was 34.34 ± 13.93 hr. These pharmacokinetic profiles observed were similar to those of another antiherpesvirus drug, acyclovir, previously reported in horses following oral dosing of its prodrug valacyclovir.
Zearalenone (ZEA), an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several Fusarium species, is converted into a more active metabolite, α-zearalenol (α-ZOL), and a less active metabolite, β-zearalenol (β-ZOL), by liver subcellular fractions, but evidence of this reaction in other tissues is limited. In order to clarify the role of various tissues in ZEA metabolism in ruminant, we investigated the in vitro metabolic conversion of ZEA by various tissues of adult male and female goats. The results indicate that in the liver, α-ZOL was a major metabolite in cytosolic fractions, whereas β-ZOL was a predominant metabolite in microsome fractions. Such a feature of ZEA metabolism was confirmed by the Km and Vmax values from an enzyme kinetics experiment. Post-mitochondrial fractions of the liver converted ZEA predominantly to α-ZOL, indicating that the goat liver may function as an activation organ rather than as an inactivation organ, for ZEA metabolism in goats. In most other tissues including rumen tissue, the activity converting ZEA to α-ZOL was higher than that to β-ZOL. The amount of α-ZOL formed by gastrointestinal tissues was 1/8-1/3 of that by the liver tissue in terms of the amount per mg protein, but the contribution of all gastrointestinal tissues to production of α-ZOL was estimated to be comparable to that of the liver because of the large mass of gastrointestinal tissues in ruminants. Overall the results show the importance of not only the liver tissue, but also other tissues, especially gastrointestinal ones, in the formation of a potent estrogenic metabolite, α-ZOL.
Flavivirus-infected sera are known to show cross-reactions in serodiagnoses of heterologous flavivirus infections. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is endemic in Asia and, in Japan, many horses are vaccinated against JEV. However, the cross-reactivity level of JEV-vaccinated horse sera in the serodiagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) has not been clarified. The antibody cross-reactivity of JEV-vaccinated horse sera in WNV serological tests, such as the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), IgG indirect ELISA (IgG-ELISA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, was examined. All JEV-vaccinated horse sera were positive for JEV antibodies with JEV PRNT at both 90% and 50% plaque reductions. In WNV PRNT, 16.7% of the horses were positive at 90% plaque reduction, and 50% of the horses were positive at 50% plaque reduction. All the JEV-vaccinated horse sera showed positive-to-negative (P/N) ratios of over 2.0 with JEV IgG-ELISA, and half of them had P/N ratios of over 2.0 with WNV IgG-ELISA. There was little difference between the JEV HI and WNV HI titers in individual horses. These results indicate that in serosurveillance of WNV, JEV-vaccinated horses can produce false-positive results in WNV IgG-ELISA, HI and PRNT.
Variations of the hepatic duct terminal were examined in 50 cadavers of mixed-breed dogs. The hepatic duct was formed by 4 major tributaries in 70% of the dogs and by 3 tributaries in 30% of the dogs. The order of hepatic duct termination, proximal to the gallbladder, was as follows: the duct from the right medial lobe, then the quadrate, then the common duct from the right lateral and caudate lobes and finally the duct from the left lobes in most of the dogs (90%). In only 10% of the dogs, the duct from the quadrate lobe terminated proximal to the duct from the right medial lobe. The length of the cystic duct was more than 5 mm in most dogs (88%). This study showed anatomical variations of the extrahepatic biliary tree and their preoperational imaging. These results may be useful for shortening the operative period and provide basic information for the application of laparoscopic cholecystectomies.
An 11-year-old male mixed breed dog diagnosed with Cushing's disease and diabetes mellitus was treated by hypophysectomy. After surgery, the hypercortisolemia disappeared and the diabetes status improved. The insulin requirement to control hyperglycemia gradually decreased. At 12 weeks after surgery, there was no requirement for insulin and we suspected the diabetes was completely resolved. In the present case, diabetes mellitus seems to be secondary to Cushing's disease. In conclusion, this mixed breed dog with coexisting Cushing's disease and diabetes mellitus is the first case showing the effectiveness of hypophysectomy to treat diabetes mellitus secondary to Cushing's disease in dogs.
Relaxin, a member of the insulin superfamily, has diverse functions in both reproductive and nonreproductive tissues. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of recombinant relaxin on the in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes and their subsequent embryonic development following in vitro fertilization. Three concentrations of relaxin (1, 10, and 100 ng/ml) were used in the in vitro maturation (IVM) medium [TCM supplemented with 10% (v/v) porcine follicular fluid, 10 ng/ml of epidermal growth factor, 4 IU/ml of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin, and (only for the first 22 hr) 4 IU/ml of human chorionic gonadotropin]. Relaxin was used during the entire IVM period. Nuclear maturation of oocytes was examined under ultraviolet light following staining with bisbenzimide (Hoechst 33342) for 5 min and mounted on a glass slide. The glutathione (GSH) content in oocytes, an important indicator of cytoplasmic maturity, was measured using a micro-glutathione assay. Cryopreserved boar semen was used for in vitro fertilization. Embryos were cultured in modified NCSU-23 medium supplemented with 0.5 mM pyruvate and 5 mM lactate. Although nuclear maturation of oocytes did not vary, the GSH content in oocytes was significantly higher when cultured with 1 ng/ml (7.9 pmol/oocyte) and 10 ng/ml (8.47 pmol/oocyte) compared to a control group. However, no additional beneficial effect was observed when 100 ng/ml of relaxin was added to the IVM medium. A significantly higher rate of blastocyst formation was observed with 10 ng of relaxin (32.4%) compared to the control (14.4%) or 100 ng of relaxin (21.4%). No difference between 1 ng and 10 ng was observed in terms of the blastocyst production rate. The inner cell mass cell numbers in relaxin-treated groups were significantly higher than control, and trophectoderm cell number was the highest in the 10 ng relaxin group. Relaxin (10 ng/ml) can be supplemented in IVM medium to support the maturation of porcine oocytes.
Tetrazolium salts such as XTT and MTT are widely used to produce formazan for cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assays through bioreductase activity. However, the XTT assay showed significant increase in MDBK cell viability when cells were treated with both 50 and 100 μM of the pro-oxidant, tert-butylhydroquinone (t-BHQ), although the crystal violet assay showed no cytotoxic effect with these concentrations, and the induction of lipid peroxidation was not observed. We investigated the mechanism of enhancement of XTT substrate reduction after treatment of MDBK cells with t-BHQ, leading to apparent increase in cell viability. t-BHQ caused an increase in absorbance at 340 nm in culture medium, suggesting that t-BHQ increases cellular production and release of NADH and/or NADPH. Although t-BHQ did not change the NADH concentration in cell culture medium, the addition of NADP+-dependent glutathione reductase decreased the XTT reduction to the control level, indicating cellular release of NADPH. t-BHQ also increased intracellular glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, producing NADPH. Taken together, our findings indicate that t-BHQ treatment activates NADPH generating enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase followed by release of NADPH in the cell culture medium, resulting in direct XTT reduction by NADPH.
The pathogenicity of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) isolates of Japan were evaluated by using the CBA mouse model. CBA mice were inoculated with eight Japanese EHV-1 strains (89c1, 90c16, 90c18, 97c11, 98c12, 00c19, 01c1 and HH-1) and one British strain (Ab4p). 89c1 caused slight body weight loss and nervous signs in mice at 8 days post infection (dpi). Severe weight loss and nervous signs were observed in mice inoculated with Ab4p at 6 dpi. The other strains did not cause apparent clinical signs. Infectious viruses were recovered from the lungs of all groups at 2 dpi. Histopathological analysis revealed interstitial pneumonia in the lungs of all mice inoculated with EHV-1. Encephalitis or meningoencephalitis was observed in the brains of mice inoculated with 89c1, 90c18, 97c11, 98c12, 01c1 and Ab4p. Japanese EHV-1 strains showed low pathogenicity in CBA mice, whereas the sequential affects of infection are similar to those of the highly pathogenic strain Ab4p. These results suggest that field isolates of EHV-1 have varying degrees of pathogenicity in CBA mice.
This study was performed to isolate a velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain currently found in Indonesia for establishing a domestic reference virus for future pathological and molecular epidemiological studies. A chicken suspected to have contracted Newcastle disease (ND) in a local outbreak in Bali was selected for NDV isolation. Atrophy of lymphoid tissues such as the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen; intestinal haemorrhage; and oedema of the brain were observed in the chicken. Histopathological examination revealed severe non-suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis characterised by neuronal necrosis, multifocal to diffuse gliosis, and perivascular cuffing of mononuclear cells, hemorrhagic necrosis of the trachea, intestines and bursa of Fabricius, and various degree of lymphoid depletion and necrosis of the lymphoid tissues. After ND was confirmed immunohistochemically, the NDV was propagated by inoculating tissue homogenate of the diseased chicken in embryonated eggs. Phylogenetic analysis based on the F gene nucleotide sequence revealed that this isolate belonged to genotype VII. The deduced amino acid sequence of the isolated NDV F protein at the cleavage site was 112RRQKRF117, which is typically found in virulent NDV isolates. Pathogenicity indexes such as the mean death time (MDT) and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) were 54 hr and 1.77, respectively. Pathological findings, phylogenetic analysis, amino acid sequence of the F protein cleavage site, and pathogenicity index test results revealed the NDV isolate, designated as NDV/Bali-1/07, to be a novel Indonesian velogenic NDV strain belonging to group VII.