Although it has been commonly believed that birds are more dependent on the vision and audition than the olfaction, recent studies indicate that the olfaction of birds is related to the reproductive, homing, and predatory behaviors. In an attempt to reveal the dependence on the olfactory system in crows, we examined the olfactory system of the Japanese jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) by histological, ultrastructural, and lectin histochemical methods. The olfactory epithelium (OE) of the crow occupied remarkably a small area of the nasal cavity (NC) and had the histological and ultrastructural features like other birds. The olfactory bulb (OB) of the crow was remarkably small and did not possess the olfactory ventricle. The left and right halves of the OB were fused in many cases. In the lectin histochemistry, soybean agglutinin (SBA) and Vicia villosa agglutinin (VVA) stained a small number of the receptor cells (RCs) in the OE and the olfactory nerve layer (ONL) and glomerular layer (GL) on the dorsocaudal region of the OB. Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-E (PHA-E) stained several RCs in the OE and the ONL and GL on the ventral region of the OB. These results suggest that 1) the crow has less-developed olfactory system than other birds, and 2) the dedicated olfactory receptor cells project their axons to the specific regions of the OB in the crow.
In this study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on calretinin (CR), a marker of early postmitotic neurons, immunoreactivity in the dentate gyrus (DG) of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, before or after diabetes onset, and Zucker lean control (ZLC) rats. For this study, 6-week-old ZLC and prediabetic ZDF rats, and 22-week-old ZLC and ZDF rats were exercised on the treadmill. Sedentary ZLC and ZDF rats of the same age were used as exercise experiment controls. The exercised prediabetic ZDF rats did not show diabetes onset, while the sedentary prediabetic ZDF rats showed significantly increased blood glucose levels. The exercised diabetic ZDF rats exhibited a decrease in their blood glucose levels compared to the sedentary diabetic ZDF rats, but the levels were still above 20 mmol/l. ZLC rats of both ages were in the normoglycemic range. CR immunoreactivity was detected throughout the DG, including the subgranular zone and the polymorphic layer. Diabetic rats exhibited a significant decrease in the number of CR-immunoreactive cells and fibers in the DG. Exercise in the prediabetic ZDF rats significantly increased the number of CR-immunoreactive cells and fibers in the subgranular zone of the DG. In the ZLC and ZDF rats of chronic diabetic phase, exercise increased CR-immunoreactive neurons in the hilar region. These results suggest that diabetes significantly reduces the number of postmitotic CR-immunoreactive neurons and the intensity of immunoreactivity and that exercise increases these CR-related parameters in a diabetic stage-dependent manner.
To clarify the regulatory mechanism by bactericidal peptides secretion, the secretion of bactericidal peptides was immunohistochemically and histoplanimetrically compared with the degree of Gram-positive/negative bacterial colonization throughout the rat alimentary tract. In the associated exocrine glands from the oral cavity to the stomach, no comparable differences were observed under the changes of development of indigenous bacterial colonies. In the small intestine, immunopositive granules for lysozyme and secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) were markedly decreased, whereas immunopositive vacuoles in the Paneth cells were more increased at sites with hyper-development of indigenous bacterial colonies in the intervillous spaces than at sites with no or less development. No changes in exocrine glands were observed in the large intestine because of the constant existence of large quantities of bacteria. Gram-positive bacterial colonies on the mucosal surfaces were dominant from the oral cavity to the stomach. Gram-negative bacteria were dominant in the large intestine, and the distributions of both Gram-positive and negative bacteria were intermediate in the small intestine. These findings suggest that lysozyme and sPLA2 secreted from the Paneth cells contribute to the regulation of the proliferation of indigenous bacteria in the intervillous spaces of the small intestine, and that the inversion of distributions of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria in the alimentary tract might be caused by the secretion of lysozyme and sPLA2 in the small intestine.
In this study, we investigated the effects of S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC), a major sulfur-containing compound present in garlic, on Ki67- and doublecortin (DCX)-positive cells, which were used as a marker for cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation, respectively, in the mouse dentate gyrus. SAC (300 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered to 8-week-old mice once a day for 3 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed at 11 weeks of age. SAC administration significantly increased Ki67-positive nuclei and DCX-immunoreactive neuroblasts in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Furthermore, serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A) levels in the hippocampus were also increased. These results suggest that SAC significantly increased cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation by increasing 5-HT1A levels in the dentate gyrus.
We constructed a new expression system for staphylococcal exfoliative toxin (ET). The expression vector, pETA-exp2, was constructed based on Bacillus-Escherichia shuttle vector pHY300PLK. The pETA-exp2 vector includes the regulator of the ETA gene (eta), the promoter and Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequences of eta, a SalI sequence at the end of the signal sequence of eta, a nucleotide sequence encoding mature ETA, an XhoI site, a 6x His sequence just before the stop codon and the end of the transcription sequence of eta. The nucleotide sequences coding for the mature proteins of ETB, ExhA, ExhB, ExhC, ExhD and SHETB were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and inserted into pETA-exp2. These recombinant plasmids were transformed into Bacillus megaterium. The major protein in the culture supernatant of the transformant was recombinant ET (rET). The yields of all rETs were high, and all of them showed exfoliative activity in susceptible animals. The antigenicities of rETs and ETs were not distinguishable from each other.
H. parasuis isolates (n=112) from pigs were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility against 23 antimicrobial agents by the disk diffusion method. All isolates were sensitive to Florfenico and most strains were sensitive to Cefotaxime (103/112; 92%), Ceftazidime (99/112; 88.4%), Chloramphenicol (90/112; 80.4%) and Gentamicin (85/112; 75.9%). High resistance levels to Nalidixic acid (84.8%), TMP (67.9%) and Trimethoprim+Sulfamethoxazole (58%) were observed. Genomic DNA extracted from 52 isolates resistant to at least seven antimicrobial agents was analyzed by PFGE and 46 distinct PFGE patterns identified. Diverse variation was observed between the drug-resistant H. parasuis isolates examined, suggesting that resistance traits were acquired independently by the respective isolates.
The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in 128 Escherichia coli isolates was investigated in two species of invasive alien mammals (IAMs): the small Asian mongoose (SAM) and Japanese weasel (JW). The SAM is found on the main island of Okinawa, Japan, where a large number of livestock is available, and the JW is present on a small island, where is isolated from the main island, and have a small number of livestock. We focused on the two IAMs, inhabiting under the different environments, and compared their prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli. In the comparison of the frequencies of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates between the SAM and JW, JW showed significantly higher prevalence of resistance against three drugs, ampicillin, chlortetracycline and nalidixic acid, compared with SAM's test results (P<0.05). The blaTEM gene and the aph1 gene were detected in 35 subjects (91%) of ampicillin-resistant isolates and 6 subjects (100%) of kanamycin-resistant isolates, respectively. The tet (A) gene was detected in 62 subjects (46%) of CTC-resistant isolates, and the tet (B) gene was detected in 25 subjects (8%) of those in IAM. The present results suggest that some IAMs were the carrier of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and their genes, and the frequencies of these resistances were different between two IAM species.
Nonpathogenic and opportunistic bacteria are increasingly recognized as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes. However, nothing is known about the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in such bacteria isolated from the udders of healthy animals. In this study, 150 Gram-negative strains isolated from milk samples of healthy dairy cows were screened for the presence of a large pool of antibiotic resistance markers. Strains carrying β-lactamase-resistance genes, including SHV-1, SHV-11, SHV-27, TEM-1, OXY-1, CTX-M-2 and class 1 integrons, were detected. Our findings give the first evidence that nonpathogenic and opportunistic bacteria carrying antibiotic resistance genes can asymptomatically invade healthy udders and suggest that they may play a role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes to the other udder pathogens.
We examined the presence of hemoplasmas, hemotropic mycoplasmas, among 11 sheep (Ovis aries) with regenerative and hemolytic anemia and found six of them were positive by real-time PCR. The positive samples were then subjected to conventional PCR for direct sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Nucleotide sequences of all the positive samples were identified as the 16S rRNA gene of `Candidatus Mycoplasma haemovis' by phylogenetic analysis, demonstrating the infections with this particular hemoplasma species in Japan.
We evaluated the effects of short-term (up to 60 min) irradiation of corn silage with ultraviolet (UV) light (intensity: 1.5 mW/cm2 at 254 nm UV-C wavelength), along with constant stirring of the silage, on the concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON), a major feed-contaminating mycotoxin, and those of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and β-carotene (pro-vitamin A). The initial DON concentration in artificially contaminated silage was set at approximately 60 μg/g dry silage weight. After irradiation, the level of DON was decreased significantly (P<0.05) by approximately 13 μg/g (22%) on average at 30 min, and by 12 μg/g (21%) at 60 min. However, the concentrations of the vitamins remained relatively unaffected. Although further improvement is needed, short-term UV irradiation seems a promising on-farm method for reducing the level of DON in feedstuffs.
A novel canine tumor cell line designated as the CMS-C cell line was established from pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) raised in the prostate gland of a 14-year-old intact male mixed-breed dog. CMS-C cells displayed the same immunohistochemical characteristics (positive for vimentin and desmin and negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle actin) as the original tumor cells and express myoD1 and UCP3, known as striated muscle-specific molecules, as shown by RT-PCR assay. Therefore, the established CMS-C cell line appears to be of rhabdomyoblast cell origin. The CMS-C cell line established from pleomorphic RMS will be a useful tool for further studies about canine RMS.
We evaluated the diagnostic significance of the N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration in asymptomatic cats with cardiac enlargement. The plasma NT-proBNP concentration was measured in 21 clinically healthy control cats, and 67asymptomatic cats with cardiac enlargement defined as end-diastolic interventricular septum thickness (IVSd) and/or diastolic left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWd) >0.6 cm, vertebla heart scale (VHS) >7.8, and/or left atria/aorta ratio (LA/Ao) >1.5. The plasma NT-proBNP concentration in the asymptomatic cats with cardiac enlargement (median: 662.0, range: 24.0-2,449.0 pmol/l) was significantly higher than that in the controls (24.0, 24.0-95.0 pmol/l, P<0.001). The plasma NT-proBNP concentration was significantly correlated with the VHS, LA/Ao, IVSd and LVPWd (r=0.578, P<0.001; r=0.462, P<0.001; r=0.563, P<0.001; and r=0.764, P<0.001, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a cut-off value of 95.0 pmol/l for the detection of asymptomatic cats with cardiac enlargement, sensitivity and specificity of 88.1 and 100%, respectively, and an area under the curve of 0.971. These results suggest that the determination of the plasma NT-proBNP concentration can be a useful screening test for asymptomatic cats with cardiac enlargement.
Ultrasonography is a sensitive and specific screening method for assessing the adrenal glands. The upper limit of the normal adrenal gland width is used as 7.5 mm. It is not known if adrenal gland width remains consistent with body weight. A reliable criterion of adrenal gland width in small breed dogs should be established. Small breed dogs with body weights of less than 10 kg were divided into two groups: 189 normal dogs and 22 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH). A retrospective study was conducted on dogs seen between January 1, 2006, and February 10, 2008. One hundred eighty-nine dogs of 14 different small breeds were enrolled in the normal adrenal gland group; the median gland width was 4.20 mm. Twenty-two dogs were in the PDH group; the median gland width was 6.30 mm. The cut-off value between normal adrenal glands and PDH was 6.0 mm. This figure gave a sensitivity and specificity of 75 and 94%, respectively, for detecting PDH. The adrenal gland appeared as a peanut shape with homogeneous hypoechoic parenchyma in normal dogs and in most dogs with PDH as well. This study was performed in a large population of small breed dogs and suggests that the normal adrenal gland size in small breed dogs is smaller than previously reported. We believe that a cut-off of 6.0 mm may be used as the criterion for differentiating a normal adrenal gland from adrenal hyperplasia.
Non-invasive and immediate estimation of left atrial pressure (LAP) is very useful for the management of mitral regurgitation (MR), and many reports have assessed echocardiographic estimations of LAP to date. However, it has been unclear of which examination and evaluate article possess the best accuracy for the MR severity. The present research aims to establish the echocardiographic estimation equation of LAP that is well applicable for clinical MR dogs. After the chordae tendineae rupture was experimentally induced via left atriotomy in six healthy beagle dogs (three males and three females, two years old, weighing between 9.8 to 12.8 kg), a radio telemetry transmitter catheter was inserted, which allows the continuous recordings of LAP without the use of sedation. Approximately 5 weeks after the surgery, echocardiographic examination, indirect blood pressure measurement, measurement of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and LAP measurement by way of the radio telemetry system was performed simultaneously. Subsequently, simple linear regression equations between LAP and each variable were obtained, and the equations were evaluated whether to be applicable for clinical MR dogs. As a result, the ratio of early diastolic mitral flow to early diastolic lateral mitral annulus velocity (E/Ea) had the strongest correlation as maximum LAP=7.03*(E/Ea)-54.86 (r=0.74), and as mean LAP=4.94*(E/Ea)-40.37 (r=0.70) among the all variables. Therefore, these two equations associated with E/Ea should bring more precise and instant estimations of maximum and mean LAP in clinical MR dogs.
For 6 years, 5 Japanese Black cows of the same herd showed anorexia, depression, and dehydration with no feces in the rectum. Biomedical examination of 3 animals showed severe hypokalemia and hypochloremia. Although the first 3 animals died or were slaughtered (causes unknown), necropsy results showed that the cow in case 4 had intestinal obstruction due to phytobezoar derived from napier grass, fed mainly to the cattle as roughage. Therefore, farmers were recommended to avoid the hard root-stem portion of napier grass as roughage. Consequently, less phytobezoar was recovered from the fifth cow, and no similar clinical case of intestinal obstruction was observed thereafter. This is the first report on intestinal obstruction caused by phytobezoars derived from napier grass.
Since blood cells produce various soluble factors like cytokines or chemokines, gene expression analysis in whole blood could be important to investigate disease pathogenesis. In gene expression analysis with quantitative real-time RT-PCR, accurate determination of relative mRNA transcription levels requires appropriate reference genes. To identify the optimal reference gene in canine whole blood, we compared transcription levels of twelve candidate reference genes in total RNA extracted using the PAXgene system. The stability of the reference gene was evaluated by three different statistical programs, GeNorm, Normfinder and Bestkeeper. The results indicated that SDHA, CG14980 and TBP were the most stably expressed genes, which can be used as optimal reference genes for gene expression analysis in canine whole blood.
The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-Leprfa (SDT- fa/fa) rat is a new model of obese type 2 diabetes. The female SDT-fa/fa rat shows obesity, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia from a young age. However, it is not known whether diabetes and estrogen deficiency can lead to bone abnormalities in the female SDT-fa/fa rat. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of ovariectomy (OVX) on bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD) in the female SDT-fa/fa rat. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were used as control animals. The BMDs of the whole tibia and fifth lumbar (L5) vertebral body were analyzed at 30 weeks after OVX. Serum osteocalcin, a bone formation marker, and urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD), a bone resorption marker, were sequentially analyzed before and at 5, 15 and 30 weeks after OVX. Serum osteocalcin and urine DPD levels were lower in SDT-fa/fa rats than in control rats before OVX. Both serum osteocalcin and urine DPD levels were elevated in control rats 5-30 weeks after OVX, but only the urine DPD levels were elevated in SDT-fa/fa rats 5-30 weeks after OVX. SDT-fa/fa rats showed a decrease in the BMDs of the whole tibia and L5 vertebral body compared with control rats. OVX decreased the BMDs of the whole tibia and L5 vertebral body in control rats, but not in SDT-fa/fa rats. These data suggest that estrogen deficiency is not a risk factor for bone loss in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The hearts of four dogs (a 4-year-old Shetland sheepdog, a 4-year-old Labrador retriever, a 5-year-old English Bulldog, and a 6-year-old Dalmatian; three males and one female), that had died suddenly and had been clinically diagnosed as having arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), were studied post mortem. At the cut surface, all four hearts showed mild to moderate hypertrophy of the left and right ventricular free walls and ventricular septum, with grayish-white tissue replacement of the myocardium to various degrees. Histologically, all had typical right ventricular features of ARVC and morphological evidence of left ventricular and ventricular septal involvement. Two main histological patterns were identified: a fatty type (two cases) and a fibrofatty type (two cases). With either type, myocardial replacement by fatty or fibrofatty tissue were detected in both ventricles, but were more severe in the right ventricle, where they usually became transmural. Furthermore, this myocardial replacement was more severely seen in the epimyocardium and midmyocardium; the endomyocardium was less severely affected. On the basis of the present observation, it is evident that, in dogs, the disease process of ARVC affects both the right and left ventricles, although the striking pathological feature is right ventricular involvement. The pathological evidence of biventricular involvement in these canine cases of ARVC may represent a wider spectrum of the disease than has previously been recognized, suggesting that, in dogs, this disease should no longer be considered as limited to the right ventricle.
A one-year-old, female Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) had a rough-surfaced, polypoid, pink tumor mass of approximately 10 mm in diameter in the oral cavity. Histologically, the tumor extended from the ethmoturbinate region and into the oral cavity and had replaced some of the maxillary bone tissue. The tumor mass was composed of a lobular architecture of small round-shaped tumor cells with occasional Flexner-Wintersteiner-like rosette formation. There were no metastatic lesions in the other organs. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were partly positive for several neural markers (class III beta-tubulin, S-100 protein, and doublecortin) and intensely positive for an epithelial marker (cytokeratin AE1/AE3). These results suggest that the present tumor originated from neuroectodermal tissue. Considering the location and histological and immunohistochemical features of the tumor, a diagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma was made.
The effect of trypsin on vascular tone and the cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) of endothelial and smooth muscle cells were examined in the rat aorta. A calcium indicator, fura-PE3, was used to measure [Ca2+]i simultaneously with vascular tone. In the endothelium-intact rat aorta, carbachol and trypsin increased [Ca2+]i in a dose-dependent manner. In the endothelium-denuded rat aorta, carbachol did not change [Ca2+]i, but trypsin slightly increased it. Addition of trypsin to the norepinephrine-stimulated rat aorta relaxed the muscle with an additional increase in [Ca2+]i. Under calcium-free conditions, trypsin induced a transient increase in [Ca2+]i. Trypsin-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was inhibited by preincubation with l-NMMA, an endothelial NO synthase inhibitor, U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, cyclopiazonic acid, a sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase blocker, and lanthanum, a nonselective Ca2+ channel blocker. However, indomethacin, a nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor, and SKF-96365, a store-operated Ca2+-channel blocker, had no effect on the trypsin-induced relaxation. These results suggest that trypsin increases [Ca2+]i in the endothelial cells through SKF-96365-insensitive Ca2+ channels and regulates the release of NO, which results in relaxation of the rat aorta.
Urban and peri-urban livestock farming in developing countries plays an important role in food security in cities; however it brings with it zoonotic risks. The present study was conducted to identify the most important livestock farming-related zoonotic diseases among the human population in urban and peri-urban areas of Kampala, Uganda and to assess the risks from such farming. A framework for identifying livestock farming-related significant zoonoses was developed. The process consisted of screening of medical record summaries for zoonotic diagnoses, selection of the zoonoses which are related to livestock farming, case estimation of the identified zoonoses and evidence-based reassurance of the importance of diseases. Medical records in the Mulago National Referral Hospital were used for the analysis. Leaders and residents of 75 Local Councils (LC1s: villages; 48 urban, 11 peri-urban and 16 rural) randomly selected in Kampala were interviewed for information regarding livestock farming systems, value chains and use of medical service units. Twelve zoonoses were identified in the screening and four out of them were related to livestock farming: animal sourced food-borne gastroenteritis, brucellosis, Taenia solium neuro-cysticercosis and Mycobacterium bovis tuberculosis. Livestock farming, value chain and severity of the diseases confirmed that all four diseases were important. Poor geographical correlation between animals in peri-urban and rural areas and patients in urban areas suggested that the majority of these zoonoses were caused by informally-marketed foods.
This survey explores the grief associated with the loss of a pet, and was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaires were handed out to 50 bereaved pet owners attending a public animal cremation service, and we received 18 responses. Participants responded within 0 to 44 (median 4) days of the death of their pet. Although most mental health problems immediately following mourning are presumed to be normal grief reactions, on the basis of several psychiatric scales, 8 of the 16 valid responses indicated depression and/or neurosis. Statistical analyses showed that the following factors were significantly associated with grief reactions: age of owner, other stressful life events, family size, age of deceased animal, rearing place, and preliminary veterinary consultation.
The presence of serum antibodies for nonstructural proteins of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can differentiate FMDV-infected animals from vaccinated animals. In this study, a sandwich ELISA was developed for rapid detection of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) antibodies; it was based on an Escherichia coli-expressed, highly conserved region of the 3ABC nonstructural protein of the FMDV O/TW/99 strain and a monoclonal antibody derived from the expressed protein. The diagnostic sensitivity of the assay was 98.4%, and the diagnostic specificity was 100% for naïve and vaccinated pigs; the detection ability of the assay was comparable those of the PrioCHECK and UBI kits. There was 97.5, 93.4 and 66.6% agreement between the results obtained from our ELISA and those obtained from the PrioCHECK, UBI and CHEKIT kits, respectively. The kappa statistics were 0.95, 0.87 and 0.37, respectively. Moreover, antibodies for nonstructural proteins of the serotypes A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3 were also detected in bovine sera. Furthermore, the absence of cross-reactions generated by different antibody titers against the swine vesicular disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) was also highlighted in this assay's specificity.
We analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the G-L (glycoprotein-large protein) intergenic non-coding region of 33 strains of the rabies virus (RABV) isolated in South Korea in 1998-2010 and compared the sequences with those of previously reported non-Korean strains. The similarities of the nucleotide sequences of the G-L region among all Korean RABV isolates ranged from 97.1 to 100%. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the G-L region, the Korean RABV isolates were classified into three distinct subgroups with high similarity and were most closely related to the non-Korean NeiMeng1025C isolate, which was isolated from a rabid raccoon dog in eastern China, suggesting that the Korean RABV isolates originate from a rabid raccoon dog in northeastern Asia. Our results indicated that G-L region, as a useful phylogenetic indicator, is equivalent to the nucleoprotein (N) or glycoprotein (G) gene for study of RABV molecular epidemiology and that the Korean RABV isolates showing a few substitutions in the G-L region are continuously circulating in South Korea.
This study described construction and transfection of an EGFP-fused Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) genome and the recovery of the virus. Posttransfection, PCV2 (ORF1)-EGFP/pSK, PCV2 (ORF3)-EGFP/pSK, PCV2 (ORF4)-EGFP/pSK and PCV2(ORF5)-EGFP/pSK showed no fluorescent signals in transfected cells, while green fluorescent signals were observed in the nuclei of PK-15 cells after PCV2 (ORF2)-EGFP/pSK transfection. The presence of ORF2-EGFP fusion protein was demonstrated by dual signals of green fluorescence and anti-PCV2 antibodies conjugated with rhodamine in an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Furthermore, the released EGFP-fused PCV2 genome was demonstrated by real-time PCR.