The embryonic diaphragm comprises four major structural components derived from the transverse septum, the dorsal foregut mesentery, the pleuroperitoneal folds (PPFs), and the body wall. In this study, the appearance of PPFs and related factors were investigated using light microscopy of horizontal sections of rat fetuses from embryonic day 12 to 13. In rat fetuses, the sign of PPF projection was noted in the sidewall of the pericardioperitoneal canal at embryonic day 12, and was confirmed as folds at embryonic day 12.25. Expressions of GATA4, COUP-TF2, and FOG2 were detected in PPF at the early stage of formation. Localizations of these factors suggested that COUP-TF2 and FOG2 are the main factors in PPF appearance and that GATA4 is unlikely to be a main factor, although it is necessary for PPF formation.
This study was performed to evaluate the effect of maternal supplementation with seaweed powder (SWP) on the immune status of piglets. Sows were supplementary fed SWP from 85-days of gestation until delactation. Forty-days old piglets were euthanized and lymphocyte subsets were analyzed. The results showed a significantly higher relative population of CD4+CD8+ T cells in the thymus, lymph node, tonsil (P<0.05), peripheral blood mononuclear cells, spleen and liver (P<0.01) of piglets derived from treated sows. A higher relative population of CD8+ T cells was also observed in the liver and spleen (P<0.05) of the piglets. The data suggested the enhancing effects of maternal supplementation with SWP on immune status of piglets.
This study examined the branching pattern of the aortic arch (AA) and its major branches in the Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus Pallas, 1771) from South Korea. A total of eight of the nine expected types, based on the branching site and bilateral levels of the costocervical trunk (CCT) and subclavian artery (SB), were observed in the arterial silicone casts of 35 deer (16 males, 19 females). This deer has no typical type. The three most common types were present in 28.6, 25.7 and 20.0% of cases and resulted from different branching patterns of the left CCT and left SB. These results suggest that the Siberian roe deer in the Korean peninsula has various AA branching patterns, which differs from other ruminants.
In the swine industry, Lawsonia intracellularis is one of the main enteric pathogens; it causes acute intestinal hemorrhage (proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy) in naïve adult pigs and a wasting disease (proliferative enteropathy) in growing pigs. Among many kinds of cytokines, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has previously been reported to play a significant role in limiting intracellular infection and increasing cellular proliferation associated with L. intracellularis. However, the levels of various circulating inflammatory cytokines, including IFN-γ, in animals infected with L. intracellularisis is still an area of considerable interest for understanding immunity against this bacterium. In addition, there has been no information on cytokine response in animals infected with any L. intracellularis isolate of South Korean origin or Asian origin. To determine the relationship between the changes in the systemic inflammatory cytokine response in the peripheral blood of the host after L. intracellularis infection, we measured the levels of some pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IFN-γ), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)), and a chemokine (IL-8) in pigs infected with L. intracellularis isolated from South Korea. This study demonstrated that a L. intracellularis isolate of South Korean origin induced cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ) responses in infected animals within 15 days post-infection although the circulating levels of IL-4, IL-10, IL-8 and TGF-β were induced relatively late.
Haemorrhagic septicemia (HS) is a contagious disease in cattle with high morbidity and mortality rates. HS vaccine in Thailand is an oil-adjuvant formulation, and is difficult to administer. The present study aimed to formulate and evaluate the protection in dairy calves conferred by immunization with an in-house intranasal HS vaccine. The intranasal vaccine was formulated in a total volume of 500 µl containing either 50 or 100 µg of the recombinant outer membrane protein H (rOmpH) of Pasteurella multocida strain M-1404 (serovar B:2), and 10 µg of Cytosine-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) as a mucosal adjuvant. Intranasal immunizations were conducted three times at three-week intervals. The antibodies post-immunization were detected by indirect ELISA and demonstrated efficient in vitro activity in suppressing a P. multocida strain from the complement-mediated killing assay. An intranasal vaccine induced both the serum IgG and secretory IgA levels that were significantly higher than the level conferred by the parenteral vaccine (P<0.05). Challenge exposure was conducted with a P. multocida strain M-1404 at day 72 of the experiments. The immunized calves had reduced clinical signs after challenge exposure that would normally result in disease proliferation. We conclude that intranasal vaccination of calves with rOmpH with CpG-ODN 2007 stimulated serum and secretory antibodies to rOmpH and whole cells of P. multocida strain M-1404 antigen. Moreover, it would result in protection in calves against artificial P. multocida infection.
Rodents have historically been associated with zoonotic pandemics that claimed the lives of large human populations. Appropriate pathogen surveillance initiatives could contribute to early detection of zoonotic infections to prevent future outbreaks. Bordetella species are bacteria known to cause mild to severe respiratory disease in mammals and, some have been described to infect, colonize and spread in rodents. There is a lack of information on the population diversity of bordetellae among Malaysian wild rodents. Here, bordetellae recovered from lung tissues of wild rats were genotypically characterized using 16S rDNA sequencing, MLST and nrdA typing. A novel B. bronchiseptica ST82, closely related to other human-derived isolates, was discovered in three wild rats (n=3) from Terengganu (5.3333° N, 103.1500° E). B. pseudohinzii, a recently identified laboratory mice inhabitant, was also recovered from one rat (n=1). Both bordetellae displayed identical antimicrobial resistance profiles, indicating the close phylogenetic association between them. Genotyping using the 765-bp nrdA locus was shown to be compatible with the MLST-based phylogeny, with the added advantage of being able to genotype non-classical bordetellae. The recovery of B. pseudohinzii from wild rat implied that this bordetellae has a wider host range than previously thought. The findings from this study suggest that bordetellae surveillance among wild rats in Malaysia has to be continued and expanded to other states to ensure early identification of species capable of causing public health disorder.
The viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state is a remarkable survival mechanism in which cells exist in a physiologically inactive state. Bacteria in the VBNC state do not form colonies, and thus, are difficult to detect using colony-based methods. As a result, VBNC bacteria are potentially virulent and can cause widespread contamination during food production. In the present study, we reported a novel biomarker, the membrane vesicle protein PagC, for the detection of VBNC Salmonella. Salmonella cells were chemically induced into the VBNC state by H2O2 treatment. The bacterial cells retained their shapes but were observed to release numerous membrane vesicles, which were accompanied by a transient PagC overexpression. Immunoblotting was performed to detect PagC in pathogenic strains, including Salmonella Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, which are harmful and known to cause food-borne gastroenteritis in humans and other animals. Therefore, our findings demonstrated the potential use of PagC as a biomarker for the detection of VBNC Salmonella in food production.
Escherichia albertii is a recently discovered species with a limited number of well characterized strains. The aim of this study was to characterize four of the E. albertii strains, which were among 41 identified Escherichia strains isolated from the feces of living animals on James Ross Island, Antarctica, and Isla Magdalena, Patagonia. Sequencing of 16S rDNA, automated ribotyping, and rep-PCR were used to identify the four E. albertii isolates. Phylogenetic analyses based on multi-locus sequence typing showed these isolates to be genetically most similar to the members of E. albertii phylogroup G3. These isolates encoded several virulence factors including those, which are characteristic of E. albertii (cytolethal distending toxin and intimin) as well as bacteriocin determinants that typically have a very low prevalence in E. coli strains (D, E7). Moreover, E. albertii protein extracts caused cell cycle arrest in human cell line A375, probably because of cytolethal distending toxin activity.
Gliomas are common intracranial neoplasias in dogs. However, the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain unclear. In humans, isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) is often mutated in gliomas. Although almost human IDH2 mutations have been identified at the Arg172 codon, few studies have reported structural, functional or mutational information for canine IDH2. In this study, we cloned the full-length canine IDH2 (cIDH2) cDNA and substituted wild type Arg174 (cIDH2 WT: corresponding to R172 of human IDH2) with Lys (cIDH2 R174K). The cIDH2 WT and R174K proteins were overexpressed in HeLa cells, and their presence was confirmed using an anti-human IDH2-WT mAb (clone: KrMab-3) and an anti-IDH2-R172K mAb (clone: KMab-1). The IDH2 activity between cIDH2 WT and cIDH2 R174K transfectants was compared by measuring the production of NADH and NADPH. NADPH production was lower for cIDH2 R174K than that for cIDH2 WT transfectants. Finally, we detected increased expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) in cIDH2 R174K transfectants. This indicates that mutations at R174 can potentially induce carcinogenesis in canine somatic cells.
In this study, a novel ‘rope-assisted swab method’ for the collection of saliva samples from 45 adult pigs was established and validated. This method was efficient for harvesting 2 milliliters or more of saliva from each of the pigs for subsequent analyses within two min. The amount of α-amylase and lipase in the collected saliva samples was between 38−6,655 and 2−52 U/l, respectively. For HCO3− and electrolytes, the range was between 9−40, 15−76, 4.3−48.5 and 7−65 mM for HCO3−, Na+, K+ and Cl−, respectively. No significant differences in the enzymatic and electrolytic profiles were observed among sows with a high average litter size (SHA), sows with a low average litter size (SLA) and non-pregnant gilts (NPG) in this study. Our work reveals the efficiency of this collection method for mature pigs, and enzymatic and electrolytic profiling of saliva, which may be a useful reference for multiple diagnostic applications.
This study aims to evaluate the oxidative stress during hot summer season using serum oxidative stress biomarkers and elucidate the effects of serum antioxidant vitamin levels in dairy and beef cows in a daytime grazing system. Blood samples were collected once a month from eight Holstein Friesian (HF) and 10 Japanese Black (JB) cows from November 2013 to October 2014. Serum values of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) tended to be higher in March in both breeds and those in HF cows were kept at higher (P<0.001) levels than those in JB cows during the study period. Serum levels of biological antioxidant potential (BAP) in both breeds were maintained at almost the same values during study period. The OSI [(d-ROMs/BAP) × 100] values in both breeds showed similar seasonal changes, i. e. increase from December to March and decrease from March to August or September. In addition, the OSI values in HF cows were kept at higher (P<0.01) levels than those in JB cows during the study period. Serum concentrations of α-tocopherol, β-carotene, blood urea nitrogen and total cholesterol showed similar seasonal changes in both breeds, low in the winter and high from spring to summer, which may be attributed to the pasture grass intake. Opposite changes in OSI values and serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and β-carotene indicated that antioxidant vitamin levels could affect oxidative stress status.
Two dogs presented to the emergency service after accidental ingestion of afloqualone tablets, a muscle relaxant used for back pain in humans. Toxic effects of the drug in these dogs included vomiting, respiratory depression, seizures, ataxia, bradycardia, and hematuria. Treatment consisted of fluid diuresis, furosemide, and propofol. Flumazenil, a gamma-amino butyric acid antagonist, was administered intravenously; however, it was not effective in stopping the seizures in these dogs. Both dogs recovered with supportive treatment. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first documented report of afloqualone intoxication in dogs.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica) infection in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Alexandria, Beheira, and Kafr el-Sheikh governorates (provinces) of the Nile Delta in Egypt and to identify the underlying risk factors associated with the infection. A total of 29 farms (10 in Alexandria, 10 in Beheira, and 9 in Kafr el-Sheikh) were randomly selected and all the buffaloes that resided on these farms from 21 February 2015 to 20 February 2016 were included in the study. The sampling approach was target-based where all the buffaloes were examined and screened for clinical signs of Fasciola infection. All suspected buffaloes were then subjected to fecal examination, and those positive for Fasciola eggs underwent antibody testing using indirect hemagglutination test. Consequently, data on 3,356 buffaloes from 29 farms in these governorates was analyzed using a multiple logistic regression model. The final model showed that the age and body condition score of the buffalo, location and type of the farm, application of prophylactic treatment, and temperature and relative humidity of the farm’s location significantly affected the rate of infection. The highest prevalence was observed in buffaloes from Alexandria governorate (19.6%), followed by Beheira and Kafr el-Sheikh governorates (15.5 and 9.1%, respectively).
This study was carried out to determine the prevalence, genotypes/assemblages and possible risk factors associated with Giardia duodenalis infection in dogs in central Vietnam. A total of 209 dog fecal samples, randomly collected from private owned dogs (n=105) and dogs from stores (n=104), were examined for Giardia cysts by microscopy. Positive samples were genotyped by PCR-sequence analysis of β-giardin and triosephosphate isomerase genes markers. Risk factors were studied using a structured questionnaire and collected data were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results indicated that the overall infection rate was 8.6% (18/209) with the detected parasites were belonging to the non-zoonotic assemblages C and D. Age, gender and origin of animals were the main risk factors associated with G. duodenalis infection in dogs under study. Occurrence of infection was more likely in young animals compared to old ones and in females compared to males. Dogs originated from stores were more prone to Giardia infection compared to private owned counterparts.
Asian schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum is a serious zoonotic disease endemic in China, the Philippines and parts of Indonesia. Mass drug administration in endemic areas resulted to decline in disease severity and intensity. The low intensity of infection limits the use of current parasitological methods for schistosomiasis diagnosis. Detection of parasite circulating antigens might provide more informative result as it may indicate the true status of infection. In this study, S. japonicum thioredoxin peroxidase-1 (SjTPx-1) a 22 kDa secreted antioxidant enzyme expressed throughout the life stages of the parasite was evaluated for its potential use as a biomarker for schistosomiasis japonica infection. Rabbit polyclonal antibody and mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were raised against the recombinant SjTPx-1 (rSjTPx-1). The antibodies produced against the recombinant antigen was confirmed to detect the native SjTPx-1 in crude adult worm lysate. Likewise, the specific binding of mAbs to parasite TPx-1 and not to mammalian peroxiredoxin-1 orthologues was also confirmed. The double antibody sandwich ELISA developed in this study was able to detect at least 1 ng/ml of rSjTPx-1. In addition, this method was able to detect the antigen from all serum samples of experimentally infected rabbit and mice. The diagnostic potential of SjTPx-1 in human clinical samples was also evaluated, in which 4 out of 10 stool-confirmed serum samples had detectable levels of the antigen. The results suggest that SjTPx-1 can be a potential biomarker for Asian zoonotic schistosomiasis.
Dynamics of serum liver enzymes in rabbits experimentally infected with metacercariae of Fasciola sp. (intermediate form between Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica) were monitored. Gradual increase of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were observed from 3 weeks post-inoculation (WPI) and peaked at 6 WPI, which corresponded well to the period of migration and development of juvenile fluke in the liver parenchyma and the time when the young adult flukes migrated to the bile duct. However, no significant increase in serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were observed. This could reflect reduced or minimal injury of bile ducts and biliary epithelia as the flukes had reached the adult stage. Alpha- fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were not detected in the infected rabbit during the course of the experiment. Serum liver enzymes monitoring might be useful for understanding the host-parasite relationship in fascioliasis.
Nuclear gene markers, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) and DNA polymerase delta (pold), have been developed for precise discrimination of Fasciola flukes instead of internal transcribed spacer 1. In this study, these two genes of 730 Fasciola flukes from eight Asian countries were analyzed. The results were compared with their mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) lineages for obtaining a definitive evidence of the hybrid origin of aspermic Fasciola flukes. All the flukes categorized into the aspermic nad1 lineages possessed both the fragment patterns of F. hepatica and F. gigantica (mixed types) in pepck and/or pold. These findings provide clear evidence for the hybrid origin of aspermic Fasciola lineages and suggest that “aspermic Fasciola flukes” should hereafter be called “hybrid Fasciola flukes”.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic, and allergic skin disease in humans and animals, particularly dogs. Canine AD (cAD) has received attention as a spontaneous atopic animal model because domesticated dogs inhabit a human environment, and cAD shares several clinicopathological features with human AD (hAD). In hAD, periostin (PO) is suggested to play a critical role in the enhancement and chronicity of allergic skin inflammation; however, PO involvement in the pathogenesis of cAD is unknown. Here we aimed to clarify PO involvement in the pathophysiology of cAD and focused on the inducing factor and function of PO in canine atopic skin. Using double-labeled in situ hybridization (ISH), interleukin (IL)-13 mRNA-positive cells were detected near the keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts expressing PO mRNA in atopic skin. Using an in vitro assay, IL-13 induced PO gene expression in both canine dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes. PO enhanced in vitro growth of canine keratinocytes. Moreover, among PO-induced genes in cultured canine keratinocytes detected using a microarray, we identified IL-25 as a possible mediator in canine atopic skin. In addition, real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed upregulation of IL-25 gene expression in PO-stimulated keratinocytes. These data suggest that IL-13 possibly derived from T helper 2 (Th2) cells stimulates PO production in both keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and then PO may play a critical role in the pathophysiology of cAD, particularly in the enhancement and chronicity of skin lesions via IL-25.
Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis, a fatal systemic amyloid disease, occurs secondary to chronic inflammatory conditions in humans. Although persistently elevated serum amyloid A (SAA) levels are required for its pathogenesis, not all individuals with chronic inflammation necessarily develop AA amyloidosis. Furthermore, many diseases in cats are associated with the elevated production of SAA, whereas only a small number actually develop AA amyloidosis. We hypothesized that a genetic mutation in the SAA gene may strongly contribute to the pathogenesis of feline AA amyloidosis. In the present study, genomic DNA from four Japanese domestic cats (JDCs) with AA amyloidosis and from five without amyloidosis was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and direct sequencing. We identified the novel variation combination of 45R-51A in the deduced amino acid sequences of four JDCs with amyloidosis and five without. However, there was no relationship between amino acid variations and the distribution of AA amyloid deposits, indicating that differences in SAA sequences do not contribute to the pathogenesis of AA amyloidosis. Immunohistochemical analysis using antisera against the three different parts of the feline SAA protein—i.e., the N-terminal, central, and C-terminal regions—revealed that feline AA contained the C-terminus, unlike human AA. These results indicate that the cleavage and degradation of the C-terminus are not essential for amyloid fibril formation in JDCs.
Renal mixed tumor characterized by the absence of nephrogenic blastema and the presence of predominant osteoid-producing osteoblast-like cells occurred in the kidney of a 6-month-old, hybrid, female pig. At the post-mortem examination, the tumor was found as a calcified grayish-white mass at the cranial end of the left kidney. Histologically the tumor consisted of 3 growth areas of poorly differentiated spindle cells, osteoid-producing osteoblast-like cells, and luminal epithelial cells. Transition from the spindle cells to the osteoblast-like cells or the luminal epithelial cells was observed. Immunohistochemically, the spindle cells and the osteoblast-like cells were consistently positive for β-catenin. Although the luminal epithelial cells and adjacent spindle cells were positive for cytokeratin, these 3 types of tumor cells were consistently negative for WT1. The tumor was diagnosed as primary renal mixed tumor characterized by marked proliferation of osteoblast-like cells with osteoid formation.
Valnemulin, successfully developed by Sandoz in 1984, is a new generation derivative of pleuromutilin related to tiamulin. Valnemulin has low water-solubility, a short half-life period, low bioavailability, and instability. The application of valnemulin was restricted. Therefore, finding a more moderate delivery system is necessary to improve the shortcomings of valnemulin. The purpose of the study was to improve the strong stability and the irritation caused by of valnemulin hydrochloride power through pegylated-valnemulin prodrug mode. The prepared pegylated-valnemulin prodrug was characterized and evaluated by in vitro release performance under buffer solutions with pH levels of 7.4 and 3.6. The loading rate of valnemulin in PEG-succinic-valnemulin prodrug was determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometer and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC with evaporative light scattering detector was applied to determine the amount of PEG-succinic acid. The loading rate of valnemulin in PEG-succinic-valnemulin prodrug was 6.46%. PEG-succinic-valnemulin prodrug demonstrated a satisfactory solubility of valnemulin with 523 mg·ml−1 and excellent stability verified by the stability experiment. The result of the in vitro release test showed that the prepared PEG-valnemulin prodrug has controlled release ability and the release rate of valnemulin from PEG-valnemulin prodrug with a pH of 7.4 was 64.98%, which was higher than that of pH3.6 with release rate of 31.90%. Therefore, the prepared PEG-succinic-valnemulin prodrug has great application potential.
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) produced by autotaxin (ATX) is recognized as a multi-functional mediator in mammalian reproduction. This study focused on possible effect(s) of LPA on ovulated cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) around fertilization in rats in vivo. Immunohistochemistry revealed the cell-type-dependent localization of candidates of synthetic enzymes, ATX and two phospholipases A2 isofroms, and LPA receptors LPA1−4 in ovulated COCs and in oviductal epithelium. The eggs ovulated with a form of COCs became denuded of cumulus cells and underwent fragmentation in the absence of fertilization. In vivo experiments of local administration in non-copulated rats demonstrated that eggs denudation was increased by LPA and decreased by anti-ATX antibody and that fragmentation was inhibited by LPA and stimulated by an ATX chemical inhibitor. Furthermore, LPA administration in adult copulated rats increased the rate of cleaved embryos significantly. Obtained results suggest the presence of LPA synthesis and action system in ovulated COCs within the oviductal ampulla and positive actions of LPA possibly at multiple sites around fertilization in rats.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) regulates gonadotropin secretion. We previously demonstrated that the expression of annexin A5 (ANXA5) is stimulated by GnRH in gonadotropes and has a significant role in gonadotropin secretion. It is therefore of interest to know whether other members of the ANXA family, which consists of twelve structurally related members, are also regulated by GnRH. Therefore, the expression of all annexins was examined in LβT2 gonadotrope cells. ANXA4, A5, A6, A7 and A11 were detected in LβT2 cells. The expression of ANXA5 and A1 mRNA was stimulated by a GnRH agonist. An increase in ANXA1 protein by this agonist was demonstrated by western blotting. Immunohistochemistry showed that ANXA1 was present in the nucleus and to a lesser extent in the cytoplasm of some rat pituitary cells. The GnRH agonist induced translocation of ANXA1 to the periphery of LβT2 cells. The presence of ANXA1 in gonadotropes and its increase upon GnRH agonist treatment were confirmed in a primary pituitary cell culture. ANXA1 expression was also demonstrated in the ovary, the testis, the thyroid gland and the pancreas in a different manner to that of ANXA5. These data suggest that ANXA1 is a novel GnRH target gene in gonadotropes. ANXA1 also may be a target of local GnRH in peripheral tissues and may have a different role than that of ANXA5.
The present study aims to examine the effect of tropical temperatures on autonomic nervous activity in Cambodian dairy cattle by analyzing heart rate variability (HRV). Holter-type electrocardiograms were recorded in adult crossbred cows (Cambodian native × Holstein) either in a sheltered area or under direct sunlight. Rectal temperatures and heart rates increased in animals under direct sunlight as compared to those in the shelter. The power spectral analysis of HRV revealed that three out of the five cows studied underwent a decrease in parasympathetic nervous activity under direct sunlight with the remaining two cows showing no apparent change. The HRV analysis would prove to be a useful tool to reveal information about heat tolerance in dairy cows.
Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the leading causes of enteric infections in many developed countries. Healthy chickens are considered to act as reservoirs of campylobacters, as the organisms colonize the intestinal tract. Once infected birds enter a processing plant, contamination of chicken carcasses with campylobacters occurs over the entire skin during defeathering and evisceration due to leakage of crop and/or intestinal contents. Although the role of feather follicles in the contamination of chicken carcasses by campylobacters during processing is still debatable, it has been considered that the microorganisms would be entrapped and retained in the follicles due to the morphological changes resulting from defeathering and chilling. In the present study, we observed the morphology of feather follicles in chicken carcasses after defeathering and chilling. A total of 3,133 feather follicles were examined for morphological changes before and after chilling. Shortly after defeathering, most (91.5%) of the follicles were closed, whereas after chilling they were either closed (85.5%) or open (6%), although a small proportion of enlarged follicles became smaller or closed (2.6%). Moreover, 5.9% of the follicles that were slightly open became further enlarged after chilling. Furthermore, the proportion of enlarged feather follicles that became closed after chilling showed no discernible relationship with the degree of campylobacter contamination in different areas of the carcass skin, suggesting that campylobacters may not be confined to feather follicles as a result of the morphological changes attributable to defeathering and chilling.
Vibrio vulnificus is known as an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes primary septicemia and wound infection in humans. Recently, the incidence of wound infection by V. vulnificus is increasing in warm countries. In this study, we examined a vaccine antigen against V. vulnificus in mice. FlaB, a component protein of the V. vulnificus flagellum, was expressed as a recombinant protein, named rFlaB. After immunization of mice with rFlaB, the mice were challenged by subcutaneous inoculation with V. vulnificus. Bacterial burdens in muscular tissue at the infection site in rFlaB-immunized mice were significantly decreased compared with those of control mice. We found that rFlaB immunization can partially suppress proliferation of V. vulnificus at the local infection site.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is suggested to be useful for counting follicles and confirming ovulation in microminipigs. However, its accuracy is unknown. We have compared the number of follicles counted by MRI to that of corpus hemorrhagicum confirmed directly by visual inspection. The follicles of 17 microminipigs were counted by using ovarian MRI on a 0.4 Tesla MRI System every 24 hr after estrus until follicle images disappeared. Then, we performed laparotomy to count their corpus hemorrhagicum. Significant correlation was observed between follicle counts obtained using MRI (5.18 ± 1.78 per head) and the numbers of corpus hemorrhagicum (5.47 ± 1.74 per head). In conclusion, follicle counts using 0.4-T MRI were reliable, and confirmed microminipig ovulation.
To investigate the utility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) anti-feline coronavirus (FCoV) antibody test for diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), the antibody titers were tested in CSF and sera from 271 FIP-suspected neurological cats. CSF antibody was detected in 28 cats, which were divided into 2 groups; 15 with CSF titer of 1:80 or lower and 13 with CSF titer of 1:640 or higher. In the latter group, reciprocal serum titer/reciprocal CSF titer was 8 or lower, which is extremely lower than normal range (256-2048), and FCoV RNA was detected in all of 11 CSF samples assayed by RT-PCR. Our findings indicate that CSF titer of 1:640 or higher may be served as a candidate for the index for diagnosing FIP.
Non-primate hepacivirus (NPHV) is recently identified as a closely related homologue of hepatitis C virus. The previous studies showed a high prevalence of NPHV infection among Japanese domestic horses originated from abroad. The historical distribution of NPHV among horses in Japan, therefore, is still unknown. In this study, seroepidemiological study of NPHV was conducted using 335 sera from five breeds of Japanese native horses. These horses are maintained as the pedigree and are reared apart from other horse breeds. The detection of antibodies against NPHV were conducted by western blot analysis using the recombinant protein of the NPHV core protein. The antibodies against NPHV were detected in all five breeds, 83 out of 335 (23.4%) horses. These results suggested that NPHV was circulating among Japanese native horses.
The blood biochemical analysis of bone markers could have a role in the early diagnosis of metabolic bone disease in animals; however, there is limited information on bone markers in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Serum samples from ten captive Asian elephants were obtained to clarify the relationship between age and the blood bone markers tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP). Serum TRAP5b and BALP activities were negatively correlated with age. A positive correlation was observed between TRAP5b activity and BALP activity. These results may contribute to the health management of captive Asian elephants.