The embryonic diaphragm comprises four major structural components derived from the transverse septum, the dorsal foregut mesentery, the pleuroperitoneal folds (PPFs), and the body wall. In this study, the appearance of PPFs and related factors were investigated using light microscopy of horizontal sections of rat fetuses from embryonic day 12 to 13. In rat fetuses, the sign of PPF projection was noted in the sidewall of the pericardioperitoneal canal at embryonic day 12, and was confirmed as folds at embryonic day 12.25. Expressions of GATA4, COUP-TF2, and FOG2 were detected in PPF at the early stage of formation. Localizations of these factors suggested that COUP-TF2 and FOG2 are the main factors in PPF appearance and that GATA4 is unlikely to be a main factor, although it is necessary for PPF formation.
This study was performed to evaluate the effect of maternal supplementation with seaweed powder (SWP) on the immune status of piglets. Sows were supplementary fed SWP from 85-days of gestation until delactation. Forty-days old piglets were euthanized and lymphocyte subsets were analyzed. The results showed a significantly higher relative population of CD4+CD8+ T cells in the thymus, lymph node, tonsil (P<0.05), peripheral blood mononuclear cells, spleen and liver (P<0.01) of piglets derived from treated sows. A higher relative population of CD8+ T cells was also observed in the liver and spleen (P<0.05) of the piglets. The data suggested the enhancing effects of maternal supplementation with SWP on immune status of piglets.
In the swine industry, Lawsonia intracellularis is one of the main enteric pathogens; it causes acute intestinal hemorrhage (proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy) in naïve adult pigs and a wasting disease (proliferative enteropathy) in growing pigs. Among many kinds of cytokines, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) has previously been reported to play a significant role in limiting intracellular infection and increasing cellular proliferation associated with L. intracellularis. However, the levels of various circulating inflammatory cytokines, including IFN-γ, in animals infected with L. intracellularisis is still an area of considerable interest for understanding immunity against this bacterium. In addition, there has been no information on cytokine response in animals infected with any L. intracellularis isolate of South Korean origin or Asian origin. To determine the relationship between the changes in the systemic inflammatory cytokine response in the peripheral blood of the host after L. intracellularis infection, we measured the levels of some pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IFN-γ), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)), and a chemokine (IL-8) in pigs infected with L. intracellularis isolated from South Korea. This study demonstrated that a L. intracellularis isolate of South Korean origin induced cytokine (TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-γ) responses in infected animals within 15 days post-infection although the circulating levels of IL-4, IL-10, IL-8 and TGF-β were induced relatively late.
This study aims to evaluate the oxidative stress during hot summer season using serum oxidative stress biomarkers and elucidate the effects of serum antioxidant vitamin levels in dairy and beef cows in a daytime grazing system. Blood samples were collected once a month from eight Holstein Friesian (HF) and 10 Japanese Black (JB) cows from November 2013 to October 2014. Serum values of derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) tended to be higher in March in both breeds and those in HF cows were kept at higher (P<0.001) levels than those in JB cows during the study period. Serum levels of biological antioxidant potential (BAP) in both breeds were maintained at almost the same values during study period. The OSI [(d-ROMs/BAP) × 100] values in both breeds showed similar seasonal changes, i. e. increase from December to March and decrease from March to August or September. In addition, the OSI values in HF cows were kept at higher (P<0.01) levels than those in JB cows during the study period. Serum concentrations of α-tocopherol, β-carotene, blood urea nitrogen and total cholesterol showed similar seasonal changes in both breeds, low in the winter and high from spring to summer, which may be attributed to the pasture grass intake. Opposite changes in OSI values and serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and β-carotene indicated that antioxidant vitamin levels could affect oxidative stress status.
A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica) infection in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) in Alexandria, Beheira, and Kafr el-Sheikh governorates (provinces) of the Nile Delta in Egypt and to identify the underlying risk factors associated with the infection. A total of 29 farms (10 in Alexandria, 10 in Beheira, and 9 in Kafr el-Sheikh) were randomly selected and all the buffaloes that resided on these farms from 21 February 2015 to 20 February 2016 were included in the study. The sampling approach was target-based where all the buffaloes were examined and screened for clinical signs of Fasciola infection. All suspected buffaloes were then subjected to fecal examination, and those positive for Fasciola eggs underwent antibody testing using indirect hemagglutination test. Consequently, data on 3,356 buffaloes from 29 farms in these governorates was analyzed using a multiple logistic regression model. The final model showed that the age and body condition score of the buffalo, location and type of the farm, application of prophylactic treatment, and temperature and relative humidity of the farm’s location significantly affected the rate of infection. The highest prevalence was observed in buffaloes from Alexandria governorate (19.6%), followed by Beheira and Kafr el-Sheikh governorates (15.5 and 9.1%, respectively).
Dynamics of serum liver enzymes in rabbits experimentally infected with metacercariae of Fasciola sp. (intermediate form between Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica) were monitored. Gradual increase of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were observed from 3 weeks post-inoculation (WPI) and peaked at 6 WPI, which corresponded well to the period of migration and development of juvenile fluke in the liver parenchyma and the time when the young adult flukes migrated to the bile duct. However, no significant increase in serum gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were observed. This could reflect reduced or minimal injury of bile ducts and biliary epithelia as the flukes had reached the adult stage. Alpha- fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) were not detected in the infected rabbit during the course of the experiment. Serum liver enzymes monitoring might be useful for understanding the host-parasite relationship in fascioliasis.
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) produced by autotaxin (ATX) is recognized as a multi-functional mediator in mammalian reproduction. This study focused on possible effect(s) of LPA on ovulated cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) around fertilization in rats in vivo. Immunohistochemistry revealed the cell-type-dependent localization of candidates of synthetic enzymes, ATX and two phospholipases A2 isofroms, and LPA receptors LPA1−4 in ovulated COCs and in oviductal epithelium. The eggs ovulated with a form of COCs became denuded of cumulus cells and underwent fragmentation in the absence of fertilization. In vivo experiments of local administration in non-copulated rats demonstrated that eggs denudation was increased by LPA and decreased by anti-ATX antibody and that fragmentation was inhibited by LPA and stimulated by an ATX chemical inhibitor. Furthermore, LPA administration in adult copulated rats increased the rate of cleaved embryos significantly. Obtained results suggest the presence of LPA synthesis and action system in ovulated COCs within the oviductal ampulla and positive actions of LPA possibly at multiple sites around fertilization in rats.
Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli are the leading causes of enteric infections in many developed countries. Healthy chickens are considered to act as reservoirs of campylobacters, as the organisms colonize the intestinal tract. Once infected birds enter a processing plant, contamination of chicken carcasses with campylobacters occurs over the entire skin during defeathering and evisceration due to leakage of crop and/or intestinal contents. Although the role of feather follicles in the contamination of chicken carcasses by campylobacters during processing is still debatable, it has been considered that the microorganisms would be entrapped and retained in the follicles due to the morphological changes resulting from defeathering and chilling. In the present study, we observed the morphology of feather follicles in chicken carcasses after defeathering and chilling. A total of 3,133 feather follicles were examined for morphological changes before and after chilling. Shortly after defeathering, most (91.5%) of the follicles were closed, whereas after chilling they were either closed (85.5%) or open (6%), although a small proportion of enlarged follicles became smaller or closed (2.6%). Moreover, 5.9% of the follicles that were slightly open became further enlarged after chilling. Furthermore, the proportion of enlarged feather follicles that became closed after chilling showed no discernible relationship with the degree of campylobacter contamination in different areas of the carcass skin, suggesting that campylobacters may not be confined to feather follicles as a result of the morphological changes attributable to defeathering and chilling.
Vibrio vulnificus is known as an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes primary septicemia and wound infection in humans. Recently, the incidence of wound infection by V. vulnificus is increasing in warm countries. In this study, we examined a vaccine antigen against V. vulnificus in mice. FlaB, a component protein of the V. vulnificus flagellum, was expressed as a recombinant protein, named rFlaB. After immunization of mice with rFlaB, the mice were challenged by subcutaneous inoculation with V. vulnificus. Bacterial burdens in muscular tissue at the infection site in rFlaB-immunized mice were significantly decreased compared with those of control mice. We found that rFlaB immunization can partially suppress proliferation of V. vulnificus at the local infection site.
To investigate the utility of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) anti-feline coronavirus (FCoV) antibody test for diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), the antibody titers were tested in CSF and sera from 271 FIP-suspected neurological cats. CSF antibody was detected in 28 cats, which were divided into 2 groups; 15 with CSF titer of 1:80 or lower and 13 with CSF titer of 1:640 or higher. In the latter group, reciprocal serum titer/reciprocal CSF titer was 8 or lower, which is extremely lower than normal range (256-2048), and FCoV RNA was detected in all of 11 CSF samples assayed by RT-PCR. Our findings indicate that CSF titer of 1:640 or higher may be served as a candidate for the index for diagnosing FIP.
The blood biochemical analysis of bone markers could have a role in the early diagnosis of metabolic bone disease in animals; however, there is limited information on bone markers in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Serum samples from ten captive Asian elephants were obtained to clarify the relationship between age and the blood bone markers tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP). Serum TRAP5b and BALP activities were negatively correlated with age. A positive correlation was observed between TRAP5b activity and BALP activity. These results may contribute to the health management of captive Asian elephants.