A novel avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) variant, designated as GX-NN160421, was isolated from vaccinated chicken in Guangxi, China, in 2016. Based on analysis of the S1 gene sequence, GX-NN160421 belonged to the New-type 1 (GVI-1) strain. More importantly, three consecutive nucleotides (AAC) deletions were found in the highly conserved structure gene N. The serotype of GX-NN160421 was different from those of the commonly used vaccine strains. The mortality of the GX-NN160421 strain was 3.33%, which contrasted with 50% mortality in the clinical case, but high levels of virus shedding lasted at least 21 days. In conclusion, the first novel IBV variant with three-nucleotide-deletion in the N gene was identified, and this unique variant is low virulent but with a long time of virus shedding, indicating the continuing evolution of IBV and emphasizing the importance of limiting exposure to novel IBV strains as well as extensive monitoring of new IBVs.
Clostridium perfringens is an important zoonotic pathogen. This study was designed to explore the prevalence and toxin types of C. perfringens in retail beef collected from Beijing, China. Among 221 beef samples collected, 53 samples were positive for C. perfringens, resulting in the average prevalence as 23.98%. By toxin gene-based typing, the most C. perfringens strains belong to type A (96.23%, 51/53), only 2 strains were identified as type D. By a multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)-based analysis, a total of 36 sequence types (STs) were detected, and the most STs (n=30) represented just a single strain. These finding suggested that the prevalence of C. perfringens in retail beef in Beijing was considerably high and these bacteria displayed extreme diversity in genetics.
Rhodotorula mucilaginosa are saprophytic yeast, and opportunistic infections known as human rhodotorulosis are increasing in immunocompromised patients. In this study, we isolated R. mucilaginosa from pet dogs in Japan and determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal drugs on these isolates to investigate the drug susceptibility pattern. All 10 isolates according to the broth microdilution (BM) assay of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A2 were resistance to azoles and genetically close to fluconazole (FLZ)-resistant human isolates of R. mucilaginosa. Due to resistance, it is expected that treatment will be difficult if they infect humans.
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) CAR-T cell therapy targeting CD20 can be a novel adoptive cell therapy for canine patients with B-cell malignancy. After injection of the CAR-T cells in vivo, monitoring circulating CAR-T cells is essential to prove in vivo persistence of CAR-T cells. In this study, we developed a novel monoclonal antibody against canine CD20 CAR, whose single-chain variable fragment was derived from the our previously reported anti-canine CD20 therapeutic antibody. Furthermore, we proved that this monoclonal antibody can detect therapeutic anti-canine CD20 chimeric antibody in the serum from healthy beagle dogs injected with the therapeutic antibody for safety study. This monoclonal antibody is a useful tool for monitoring both canine CD20-CAR-T cells and anti-canine CD20 therapeutic antibody for canine lymphoma.
Glaesserella parasuis (G. parasuis) has been one of the bacteria affecting the large-scale swine industry. Lack of an effective vaccine has limited control of the disease, which has an effect on prevalence. In order to improve the cross-protection of vaccines, development on subunit vaccines has become a hot spot. In this study, we firstly cloned the lpxC and gmhA genes from G. parasuis serotype 13 isolates, and expressed and purified their proteins. The results showed that LpxC and GmhA can stimulate mice to produce IgG antibodies. Through testing the cytokine levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-10 and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), it is found that recombinant GmhA, the mixed LpxC and GmhA can stimulate the body to produce Th1 and Th2 immune responses, while recombinant LpxC and inactivated bacteria can only produce Th2 immune responses. On the protection rate for mice, recombinant LpxC, GmhA and the mixture of LpxC and GmhA can provide 50%, 50% and 60% protection for lethal dose of G. parasuis infection, respectively. The partial protection achieved by the recombinant LpxC and GmhA supports their potential as novel vaccine candidate antigens against G. parasuis.
We aimed to report a case of canine leishmaniasis with the only visible clinical sign being the presence of nodules in the lateral region of the tongue. The bitch was treated for a mandibular fracture, when multiple small nodules were observed on the tongue. We identify nodular glossitis with the presence of structures compatible with amastigote forms of Leishmania. The bitch was positive by ELISA, RIFI and PCR assays. Clinical re-evaluation after one year of treatment for leishmaniasis showed clinical improvement, but there was maintenance of antibody titers and infectivity. Lingual nodules as the only clinical sign of the disease is rare, especially in endemic areas, but should be included as differential diagnosis for leishmaniasis in the country.
We investigated the IgE reactivity to crude and purified milk antigens in the sera of 112 dogs with cutaneous adverse food reactions (CAFRs). Of the 112 dogs, 33 (29%) had specific IgE for crude milk antigens. In the dogs with milk-specific IgE, IgE reactivity to casein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and bovine IgG were 81%, 85%, 39%, 27%, and 35%, respectively. Casein and BSA may be important allergens in dogs with CAFRs. Some canine vaccines contain casein hydrolysate as a stabilizer and the pooled serum with anti-casein IgE showed IgE reactivity to the vaccines containing it. Information about IgE reactivity to casein in dogs with CAFRs could be useful for predicting adverse reactions to the vaccines including casein hydrolysate.
Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors (PHNETs) are rare in dogs, and limited information exists about the treatment of these tumors. A 12-year-old castrated male French bulldog was presented to our clinic with gastrointestinal signs. Diagnostic tests revealed increased hepatic enzyme levels, a mass in the hepatic quadrate lobe, multiple intrahepatic nodules, and enlarged hepatic hilar lymph nodes. The liver mass was diagnosed cytologically as a malignant epithelial tumor suspected to be of neuroendocrine origin. The dog was treated with single-agent toceranib phosphate (TOC) and survived 25.1 months after the initial presentation. On necropsy, a liver mass was found and was subsequently diagnosed as a PHNET on histopathology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of long-term survival in a dog with PHNET treated with TOC.
In human erythema multiforme (EM), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an essential role in the pathogenesis. In canine EM, immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD8 antibody using frozen sections has shown the involvement of CTLs; however, CTL infiltration has never been quantitatively analyzed. We herein quantitatively analyzed CTL infiltration by immunohistochemical staining with granzyme B and CD3 antibodies using paraffin sections of a dog with EM associated with zonisamide. The present results indicated approximately 70% of cells at the border between the epidermis and dermis consisted of CTLs. Detection of granzyme B and CD3 using paraffin sections employed in this study can be a clinically applicable method for detecting CTLs.
The rabies virus is one of the most neurotropic of all viruses infecting mammals. During the terminal phases of infection, the virus spreads to peripheral tissues, including the skin. The external skin of the nose, called the nasal planum, is a sensory organ where numerous nerve bundles and terminal nerves are distributed. Therefore, the nasal planum is expected to serve as a postmortem diagnostic material. However, the distribution of rabies virus antigens in the nasal planum in rabid animals has not yet been studied. In this study, the nasal planum was obtained from 45 rabid dogs. In all rabid dogs, the viral antigen was detected in the peripheral nerve tissues, Merkel cells, and squamous cells. The viral antigen in the epidermis exhibited three patterns: first, a diffuse positive pattern from the basal layer to the squamous layer; second, a reticular positive pattern along the cell membrane in the squamous layer; and third, a basal layer pattern of the epidermis. In the dermis, viral antigens were detected more often in lamellated corpuscles just beneath the rete pegs. These results suggest that the nasal planum could serve as a useful alternative source for postmortem diagnosis in rabies endemic countries.
Previous studies reported that diabetes alters the activities of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, which, in turn, affects the disposition of some drugs. We herein examined and compared the effects of the combination of dapagliflozin with a low insulin dose, a full dose of insulin alone, and dapagliflozin alone for 3 and 8 weeks on CYP activities in a diabetes type 1 rat model. We induced type 1 diabetes in rats using a single intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Daily treatment with the full dose of insulin alone, dapagliflozin alone, or dapagliflozin in combination with a low dose of insulin was then initiated. STZ-induced rats developed marked hyperglycemia and altered CYP2E activities. Dapagliflozin in combination with a low dose of insulin stabilized hyperglycemia and CYP1A, 2D, 2E and 3A activities. However, dapagliflozin alone did not improve blood glucose levels or CYP activities. These results suggest that the effects of dapagliflozin in combination with a low dose of insulin are similar to those of a full dose of insulin, and stabilize CYP activities in type 1 diabetes.
The activation of α2 adrenergic receptors contributes to analgesia not only in the central nervous system but also in the peripheral nervous system. We reported that noradrenaline inhibits the activity of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) evoked by capsaicin through α2 receptors in cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. However, it is unclear whether activation of TRPV1 expressed in peripheral nerve terminals is inhibited by α2 receptors and whether this phenomenon contributes to analgesia. Therefore, we examined effects of clonidine, an α2 receptor agonist, on several types of nociceptive behaviors, which may be caused by TRPV1 activity, and subtypes of α2 receptors expressed with TRPV1 in primary sensory neurons in rats. Capsaicin injected into hind paws evoked nociceptive behaviors and clonidine preinjected into the same site inhibited capsaicin-evoked responses. This inhibition was not observed when clonidine was injected into the contralateral hind paws. Preinjection of clonidine into the plantar surface of ipsilateral, but not contralateral, hind paws reduced the sensitivity to heat stimuli. Clonidine partially reduced formalin-evoked responses when it was preinjected into ipsilateral hind paws. The expression level of α2C receptor mRNA quantified by real-time PCR was highest followed by those of α2A and α2B receptors in DRGs. α2A and α2C receptor-like immunoreactivities were detected with TRPV1-like immunoreactivities in the same neurons. These results suggest that TRPV1 and α2 receptors are coexpressed in peripheral nerve terminals and that the functional association between these two molecules causes analgesia.
Anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) is a surgical procedure for drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy that is commonly performed in human medicine. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ATL-like surgery, i.e., removal of the amygdala and hippocampal head, is possible in dogs, and to investigate its safety and postoperative complications. Eight healthy beagles underwent ATL-like surgery and were observed for 3 months postoperatively. Samples from the surgically resected tissues and postmortem brain were evaluated pathologically. The surgical survival rate was 62.5%. The major postoperative complications were visual impairment, temporal muscle atrophy on the operative side, and a postoperative acute symptomatic seizure. Due to the anatomical differences between dogs and humans, the surgically resected area to approach the medial temporal structures in dogs was the ventrolateral part of the temporal lobe. Therefore, the ATL-like surgery described in this study was named “ventrolateral temporal lobectomy” (VTL). This study is the first report of temporal lobectomy including amygdalohippocampectomy in veterinary medicine and demonstrates its feasibility. Although it requires some degree of skill, VTL could be a treatment option for canine drug-resistant epilepsy and lesions in the mesial temporal lobe.
Very few epidemiologic studies have verified the utility of the right paramedian abomasopexy (RPA) technique in cows with right abomasal disorders. This study aimed to investigate the outcomes and risk factors for non-survival in the herd within 30 days of surgery in cows with right abomasal disorders who underwent the RPA technique. Forty-seven Holstein cows with right abomasal disorders (25 with right abomasal displacement [RDA] and 22 with right abomasal volvulus [RAV]) were included. Twenty-two cows with RDA (22/25, 88.0%) and 10 cows with RAV (10/22, 45.5%) survived at 30 days post-surgery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and the presence of abomasal volvulus were the major risk factors associated with non-survival.
Borna disease virus (BoDV) is a neurotropic virus that causes several infections in humans and neurological diseases in a wide range of animals worldwide. BoDV-1 has been molecularly and serologically detected in many domestic and wild animals in Japan; however, the genetic diversity of this virus and the origin of its infection are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated BoDV-1 infection and genetic diversity in samples collected from animals in Hokkaido between 2006 and 2020. The analysis was performed by focusing on the P region of BoDV-1 for virus detection. The presence of BoDV-1 RNA was observed in samples of brain tissue and various organs derived from persistently infected cattle. Moreover, after inoculation, BoDV-positive brains were isolated from neonatal rats. The gene sequences of the P region of BoDV obtained from the rat brain were in the same cluster as the P region of the virus isolated from the original bovine. Thus, genetic variation in BoDV-1 was extremely low. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that BoDV-1 isolates obtained in this study were part of the same cluster, which suggested that BoDV-1 of the same cluster was widespread among animals in Hokkaido.
Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is an oncogenic alphaherpesvirus that causes immunosuppression, T-cell lymphomas, and neuropathic disease in infected chickens. To protect chickens from MDV infection, an avirulent live vaccine of turkey herpesvirus (HVT) has been successfully used for chickens worldwide. Similar to MDV for natural infection in both chickens and turkeys, HVT also infects lung in the early stage of infection and then lymphocytes from lymphoid organs. Virus replication requires cell-to-cell contact for spreading and semi-productive lytic replication in T and B cells. Then, cell-free infectious virions matured in the feather follicle epithelium (FFE) are released and spread through the feather from infected turkeys or chickens. To understand the lifecycle of HVT in inoculated chickens via the subcutaneous route, we investigate the replication kinetics and tissue organ tropism of HVT in chickens by a subcutaneous inoculation which is a major route of MDV vaccination. We show that the progeny virus matured in lymphocytes from the thymus, spleen, and lung as early as 2 days post-infection (dpi) and bursa of Fabricius at 4 dpi, whereas viral maturation in the FFE was observed at 6 dpi. Furthermore, semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR experiments to measure viral mRNA expression levels revealed that the higher expression levels of the late genes were associated with viral maturation in the FFE. These data that tropism and replication kinetics of HVT could be similar to those of MDV through the intake pathway of natural infection from respiratory tracts.
Morphological variation of the skull was examined in the northern treeshrew (Tupaia belangeri) from various localities across Southeast Asia. Through a multivariate analysis, the treeshrews from South Vietnam exhibited distinct morphological characteristics compared to other populations from Thailand and Laos, and Malaysia. The plots of the specimens of North Vietnam are not randomly mixed with Thailand plots segregation in the scatteregrams of canonical discriminant analysis. Since the skulls of the population from North Vietnam were morphologically similar to those form central Laos and northern and northeastern Thailand, the zoogeographical barrier effect of Mekong River was not clearly confirmed. The population of the Kanchanaburi in western Thailand is clearly smaller in size compared to the other populations. The southern border of the distribution of this species is determined by the Isthmus of Kra or Kangar-Pattani Line. In the northern treeshrew, which is distributed from southern China to Bangladesh and southern Thailand, we have detected osteometrical geographical variation driven by geography. These results indicate that the skull morphology in the Tupaia glis-belangeri complex distinctively differs in South Vietnam, western Thailand, and southern Thailand. The zoogeographical barrier and factor separating these districts are expected to clarify in the future.
Oarfish (Regalecus russelii Cuvier) are mesopelagic fish with little known about their life history. Oarfish live in deep water, making it difficult for researchers to collect specimens; thus, records of their parasitic helminths are limited. Two plerocercoids were found for the first time in an oarfish stranded on the coast of Akita Prefecture, Japan. These plerocercoids were identified as Clistobothrium sp. RR-1 using morphological and molecular analyses. It was revealed that oarfish represent one of the intermediate hosts of the genus Clistobothrium, and large sharks are the definitive hosts for these parasites.
This clinical case describes struvite urolithiasis in a pet chipmunk. Physical examination revealed the presence of two ovoid palpable masses in the caudal part of the abdomen, which were later confirmed by radiography as urinary bladder stone. The animal underwent ventral midline laparotomy and uroliths were successfully removed. Uroliths analysis revealed the presence of struvite and bacteriology showed the presence of Proteus mirabilis. Little is known about aetiology and incidence of urolithiasis in chipmunks. Client education about husbandry, dietary needs, and animal behaviour is necessary, especially when dealing with less commonly kept exotic companion mammals. This is the first report of struvite urolithiasis in a pet chipmunk.