The constitution of ependyma derived from the ventricular zone is different from that derived from other regions of the central nervous system. In the mammalian cerebrum, the ependyma is varied by the regions to cortex or basal ganglia (BG). In the avian telencephalon (Tc), previous studies about the constitution of the ependyma have not revealed clear findings. In the present study, we performed immunostaining of ependymal cells in the chicken Tc to confirm differences in the ependyma of various regions. As a result, 4 patterns of ependyma were defined in the outer side of the lateral ventricle. In the base of the lamina pallio-subpallialis (LPS), ependyma consisted of vimentin/glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) double-positive cells, whereas in the base of the lamina frontalis superior, it consisted primarily of vimentin-positive cells and a small number of vimentin/GFAP double-positive cells. With the exception of the above, the pallial ependyma was a single layer containing vimentin single-positive cells. Lastly, the ependyma of the BG was rich in vimentin single-positive cells. The constitutional differences of the ependyma of the pallium and BG concerned differences in ependymal morphology and cell characteristics. These finding suggest that the bounder between pallium and BG is LPS at the point of ependyma.
Ribosomal protein S3 (rpS3) is well known to participate in DNA repair mechanisms. In the present study, we compared rpS3 immunoreactivity and its protein levels in the hippocampus among young, adult and aged gerbils. In the postnatal month (PM) 3 group as the young, rpS3 immunoreaction was observed in pyramidal and non-pyramidal cells of the hippocampus proper and in granule and polymorphic cells of the dentate gyrus. In the PM 12 group as adult and 24 group as the aged, rpS immunoreactivity in the hippocampus was decreased compared to the PM 3 group. Western blot analysis showed that rpS3 levels were decreased with time; lowest at PM 24. These results indicate that rpS3 immunoreactivity and protein levels were markedly decreased in the aged gerbil hippocampus.
We examined the immunohistochemical distributions of natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A, -B and -C that bind with natriuretic peptide hormones A, B and C in four healthy crossbreed young canine and feline cardiac tissues using specific antibodies against human antigens. Cross-immunoreactivities between antigens and antibodies were confirmed using western blot analysis. NPR-A and -C were expressed more strongly in dogs than cats. In both species, these expressions were stronger in the atria than the ventricles, with stronger expression in the left ventricles than the right. NPR-B was largely very weekly or undetected. In canine and feline cardiac tissues, the expressional distribution of NPR-A, -B, and -C closely matched with that of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and C-type natriuretic peptide as the ligands for corresponding receptors.
The prevalence of footpad dermatitis (FPD) in broiler chickens in Japan was investigated. In the first examination at slaughterhouses, lesions were commonly observed on the footpads of a total of 8,985 broiler chickens from 45 flocks on 36 farms. In 3 flocks, all the birds examined had lesions. In the other 42 flocks, the incidence of FPD ranged from 31.9% (81/254) to 99.5% (1/222). The footpad lesions were classified into 4 categories according to the severity of dermatitis as follows; score 0, 1,181 birds (13.1%); score 1, 2,992 birds (33.3%); score 2, 3,000 birds (33.4%); and score 3, 1,812 birds (20.2%). The mean scores of the flocks varied widely from 0.31 to 2.69. Males had higher mean scores than females. No significant differences were found between the mean scores of birds reared in windowless houses and those in open-sided houses. On 4 farms, the investigation was carried out in different seasons, and 3 of them showed higher mean scores in winter than in summer. Next, observation of 2,255 birds from 15 flocks on 5 farms during a 4-week rearing period revealed that FPD was already produced at 7 days of age and worsened with age.
The Okinawa rail (Gallirallus okinawae) is an endangered species that inhabits the northern part of Okinawa Main Island in southern Japan. A wild Okinawa rail was rescued from a road in Kunigami Village in Okinawa in October 2009. The bird subsequently died and underwent necropsy. Tumors were found in the liver, spleen and part of the small intestine. Microscopically, lymphoid neoplasm was confirmed in these tissues. The tumor cells were mainly positive for CD3 and CD8á by immunohistochemistry. No Marek's disease virus genes were detected by PCR of a liver tumor. This is the first report of T-cell lymphoma in the Okinawa rail.
Salmonella and Campylobacter are common bacterial pathogens associated with human gastro-enteritis; and raw poultry is considered to be an important source of these bacteria. To evaluate whether the Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. bacteria could be monitored for the purpose of microbial presence, enumeration and antimicrobial resistance in raw poultry, 152 poultry carcasses were randomly selected from 10 markets in retail outlets of Phnom Penh during March 2006 to February 2007. The majority of poultry samples was contaminated by Salmonella serovars (88.2%) and Campylobacter spp. (80.9%). A very high contamination of Salmonella was found at 3-4 log10 CFU/g for 22.4% of samples and of Campylobacter at 7-8 log10 CFU/g for 1.3% of samples. Fifty nine different Salmonella serovars contaminated 134 poultry carcasses; five most prevalent serovars covered 29.1% of serovars isolates (Anatum, Typhimurium, Corvallis, Stanley and Enteritidis). Three Campylobacter species contaminating 123 raw poultry were Campylobacter jejuni (50.0%), Campylobacter coli (29.0%) and Campylobacter lari (21.0%). High antibiotic resistance percentages were found among Salmonella serovars and Campylobacter spp. isolates. This study revealed that raw poultry at the retail outlets in Phnom Penh markets are contaminated with high prevalences of food-borne pathogens, and communicating the importance of minimizing this risk in reducing human infections.
Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are the major virulent factors of Haemophilus parasuis. PCR-RFLP targeting the ompA gene was conducted to investigate the possibility of genotyping H. parasuis in this study. Fifteen reference strains and 49 isolates from pig farms in northwest China were genotyped by PCR-RFLP with a pair of specific primers. The results indicated that both the 15 reference strains and 49 isolates could be classified into 8 different genotypes by PCR-RFLP, respectively. Seven genotypes including AA, BB, BA, CA, BC, BD and CD existed simultaneously in the reference strains and isolates, but genotype CB only existed in the isolated strains. Interestingly, genotypes BA, CD and CA were only found in diseased pigs and accounted for 38.8%, 22.4% and 18.4% of the isolates, respectively. On the other hand, strains isolated from apparently healthy pigs were classified into genotypes AA, BB, BC and CB. However, the virulent reference serovar 1 strain has an AA genotype, and the fact that nearly all strains from the healthy pigs belonged to serovars classed as virulent suggests that these genotypes might also include virulent strains; therefore, further validation with more field strains is needed. The capability of the RFLP-PCR method based on the ompA gene for genotyping H. parasuis isolates indicates that this method may be a useful tool for epidemiological study.
Nineteen blood samples collected from free-ranging wild Japanese serows, Capricornis crispus, between 2006 and 2008 in Iwate prefecture were examined for the hemoplasma infection by real-time PCR targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Five (26.3%) out of the 19 samples were positive in real-time PCR with an average melting temperature at 85.18°C. The positive samples in the real-time PCR were reconfirmed by conventional PCR, and one of them was successful for direct DNA sequencing. The nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of the representative stain was identical to that of Mycoplasma ovis. This was the first demonstration of hemotropic mycoplasma infections among the free-living Japanese serows in Japan.
A total of 1,000 rectal samples were collected from rabbits coming from 25 rabbit farms in southern Italy. All samples were processed for isolation of Salmonella spp. by standard culture method based on the ISO 6579:2002 method. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 1/25 rabbit farms analyzed. In particular, four out of 1,000 rectal swab samples, taken from young rabbits, were serotyped as S. Typhimurium and phage typed as S. Typhimurium DT104. All the isolates were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ACSSuT pentaresistance type). The findings of the present study suggest the rabbit as potential carrier of S. Typhimurium DT104.
Campylobacter jejuni reportedly exhibits chemotactic behavior towards fucose, several amino acids and organic acids, mucin and bile. The chemotaxis of C. jejuni has mainly been studied using the chemical-in-plug chemotaxis assay. In this study, a nonchemotactic mutant (cheY mutant) and nonmotile mutant (flhA mutant) were constructed and used as negative controls in an assay. Apparent zones of accumulation around test plugs containing several amino acids and organic acids were observed with both of the mutants. Our results suggest that positive responses of C. jejuni in the chemical-in-plug assay are not always indicative of chemotaxis.
The binding of ferritin to heme has been well studied using commercial horse spleen apoferritin, which is almost entirely composed of the L subunit, suggesting that mammalian ferritins bind heme. The present study revealed that both mammalian holoferritins (commercial horse spleen ferritin and purified horse spleen, bovine spleen and canine liver ferritins with L/H subunit ratios of 4.0, 1.1, and 2.3, respectively) and their apoferritins bound biotinylated hemin; apoferritins had higher binding activity than holoferritins, except for canine holo- and apoferritins, which showed the same binding. Bovine ferritin H subunit homopolymers expressed by a baculovirus expression system showed heme binding and had higher binding activity to biotinylated hemin than the L subunit homopolymer expressed by the same system. These bindings were inhibited by heme but not by iron-free or Zn-protoporphyrin IX (Zn-PPIX). Purified chicken liver holoferritin was found to be composed of only H subunits and showed the highest binding activity with biotinylated hemin compared with mammalian holoferritins. The binding of chicken liver holoferritin to biotinylated hemin was also inhibited by heme but not by PPIX or Zn-PPIX. These results indicate that mammalian and avian ferritins bind heme and that the H subunit preferentially recognizes heme.
A 12-year-old intact male Maltese dog presented with an inguinal mass. Histopathology revealed a grade III mast cell tumor. Computed tomography demonstrated pulmonary and inguinal nodules and masses. Chemotherapy was performed using a vinblastine/prednisone protocol, and the inguinal mass disappeared 5 weeks later. Use of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) and L-[methyl- 11C]methionine (11C-MET)-positron emission tomography (PET) demonstrated hypermetabolic areas in the lungs and inguinal region one week after initial chemotherapy. The standardized uptake values of 18F-FDG were not different between lung and inguinal lesions; however, the inguinal lesion had a higher 11C-MET standardized uptake value than the lung lesions. The hypermetabolic area was still visible on the second 18F-FDG-PET scan despite the disappearance of the mass. This is the first report of 11C-MET-PET findings associated with a cutaneous mast cell tumor in a dog.
A two-year-old dog having presented with neurological signs showed marked leukocytosis and appearance of blast cells in the peripheral blood. Hematological and bone marrow examination showed an increase in blasts having both myeloid and monocytic cells characteristics. The dog was diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AML-M4) on the basis of bone marrow findings. Although the dog was treated with a multi-combination chemotherapy, the neurological abnormalities progressed and the dog was euthanized. Myelographic examination and necropsy revealed the extradural lesion formed by AML-M4 around the cervical spinal cord and this lesion was considered as a cause of the neurological signs.
In the present study, we examined effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation at 40 kHz on hepatic injury in Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, an animal model for human Wilson disease, which is a heritable disease of copper metabolism in the liver. The activities of ALT and AST in serum of LEC rats exposed to RF radiation for 2 weeks were approximately 3.8-fold and 2-fold higher than those in serum of sham-exposed rats, respectively. Although there were no significant differences in hepatic copper contents between LEC rats exposed to RF radiation for 2 weeks and sham-exposed rats, copper contents in the kidney and serum of exposed LEC rats were approximately 4.2-fold and 12.9-fold higher than those in sham-exposed rats, respectively. Relative O2--scavenging activities in the S-100 fraction of the liver of LEC rats exposed to RF radiation for 2 weeks were 1.6-fold higher than those in sham-exposed rats. No significant differences were observed in activities of AST and ALT in serum and relative O2--scavenging activity in the S-100 fraction of the liver of normal control WKAH rats that were sham-exposed and exposed to RF radiation. No significant differences were observed in copper contents in the liver, kidney and serum of WKAH rats that were sham-exposed and exposed to RF radiation for 2 weeks. The results show that RF radiation at 40 kHz induced hepatic injury in LEC rats.
Butorphanol tartrate (BT) was injected into mice before injection with acetylcholine in a murine model infected latently with pseudorabies virus. The analgesic effect and its influence on virus reactivation were observed. Mice preinjected with BT showed suppression of screaming, moving and excitation and the same level of movement after excitation as mice injected with PBS. In the group injected with BT i.p., one mouse died and another developed diarrhea with increased virus excretion. These results showed that BT has analgesic effects by both injection routes, s.c. and i.p.; however, BT induced death as a side effect, especially with i.p. injection. The injection route for BT should therefore be investigated further.
Theileria orientalis is a benign protozoan species that is widely distributed in Japan, yet sometimes causes serious economic losses in the livestock industry. In this study, we conducted a molecular survey based on genes encoding the major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) and p23 for T. orientalis detected in cattle grazing in southern areas of Japan, consisting of 2 farms in Kumamoto prefecture (Aso and Kuma districts) and 3 farms in Okinawa prefecture (Ishigaki, Iriomote, and Yonaguni Islands). High prevalence rates of T. orientalis infection were shown in all the cattle populations using the diagnostic MPSP- and p23-PCR assays. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 4 MPSP genotypes and 3 p23 genotypes. Furthermore, MPSP genotype-specific PCR methods were developed in this study and wide distributions of 5-district genotypes of T. orientalis were observed for the examined farms. Our results indicate that at least 5 types of T. orientalis exist in Kumamoto and Okinawa prefectures of Japan and that genotype-specific PCR assays are highly applicable for the quarantine of transported cattle and for epidemiological surveys of bovine theileriosis in Japan.
A 5-year-old female cross-breed dog was presented with a 1-month history of progressive changes in the posture of the head and in the gait. At neurological examination the dog showed a central vestibular syndrome lateralized to the left. MRI showed a space occupying lesion within the fourth ventricle, characterized by iso- to hypointensity in T1 and hyperintensity in T2 with a heterogeneous contrast uptake. Histologically, a neoplasia composed of meningothelial cells forming compact whorls with slight atypia, and stellate cells delimitating microcysts containing eosinophilic fluid was observed. Neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and negative for GFAP and FVIII. A diagnosis of intraventricular microcystic meningioma was achieved. Intraventricular meningiomas in dogs are rarely encountered and reports of meningiomas within the fourth ventricle have not yet been described. Although choroid plexus tumor is the most frequent neoplasia localized in the fourth ventricle, intraventricular meningioma should be included in the differential diagnoses.
Two cytologic variants of γδ T cell lymphoma are described. Case 1 represented a giant cell variant found in a 5-year-old Holstein cow, which had large tumor masses in the pelvic cavity. This variant consisted of very large lymphoid cells with round to oval nuclei, medium-sized nucleoli and abundant cytoplasm. Case 2 was an aborted 7-month-old female Holstein fetus, which represented an immature cell variant. Most of the neoplastic lesions were located in the skin and pleural and peritoneal submesothelial tissues. The neoplastic tissues were composed of homogeneous growth of lymphoma cells characterized by inconspicuous nucleoli and finely dispersed chromatin. Both cases demonstrated CD3, CD8 and WC1 immunoreactivity. The current study revealed that there are 4 cytologic variants (common, giant cell, hypergranular and immature cell) in bovine γδ T cell lymphomas.
Five hundred and fifty fish samples from various stages in the course of distribution in Hyogo Prefecture (209 retailed in super markets, 173 obtained from fishery cooperatives at a harbor, 91 caught by trawling and 77 caught by rod fishing) were examined for contamination with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). S. aureus was detected in 41 (19.6%) of the retail fish samples and 46 (26.6%) of the samples from the fishery cooperatives. No S. aureus was isolated from the live fish (91 trawled and 77 fished by rod). With regard to the retail fish, the contamination rate of processed fish (26.0%) was significantly higher than that of unprocessed fish (14.2%). For 88 samples, the efficacy of the selective medium was compared using Baird-Parker agar and mannitol salt agar supplemented with egg yolk (MSEY agar) by the direct plate and enrichment culture methods. Using the direct culture method, the S. aureus positive rate with the Baird-Parker agar (30.7%) was significantly higher (P<0.01) than that with the MSEY agar (6.8%). The enrichment culture method remarkably raised the S. aureus detection rate. Seventy-eight (85.7%) of 91 isolates belonged to the human ecovar. Sixty-two (68.1%) of the 91 isolates had some enterotoxin genes, including 44 (48.4%) with the sea gene. These data showed that the fish were contaminated with S. aureus after landing and that Baird-Parker agar had an advantage in detecting S. aureus with a direct plate culture.
Isolates of extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium obtained from two different farms in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan, in 2007 were characterized in order to determine the genetic basis of resistance. ESC resistance in the two isolates was mediated by an AmpC β-lactamase encoded by the blaCMY-2 gene, which is located in a large self-transmissible plasmid in each isolate. The sizes of the blaCMY-2-carrying plasmids were different. The replicon types of the plasmids were I1-Iγ and A/C. The results of macrorestriction analysis and phage typing suggest a close relationship between both isolates. This is the first report of ESC-resistant S. Typhimurium isolated from cattle in Japan.
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a zoonotic agent causing severe encephalitis in humans. Rodent species that are potential hosts for TBEV are widely distributed in various regions in Japan. In this study, we carried out large-scale epizootiological surveys in rodents from various areas of Japan. A total of 931 rodent and insectivore sera were collected from field surveys. Rodents seropositive for TBEV were found in Shimane Prefecture in Honshu and in several areas of Hokkaido Prefecture. These results emphasize the need for further epizootiological and epidemiological research of TBEV and preventive measures for emerging tick-borne encephalitis in Japan.
The cardiovascular effects of continuous epidural administration (CEA) of lidocaine were investigated in anesthetized dogs. Loading epidural injections of 2, 4, or 6 mg/kg of lidocaine were followed by CEA with 1, 2, or 3 mg/kg/hr lidocaine, respectively, for 2 hr under 2.0% isoflurane anesthesia. Heart rate, direct blood pressure, cardiac index, and stroke volume decreased dose-dependently during CEA, whereas systemic vascular resistance did not significantly differ with dose, and no characteristic changes were observed in any groups. Plasma lidocaine concentration reached a steady state during CEA and increased in a dose-dependent manner. Circulatory suppression caused by lidocaine CEA was not attributable to peripheral vasodilation, but rather to the direct cardiac action of systemic lidocaine absorption from the peridural space.
This study was conducted to determine the correlation between reproductive hormones and musth in a male African elephant. Changes in circulating luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone and immunoreactive (ir-) inhibin and the degree of musth were evaluated for 4 years. LH increased 4 weeks before musth began. The highest concentrations of testosterone and ir-inhibin were observed from April to October. There were positive correlations among testosterone, ir-inhibin and musth behavior. These findings suggested that the surge-like LH in the pre-musth period might stimulate secretion of testosterone and ir-inhibin and thus initiate the musth behavior. This study also suggested that the high LH level before musth might be a useful biomarker for the beginning of the musth season.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether dityrosine and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) reflect the severity of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Immunoexpression of dityrosine in kidneys and plasma AOPP concentration were examined up to day 4 post-cisplatin injection in rats. Cisplatin injection induced tubular injury on days 2-4 after injection and increased serum creatinine and BUN on days 3 and 4. On days 2-4, dityrosine was immunostained in the cytoplasm of damaged tubular cells, and their immunostaining intensity increased time-dependently. Plasma AOPP levels were significantly increased on days 3 and 4. These results suggest that expressions of dityrosine and AOPP were associated with the severity of renal injury and may be useful markers for the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.
In this study, blood serum and leukocyte samples were collected from 400 Holstein heifers, all of which appeared to be healthy. Antibodies (Ab) against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were detected in 57 serum samples, and BVDV antigen (Ag) was detected in 38 leukocyte samples. There were statistically important differences between the average first insemination ages (FIT) of the BVDV (Ag-/Ab+) heifers (p<0.0001) (pregnant p<0.05, nonpregnant p<0.0001) and BVDV (Ag-/Ab-) heifers. The average conception rates (CR) of BVDV (Ag-/Ab+) heifers and BVDV (Ag-/Ab-) heifers were not significant statistically. There were statistically important differences in average FIT between persistent infected (PI) BVDV (Ag+/Ab-) heifers (p<0.0001; PI pregnant p<0.05, PI nonpregnant p<0.0001) and BVDV (Ag-/Ab-) heifers. No significant differences in average CR between PI BVDV (Ag+/Ab-) heifers and BVDV (Ag-/Ab-) heifers were found. The differences in average FIT between BVDV (Ag+/Ab+; p<0.0001; nonpregnant p<0.0001) and BVDV (Ag-/Ab-) heifers were important statistically. Although there were no BVDV (Ag+/Ab+) pregnant heifers, the differences in average CR between BVDV (Ag+/Ab+) pregnant heifers and BVDV (Ag-/Ab-) heifers were found to be statistically important (p<0.0001). We conclude that fertility is affected in heifers with BVDV (Ag-/Ab+, Ag+/Ab- and Ag+/Ab+).