The cytokine interleukin-19 (IL-19) is a member of the IL-10 family that includes IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26. Previous studies indicated that IL-19 is produced by keratinocytes, epithelial cells, macrophages, and B-cells. Especially, the number of IL-4-producing T cells increased, whereas the number of IFN-γ-producing T cells decreased when naive T cells from healthy people were cultured in the presence of IL-19. There is an increasing body of data demonstrating that IL-19 is associated with the development of type 1 helper T cell-responses, although IL-19 was originally associated with the development of type 2 helper T cell-responses. In this review, we will attempt to discuss current knowledge about the role of IL-19 on several T cell response-mediated inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel disease and hypersensitivity.
The metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that destroys hepatocytes. Meanwhile, astaxanthin (AX) is known to have stronger antioxidative activity than other carotenoids. This study aimed to investigate hepatoprotective role of AX from AFB1-induced toxicity in rat by histopathological study and immunohistochemistry of Cu/Zn-SOD (SOD1) which acts as the first enzyme in antioxidative reaction against cell injury from ROS. Twenty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. The control and AFB1 groups were gavaged by water for 7 days followed by a single DMSO and 1 mg/kg AFB1, respectively. The AXL+ AFB1 and AXH+ AFB1 groups were given of 5 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg AX for 7 days before 1 mg/kg AFB1 administration. The result showed significantly elevated liver weight per 100 g body weight in AFB1 group. The histopathological finding revealed vacuolar degeneration, necrosis, megalocytosis and binucleation of hepatocytes with bile duct hyperplasia in AFB1 group. The severities of pathological changes were sequentially reduced in AXL+AFB1 and AXH+AFB1 groups. Most rats in AXH+AFB1 group owned hypertrophic hepatocytes and atypical proliferation of cholangiocytes which are adaptive responses to severe hepatocyte damage. The SOD1 expression was also significantly higher in AXH+AFB1 group than solely treated AFB1 and AXL+AFB1 groups. In conclusion, AX alleviated AFB1-induced liver damage in rat by stimulating SOD1 expression and transdifferentiation of cholangiocytes in dose dependent manner.
The incidence of diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing annually worldwide, including Japan. Mycobacterium avium subsp. hoiminissuis (MAH) is one of the most common NTM species responsible for chronic lung diseases in animals and humans. In the current study, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing was employed to characterize the genetic diversity of swine MAH isolates from Kyushu, Japan. In total, 309 isolates were obtained from the lymph nodes of 107 pigs not displaying any clinical signs of disease, of which 307 were identified as MAH, comprising 173 strains. Based on eight established MIRU-VNTR loci, the MAH strains represented 50 genotypes constituting three lineages, and 29 had not been described in the Mac French National Institute for Agricultural Research Nouzilly MIRU-VNTR (Mac-INMV) database. MAH was the dominant M. avium complex (MAC) in pigs from Kyushu, and there was high genetic diversity among genotype profiles of MAH from Kyushu. We identified three predominant genotype profiles in the tested area sharing high relatedness with genotype profiles of strains isolated in European countries. MAH was the most common NTM in pigs from Kyushu and exhibited high diversity, with new strain-derived genotypes.
To evaluate the effect of overfeeding on fatty acid distribution and metabolism, especially stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) indices, 8 cats in the experimental and control groups (4 per group) were evaluated in this study. The experiments involved feeding the experimental group cats twice their daily energy requirement with a commercial diet for 4 weeks. The control group was fed the estimated daily energy requirement with the same diet. Body weight, feline body mass index, body condition score, several zoometry measurements, and plasma metabolites/hepatic injury markers were measured in all the cats before and after the experiment. In addition, the fatty acid profiles in the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured after the experiment. After 4 weeks of overfeeding, the experimental group demonstrated significant increases in hepatic C18:1, plasma triglyceride, and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and in alanine aminotransferase activity. Furthermore, hepatic SCD-1 indices were positively correlated with body weight, feline body mass index, body condition score, and plasma NEFA concentration, although subcutaneous adipose tissue did not demonstrate any increase in SCD-1 indices in this study. The increase in hepatic SCD-1 indices might be enhanced by the inflow of plasma NEFA into the liver, and NEFA toxicity might stimulate C18:1 synthesis by SCD-1.
A 15-year-old neutered male Persian cat was presented with recurrent hematemesis and melena. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a mass in the proximal descending duodenal wall. Endoscopic examination revealed hemorrhage on the luminal side of the mass. Fine-needle aspiration of the mass was performed. Microscopic analysis revealed a cluster of cells with oval nuclei and indistinct cell borders, suggesting a neoplastic disease of neuroendocrine origin. The mass located near the major duodenal papilla was partially resected, and the bleeding was stopped by cauterization. However, the surgical procedures could not control the hemorrhage from the tumor mass, and the cat died of severe anemia. Immunohistopathological analysis revealed that the tumor was a duodenal carcinoid.
Undesirable behaviors exhibited by dogs are called canine behavioral problems. Behavioral problems are common among dogs kept in ordinary homes; hence, veterinarians need to have sufficient knowledge of these problems, so as to advise owners. Among dogs kept in ordinary Japanese homes, only a few behaviors have been investigated regarding prevalence and relevant factors. To improve understanding of behavioral problems, a comprehensive survey is crucial. In this study, we distributed an online survey including general information and questions about 25 canine behaviors that can become problematic to owners, to investigate (1) the prevalence of behavioral problem, (2) the most common behavioral problems, and (3) the relevant factors of each behavior. We collected 2,050 valid responses. Among all dogs, 86.0% exhibited at least one behavioral problem. “Barking at noises inside the house”, “Barking at unfamiliar visitors”, and “Pica” were the most frequent behavioral problems. To reveal those factors related to the expression of each behavior, we performed multiple logistic regression analyses, with the presence of behaviors as objective variables and dogs’ general information as explanatory variables. Breed, age, the presence of other dogs in the household, sex, neutering status, source of acquisition, and type of residence were associated with 19, 16, 5, 4, 4, 4, and 1 behaviors, respectively. This study revealed the prevalence of 25 canine behavioral problems in Japan and relevant factors of each behavior. Our findings will be useful for veterinarians in advising owners about preventing behavioral problems.
Wild animals tend to avoid novel objects that do not elicit clear avoidance behaviors in domesticated animals. We previously found that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) and dorsal bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (dBNST) were larger in trapped wild rats compared with laboratory rats. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that the BLA and/or dBNST would be differentially activated when wild and laboratory rats showed different avoidance behaviors towards novel objects. In this study, we placed novel objects at one end of the home cage. We measured the time spent in that half of the cage and expressed the data as a percentage of the time spent in that region with no object placement. We found that this percentage was lower in the wild rats compared with the laboratory rats. These behavioral differences were accompanied by increased Fos expression in the BLA, but not in the dBNST, of the wild rats. These results suggest that wild rats show greater BLA activation compared with laboratory rats in response to novel objects. We also found increased Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventral BNST, and ventromedial hypothalamus, but not in the central amygdala of wild rats. Taken together, our data represent new information regarding differences in behavioral and neural responses towards novel objects in wild vs. laboratory rats.
Two commercial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antibody ELISA kits (IDEXX and LSI) are currently in extensive use. To determine which kit is more suitable for the evaluation of HP-PRRSV vaccine efficacy, the two kits were used to test 546 serum samples. The agreement between the results was unsatisfactory, with a kappa statistic of 0.681 and a linear correlation coefficient of 0.665. In tests of samples from experimentally vaccinated and PRRSV-negative herds, IDEXX-ELISA identified antibody-positive conversion earlier and showed a higher specificity compared to LSI-ELISA. The serological profile obtained by neutralization testing was closer to that obtained by IDEXX-ELISA than by LSI-ELISA in the late immunization period. The findings reveal that IDEXX-ELISA is the more suitable for the evaluation of antibody response to HP-PRRSV vaccine and for guiding vaccination strategies.
The aim of the current study was to identify independent risk factors for thyroid axis alterations in dogs with non-thyroidal diseases. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, data and plasma samples from 207 dogs with non-thyroidal diseases was used. The involvement of various factors (disease severity, sex, age, breed, category and duration of disease, and medication) in the alteration of plasma thyroxine (T4) or thyroid-stimulation hormone (TSH) concentrations was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Among the 207 dogs analyzed, 99 (47.8%) had low plasma T4 concentrations, while 45 (21.7%) had high TSH concentrations. Intact male sex [odds ratio (OR), 3.25; 1.67–6.35; P<0.001], Labrador Retrievers (OR, 18.70; 2.32–151.00; P=0.006), moderate (OR, 2.39; 1.21–4.74; P=0.012) and severe diseases (OR, 6.84; 2.27–20.70; P<0.001) were associated with increased risk for low plasma T4 concentrations. Meanwhile, intact male (OR, 3.93; 1.51–10.30; P=0.005), spayed female (OR, 4.22; 1.59–11.20; P=0.004), older age (OR, 2.73; 1.28–5.84; P=0.009), and Miniature Dachshunds (OR, 5.39; 2.38–12.20; P<0.001) had increased risk for high plasma TSH concentrations. Disease severity had been determined as an independent risk factor for canine NTIS. In addition, sex, age and breed were also associated with thyroid axis alterations in dogs with non-thyroidal diseases.
Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) is useful to distinguish benign and malignant focal liver lesions in dogs. Cholangiocellular adenoma is an extremely rare benign tumor in dogs and has not been examined using CEUS with Sonazoid. The aim of this study was to describe findings of CEUS with Sonazoid in three dogs with cholangiocellular adenoma. All three dogs showed contrast defects in the Kupffer phase and these findings mimicked malignant neoplasia during the Kupffer phase. Moreover, all dogs showed early washout and hypoechoic lesions relative to the surrounding normal liver parenchyma in the portal phase. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that CEUS findings of cholangiocellular adenoma with Sonazoid mimicked malignancy in three dogs.
A 10-year-old female American Pit Bull dog was diagnosed with metastatic undifferentiated carcinoma of the scapula. Immunohistochemistry showed positive immunoexpression for cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, 34BE12, CK7) and vimentin, confirming squamous cell carcinoma. No evidence of nodules was found in the complete physical examination and imaging procedures conducted. The patient was diagnosed with carcinoma of unknown primary origin. Amputation and adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and piroxicam were performed, but the patient died of respiratory failure after 737 days of diagnosis. Necropsy confirmed undifferentiated carcinoma infiltrating the lungs and kidneys, and showing the same immunoexpression as the tumor in the scapula. Amputation associated with chemotherapy extended the overall survival time of this patient.
Canine osteosarcoma (OSA) is an aggressive and highly malignant primary bone tumor. Its poor survival outcome remains problematic despite recent advances in anti-cancer therapy, therefore highlighting the need for alternative treatment options or drug repositioning. The aim of this study was to determine if YM155, a small-molecule survivin inhibitor, potentiates the chemotherapeutic efficacy of etoposide against canine OSA in vitro and in vivo. In cell culture, YM155 enhanced the cytotoxic effect of etoposide against canine OSA cell lines; however, the molecular mechanism behind this effect was heterogeneous, as only one cell line had an elevated apoptotic level. In addition, this effect was not associated with survivin suppression in two of the cell lines. These results suggest that the molecular target of YM155 is not restricted to survivin alone. When tested on a murine xenograft model, the average tumor volume of the combination treatment group (YM155, 5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, 5 consecutive days/week; and etoposide, 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, every 5 days) was 66% smaller than the control group, although this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.17). Further studies to improve the treatment protocol are necessary to confirm the findings of this study.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is known to cause zoonotic infections from pigs, wild boars and deer. Domestic pigs have been used as an experimental animal model in medical research and training; however, the risks of HEV infection from pigs during animal experiments are largely unknown. Here, we retrospectively investigated the seroprevalence and detection rates of viral RNA in 73 domestic pigs (average 34.5 kg) introduced into an animal experimental facility in a medical school during 2012–2016. We detected anti-HEV immunoglobulin G antibodies in 24 of 73 plasma samples (32.9%), though none of the samples were positive for viral RNA. Plasma samples of 18 pigs were sequentially monitored and were classified into four patterns: sustained positive (5 pigs), sustained negative (5 pigs), conversion to positive (6 pigs) and conversion to negative (2 pigs). HEV genomes were detected in 2 of 4 liver samples from pigs that were transported from the same farm during 2016–2017. Two viral sequences of the overlapping open reading frame (ORF) 2/3 region (97 bp) were identical and phylogenetically fell into genotype 3. A 459-bp length of the ORF2 region of an amplified fragment from a pig transported in 2017 was clustered with the wbJYG1 isolate (subgenotype 3b) with 91.5% (420/459 bp) nucleotide identity. Based on our results, we suggest that domestic pigs introduced into animal facilities carry a potential risk of HEV infection to researchers, trainees and facility staff. Continuous surveillance and precautions are important to prevent HEV infection in animal facilities.
Veterinary vaccines are subjected to a safety testing using laboratory animals via intraperitoneal injection per batch. From April 2010 to March 2011, 7 guinea pigs in 4 batch tests exhibited unrecoverable weight loss and/or were found dead. Six guinea pigs had developed intussusception, whereas another one had developed an intestinal obstruction consequent to adhesion. A histopathology revealed that these lesions were associated with inflammatory foci. Other animals than the 7 guinea pig also developed similar inflammatory foci but did not develop bowel disorders. In the retesting of these batches, animals did not exhibited clinical signs, though inflammatory foci were detected. The clinical signs, detected in the primary test, might be due to bowel disorders secondary to an inflammatory response, rather than toxicity.
Paragonimiasis is an important food-borne zoonosis caused by Paragonimus flukes and is endemic to western Japan. However, there have been few epidemiological studies in the Tohoku district of northeastern Japan. In this study, Paragonimus metacercariae (mc) was detected in Geothelphusa dehaani (Japanese freshwater crab or Sawagani) in Iwate Prefecture. Out of the 207 Sawagani collected from 35 localities, 12 individuals from six localities were infected with Paragonimus mc. The mc were identified as P. skrjabini miyazakii based on the sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I. This is the first report of P. s. miyazakii mc infection in Sawagani in Iwate Prefecture.
In South Asia, Theileria annulata is known to be less pathogenic to local breeds of Bos indicus cattle comparing to Bos taurus cattle and some of mix breeds between them. Seroepidemiological surveys have revealed high sero-prevalence of T. annulata in asymptomatic local breeds of cattle in Bangladesh. Therefore, these asymptomatic infection in local breeds can be infectious sources to more sensitive breeds. In this study, 59 bloods of cattle showing no symptom were screened by species specific PCRs for hemoto-protozoan parasites, to prove the existence of T. annulata parasite in asymptomatic cattle in Bangladesh. The T. annulata infection was confirmed along with other parasitic species, and this is the first report of T. annulata DNA detection in Bangladesh.
Two guereza colobus monkeys (Colobus guereza) reared in a zoological garden in Japan suddenly died of multifocal fibrinonecrotic gastroenteritis and septicemia associated with infection by Yersinia spp. It was necessary to microbiologically differentiate Yersinia frederiksenii and Y. enterocolitica. We described the pathological findings and discuss the causal agent to emphasize the need to revert to using a combination of multiple examinations for diagnosis.
Cutaneous tumors are commonly found in dogs. To date, few studies have investigated the epidemiology of canine cutaneous tumors in Asian countries. The present study aims to report the prevalence of canine cutaneous tumors in Japan, and assess the association of breed, age, sex, and anatomical locations with the development of common tumor types. A total of 1,435 cases of cutaneous tumors were examined, of which 813 (56.66%) cases were malignant, and 622 (43.34%) were benign. Soft tissue sarcomas (18.40%), mast cell tumor (16.24%), lipoma (9.69%), hair follicle tumors (9.34%), and benign sebaceous tumors (8.50%) outnumbered the other tumor types. Tumors were commonly found on the head (13.87%), hindlimb (10.52%), forelimb (8.01%), chest (5.78%), and neck (5.57%). The risk of developing cutaneous tumors increased significantly in dogs aged 11-year and above (P<0.001). Mixed-breed dogs (14.63%), Miniature Dachshund (9.90%), and Labrador Retriever (8.01%) were the three most presented breeds; while Boxer, Bernese Mountain Dog, and Golden Retriever had an increased risk of cutaneous tumor development in comparison to mixed-breed dogs (P<0.05). Epidemiological information from the present study will serve as a useful reference for regional veterinarians to establish a preliminary diagnosis of canine cutaneous tumors.
A 7-day-old calf died following development of mild respiratory symptoms. Postmortem examination revealed the kidneys were inflamed, and Gram-negative bacteria was detected in the kidneys, supporting the diagnosis of suppurative pyelonephritis. Mannheimia varigena antigen was found in the lesions and the cytoplasm of macrophages and neutrophils in the renal cortex. The Gram-negative bacilli from the kidney were identified as M. varigena by sequencing the 16S rDNA. Although M. varigena is known to cause bovine respiratory disease syndrome, shipping fever, and meningitis, it was unknown that it could also cause suppurative pyelonephritis. Our study provides the first evidence of suppurative pyelonephritis caused by M. varigena in cattle and information that would improve our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment for M. varigena infections.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of human gastroenteritis in Japan. As chickens and cattle are common reservoirs for C. jejuni, this microaerophilic, stress-sensitive bacterium can overcome and survive various stress conditions during zoonotic transmission, particularly foodborne, to humans. How C. jejuni overcomes stress conditions is, however, unclear. In the present study, 70 C. jejuni strains isolated from various sources (26 human, 20 broilers, and 24 cattle isolates) in Miyazaki, Japan, from 2010 to 2012, were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and aerotolerance testing (aerobic shaking at 200 rpm). The results demonstrated that C. jejuni strains from Miyazaki belonged to 12 clonal complexes (CCs) and 43 sequence types (STs). CC-21 and CC-460 were mainly detected in human clinical strains. Most tested strains were aerotolerant, and only one (1.4%) was deemed sensitive to aerobic stress. Approximately 40% strains survived the 24-hr vigorous aerobic shaking at 200 rpm, and these hyper-aerotolerant strains were more prevalent in broiler and cattle isolates than in human isolates. Phylogenetic analysis divided the strains into five clusters, each showing a different pattern of host association. Thus, we have demonstrated for the first time that C. jejuni strains with increased tolerance to aerobic stress are highly prevalent in broilers and cattle in Miyazaki, Japan, and that certain clonal populations are frequently implicated in human infection in this area.
Our previous studies found that a dominant serovar of Salmonella enterica isolates from three farms raising broilers in 2014 and 2015 was serovar Agona and the number of Infantis isolates decreased (the serovar shift). In this study, 52 S. Agona strains which isolated between 1993 and 2008, were compared to the serovar shift clone by molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analyses, using pulsed field gel electrophoresis and whole genome sequence analyses. Of the 52 strains, one strain isolated from a human case in 1995 was genetically identical to the serovar shift clone, even though it was isolated prior to the serovar shift. These results suggested that the S. Agona serovar shift clone had existed in a source other than chicken penetrated chicken population.
The present study used data from anesthetic records to analyze variables of intracranial pressure (ICP) during brain tumor surgery or in the early postoperative period as prognostic indicators in dogs. Data from 17 dogs which were scheduled to undergo elective craniotomy for brain tumor surgery from 2009 to 2012 were included. Of these, five (29.4%) died during 14 days after the surgery because of respiratory failure following pneumonia (n=2), euthanasia due to difficulty in treatment of status epilepticus (n=1), tumor-bed hematoma (n=1), and unknown reason (n=1). In the 12 surviving dogs, neurological signs were improved or resolved at discharge. All dogs were administered midazolam and droperidol-fentanyl as premedication. General anesthesia was induced using propofol maintained on isoflurane and oxygen. Direct ICP was obtained via a Codman Microsensor strain gauge transducer. ICP hypertension (>13 mmHg) measured after 15 min of recovery from the moment after discontinuation of anesthesia by turning off the vaporizer dial was associated with poor prognosis (odds ratio, 20.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.39−287.60, P=0.028). This suggests that intracranial pressure influences the postoperative mortality rate in dogs undergoing brain tumor surgery.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are proposed to be useful in cartilage regenerative medicine, however, canine MSCs have been reported to show poor chondrogenic capacity. Therefore, optimal conditions for chondrogenic differentiation should be determined by mimicking the developmental process. We have previously established novel and superior canine MSCs named bone marrow peri-adipocyte cells (BM-PACs) and the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of growth factors required for in vivo chondrogenesis using canine BM-PACs. Spheroids of BM-PACs were cultured in chondrogenic medium containing 10 ng/ml transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) with or without 100 ng/ml bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), 100 ng/ml growth differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) or 100 ng/ml insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Chondrogenic differentiation was evaluated by the quantification of glycosaminoglycan and Safranin O staining for proteoglycan production. The expression of cartilage matrix or hypertrophic gene/protein was also evaluated by qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Spheroids in all groups were strongly stained with Safranin O. Although BMP-2 significantly increased glycosaminoglycan production, Safranin O-negative outer layer was formed and the mRNA expression of COL10 relating to cartilage hypertrophy was also significantly upregulated (P<0.05). GDF-5 promoted the production of glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen without increasing COL10 mRNA expression. The supplementation of IGF-1 did not significantly affect cartilaginous and hypertrophic differentiation. Our results indicate that GDF-5 is a useful growth factor for the generation of articular cartilage from canine MSCs.
In recent years, a novel technique of limb preservation has been used in human medicine that involves frozen autograft treated with liquid nitrogen. In this case, frozen autograft treatment along with shoulder joint reconstruction was performed in an 11-year-old cat with osteosarcoma of the distal scapula. Surgical site infection, shoulder dislocation, local recurrence, and pulmonary metastases were not reported for 24 months after surgery. Moreover, the patient was able to bear weight on the operated limb after 2 months of surgery, and excellent limb function without lameness was demonstrated after 15 months. The frozen autograft technique is advantageous because it is inexpensive, simple, and retains its initial strength after treatment, and could be a novel treatment in feline osteosarcoma.
An 11-year-old, 5.8-kg, male European cat was presented with a 4-month history of sneezing, nasal discharge, respiratory distress and bilateral conjunctivitis. Physical examination showed bilateral hemorrhagic mucopurulent nasal discharge and stertorous respiratory sounds. An irregular shaped mass involving the aboral portion of the right nasal cavity and sphenoidal sinus was identified by computed tomography. The mass was localized endoscopically in the medium meatus and an endoscopic-guided biopsy was performed. B-cell lymphoma was diagnosed by histopathological and immunochemistry exams. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery allowed to completely remove the tumor and restore a normal nasal flow. The cat showed no recurrence of the neoplasia for 15 months after the functional endoscopic sinus surgery.
Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is a causative agent of enzootic bovine lymphoma (EBL). BLV is prevalent worldwide, and ten genotypes have been classified based on the sequence of the envelope glycoprotein (gp51) gene. In this study, we present a simple and generally applicable PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method to identify BLV genotypes. While the genotyping results obtained by previously described PCR-RFLP methods matched only 78.96% to the results of phylogenetic analysis, we demonstrated that our PCR-RFLP method can identify 90.4% of the sequences available in the database in silico. The method was validated with 20 BLV sequences from EBL tumor tissues and 3 BLV sequences from blood of BLV infected cattle, and was found to show high specificity. We utilized this method to determine genotypes of blood samples from 18 BLV seropositive cattle in Kanagawa and Niigata, as well as 12 EBL cattle in Chiba, Japan. Our analysis with the modified PCR-RFLP detected two genotypes, Genotypes 1 and 3. Genotype 1 was detected as the main genotype, while Genotype 3 was sporadically observed. This technique can be used as a reliable system for screening a large number of epidemiological samples.
Two stranded whales were found dead on the coast of Jeju, South Korea. Based on the outer appearance and autopsy findings, one was determined to be an adult and the other a calf. The carcasses were dissected for species identification and pathological examination. A genetic analysis was performed, and the morphological characteristics of the skull observed. Then, 448 bp of the 5′ half of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region and 413 bp of the mtDNA cytochrome b gene were sequenced. A BLAST search revealed that the whales were ginkgo-toothed beaked whales (Mesoplodon ginkgodens). Morphological comparison of the adult skull with the holotype specimen confirmed the result. This is the first record of a stranded ginkgo-toothed beaked whale in Korea.
A female koala presented with hyperglycemia related to diabetes mellitus diagnosed at 9 years and treated with insulin. She presented with nasal hemorrhage, anemia, leukocytosis, and tachypnea at 10 years. A blood smear examination revealed scattered, atypical large myeloid cells and a clinical diagnosis of myelogenous leukemia was made. White blood cell count reached a maximum of 295 × 102/µl, with evidence of severe regenerative anemia and thrombocytopenia. Grossly, systemic lymph node enlargement, fragile liver with hemorrhage, and bloody ascites were observed. Histopathologically, atypical myeloid cells, including myelocytic and metamyelocytic cells, were scattered in the vasculature and surrounding tissues throughout the organs. The patient was infected with a koala retrovirus, which might have caused the myelogenous leukemia.