A serious symptom of cattle affected with Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is a bleeding tendency. This diathesis is characterized by insufficient platelet aggregation as a result of depressed response to collagen. One possible cause for the depression is a decrease in contribution of endogenous agonists such as ADP or thromboxane A2, which are released following collagen stimulation. However, these endogenous agonists play only a minor role in collagen-induced aggregation of bovine platelets. More importantly, activation of phospholipase C as a result of a direct action of collagen is depressed, leading to a depression of Ca2+ mobilization, in platelets from CHS-affected cattle. Several types of collagen receptor are proposed to work in concert to induce aggregation. Among them, glycoprotein VI (GPVI) and GPIa/IIa (integrin α2 β1) have been supposed to play dominant roles in collagen-induced aggregation. However, there are arguments about the role of each receptor, especially the role of GPIa/IIa, and the crosstalk between receptors. Recently, we reported that the Ca2+ signaling produced by rhodocytin, which had been first reported to be an agonist for the collagen receptor GPIa/IIa, produced much less Ca2+ signaling in CHS platelets than in normal ones, whereas that produced by GPVI activators was normal. These suggest that GPIa/IIa or the rhodocytin-associated pathway is impaired in CHS platelets. CHS platelets are valuable to reassess the mechanism of collagen-dependent signal transduction system and to delineate the inter-relationship among collagen receptors.
This work was designed to observe the dentine incremental lines of the sika deer (Cervus nippon) fawns and to investigate their periodicity using the chronological labeling method with fluorochromes. The incremental lines were observed in decalcified specimens stained by Bodian's silver technique, and the fluorescence-labeled lines were observed in undecalcified and ground specimens. In the silver stained specimens, there were two types of lines, deeply stained thick lines and faintly stained minute regular incremental lines. The intervals and staining intensities of the deeply stained thick lines were very similar to those of the fluorescence-labeled lines in the ground specimens obtained from the same tooth, and hence, it appeared that the both lines were identical. The number of minute incremental lines between the deeply stained thick lines was the same as that of days between the time when each fluorescent labeling injection was made. Therefore, it seemed that each minute incremental line was formed each day. The possibility of age estimation in days using diurnal dentine increments was discussed.
Four cell types including the bipolar, amacrine, horizontal and Muller cells were investigated quantitatively in the inner nuclear layer of the retina in the horse. Cells were identified on the basis of the morphology and distribution of processes leaving from their somata, cytological features and positional features. The average percentages of the above 4 cell types were 44%, 24%, 1% and 29%, respectively. The average total cell densities in the inner nuclear layer in the visual streak, the nasal and temporal regions, the dorsal and ventral regions of the retina were also estimated. It is expected that the results of this study will supply the basic data for further study of the neural circuits in the horse retina.
Hemimelia is a congenital abnormality characterized by the absence of a portion of the normal structures in a limb. Hemimelia is classified as transversal and paraxial and is related to genetical and environmental factors. This article shows the radiological findings observed in three different cases of paraxial hemimelia occurred in goats (radial agenesia, absence of the portion of the distal epiphysis of the radius and anomalous radius with ulnar hypoplasia). Possible causes related to these abnormalities are discussed.
A monoclonal antibody, named C302, was prepared and characterized against botulinum ADP-ribosyltransferase C3 exoenzyme that inactivates RhoA GTP-binding protein, resulting in the neurite outgrowth of human neuroblastoma GOTO cells. C302 bound not to the smaller fragments derived from the protease-treated C3 exoenzyme but to the intact C3 exoenzyme. It seems that the C302 epitope may depend on the three-dimensional structure of C3 exoenzyme molecule. C302 depressed the enzymatic and biological actions of C3 exoenzyme. The dose-dependent depression pattern of C302 on the enzyme activity was similar to that to the biological one. C302 turned the neurite-bearing shape of the C3 exoenzyme-treated GOTO cells into the intact shape. By using of C302 mAb and C3 exoenzyme, the research concerning GTP-binding proteins would be improved.
The prevalence of staphylococci that harbor the mecA gene responsible for methicillin resistance was examined in healthy breeding mares. Staphylococci often cause diseases of horses such as metritis, keratitis, and abscess. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci would make antibiotic treatments ineffective, so it may be significant to know the distribution of mecA-harboring staphylococci in mares. Isolation of mecA-harboring staphylococci was achieved from nares and pasterns of 100 mares in Hokkaido, Japan. From 13% of the mares, mecA-harboring staphylococci, including 15 isolates of Staphylococcus sciuri and 3 of Staphylococcus lentus, were isolated. Isolates of S. sciuri were found to be genetically polyclonal by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. These isolates produced no PCase and showed low or no resistance to β-lactam and other classes of antibiotics. Distribution of staphylococcal species and levels of antibiotic resistance were found to be different between isolates from the present mares and those previously reported from riding-horses. Antibiotic pressure may lead to these differences. In addition, it appears that mecA-harboring S. sciuri may be native to horses.
Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) -induced hepatotoxicity is a commonly used model for investigating lipid peroxidation-related tissue injury. In the present study, the effect of flaxseed extract was observed on histological sections, glutathione-content and DNA strand breaks. Lignan-containing flaxseed extract (1.6 g/kg body weight/day) was daily administered with intragastric injection to rats for three days, on the fourth day, CCl4 (2 g/kg) was intraperitoneally injected. Liver tissue was sampled at 24 hr after administering CCl4. Liver-necrosis was observed in CCl4-injected rats without pretreatment of flaxseed extract. Pretreatment of flaxseed extract reduced extent of the necrosis found 24 hr after the intraperitoneal administration of CCl4. Pretreatment of flaxseed extract protect against CCl4-induced decrease of reduced glutathione-content measured from reactions with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and also protect against the elevation of DNA strand breaks in the liver cells measured by comet assay. Flaxseed-extract appears to protect liver cells against CCl4-induced necrosis.
Protein kinase C (PKC) is a phosphotransferase activated by diacylglycerols, phospholipids and Ca2+, that regulates a wide variety of biological functions by phosphorylating multiple protein substrates such as annexin I. Annexin I is a phospholipid/Ca 2+-binding protein distributed in various tissues, including the mammary gland, and is thought to mediate the anti-inflammatory actions of glucocorticoids by inhibiting phospholipase A2. Melittin, a phospholipase A2 activator in bee venom, is known to inhibit PKC activity when lysine-rich histone is used as the substrate. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether phosphorylation by PKC of annexin I from cow mammary gland was inhibited by melittin. Melittin inhibited annexin I phosphorylation by PKC in a dose-dependent manner, and its IC50 value (concentration causing 50% inhibition) was 0.8 μM. The phosphorylation of annexin I was also inhibited by the amphiphilic polypeptides mastoparan and polymyxin B, and their inhibitory effects were comparable to that of melittin. The surface-inactive polypeptide bacitracin was less effective. The inhibition by melittin was effectively reversed by the excess addition of phosphatidylserine, but not distinctly by 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol or Ca2+, suggesting that melittin inhibited the phosphorylation of annexin I by interacting with phosphatidylserine. The inhibition by melittin of PKC phosphorylation of annexin I seems to be pathophysiologically important, because a melittin-like phospholipase A2-stimulatory protein is present in bovine endothelial cells.
Pregnant rats were subcutaneously administered with recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I (rhIGF-I) in doses of 0 (control), 1, 2, and 4 μg/g body weight per day from day 18 to 21 of pregnancy. On day 21 of pregnancy, maternal and fetal plasma samples were collected and those amino acid levels were measured. The ratios of fetal/maternal plasma amino acids, especially leucine, isoleucine, tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine, increased in 2 μg rhIGF-I treated group. Both total fetal weight and total placental weight were also higher than those in the control group. These results suggested that IGF-I enhanced fetal growth by, as one of its possible mechanisms, promoting placental amino acid supplies from the mother to fetuses.
The accessory activity was reported in murine peritoneal cavity macrophage derived dendritic cells (PEC-DC) in a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Here we continue the characterization of the generated PEC-DC using the criteria of morphology, phenotype and other accessory function. We have demonstrated that murine peritoneal cavity macrophages can be induced to differentiate in vitro into cells exhibiting typical dendritic cell (DC) morphology, phenotype and function. The proliferative capacity of the progenitors was amplified in the first step of the culture (day 0-7) using a combination of early cytokines: interleukin 4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The second step of the culture started at day 7 with the removal of early growth factors to allow differentiation and final maturation of DC during 2 days of culture with interferon gamma plus either Toxoplasma lysate antigen (TLA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial agent as a DC maturing agent. The resulting DC population exhibited typical DC morphology and expressed higher levels of MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 compared to the untreated peritoneal cells. The generated DC cells efficiently presented soluble protein antigen to CD3+ spleen T cells.
Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) was investigated in a canine lymphoma case with hypercalcemia by means of immunoradiomentric assay (IRMA) and molecular analysis. The plasma calcium level of the patient dog was 13.7 mg/dl. The PTHrP concentration examined by IRMA was 6.1 pmol/L in the plasma sample from the dog, but it was undetectable (< 1.1 pmol/L) in plasma samples from 4 lymphoma cases without hypercalcemia or 5 normal dogs. The PTHrP concentration examined in the culture supernatant of the lymphoma cells from this case was 1.3 pmol/L, whereas those of the lymphoma cells from a lymphoma case without hypercalcemia was undetectable. PTHrP mRNA was clearly detected not only in the lymphoma cells from this dog with hypercalcemia but also in lymphoma cells from 4 lymphoma cases without hypercalcemia and 2 canine lymphoma cell lines.
Adverse reactions to vaccines were examined in 311 canine cases reported to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries in Japan during the period of 6 years from April of 1994 to March of 2000, and classified according to their clinical symptoms. There were 27 cases of adverse reactions to rabies virus vaccines. Gastrointestinal symptoms were the most frequently observed (26%), followed by respiratory and/or cardiovascular symptoms (22%) and dermatologic symptoms (11%). There were 284 cases of adverse reactions to non-rabies monovalent vaccines and mixed vaccines. Dermatologic symptoms were the most frequently observed (53%), followed by gastrointestinal symptoms (16%) and respiratory and/or cardiovascular symptoms (14%). Of the total 311 cases, 11 (3.5%) died of adverse reactions to vaccines.
The direct effects of three steroid hormones (progesterone, estradiol-17β and corticosterone) on the growth of Neospora caninum (N. caninum) tachyzoite were examined in Vero cells. Subsequently, ovariectomized BALB/c mice infected with N. caninum were treated with physiological concentrations of the steroid hormones for 1 or 2 weeks. These hormones had no direct effect on the parasite growth in vitro. In the infected mice, there was no significant difference in the parasite distribution and histopathological changes between the hormone-injected and control groups. No mice showed parasitemia at the time of autopsy. These results suggest that physiological levels of steroid hormones (progesterone, estradiol-17β and corticosterone) do not reactivate N. caninum in mice.
The prevalence of blood parasites was investigated in 701 Japanese wild birds for 13 years from January, 1988 to March, 2001. Most of the injured or sick birds were caught in the suburbs of Kobe City, Hyogo Prefecture and brought to the zoo for clinical care. Among all the birds examined, 10.6% were infected with hematozoa belonging to three genera as Plasmodium (1.7% of the samples), Haemoproteus (5.1% of the samples) and Leucocytozoon (4.6% of the samples), and two birds (0.29% of the samples), a Japanese grosbeak (Coccothraustes personatus) and a dusky thrush (Turdus naumanni), were infected with microfilariae. Mixed infection with Leucocytozoon sp. and Haemoproteus sp. was observed in 6 individuals of 4 species and that with Leucocytozoon sp. and microfilariae was observed in 2 individuals of 2 species of bird. Relatively high positive rates were 75%(3/4) in the scops owl (Otus scops), 71.4% (10/14) in the ural owl (Strix uralensis), 57.7% (15/26) in the jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos), 57.1% (4/7) in the black-tailed gull (Larus crassirostris), 55.6% (5/9) in the brown hawk owl (Ninox scutulata), 41% (16/39) in the carrion crow (Corvus corone) and 24.1% (7/29) in the night heron (Nycticorax nicticorax).
A seven-year-old male elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) was euthanized and necropsied after having a 3-week history of body weight loss, emaciation, excessive salivation, teeth grinding, fever, anorexia, and respiratory distress. The elk was imported into Korea from Canada on March 9, 1997. Gross pathologic findings were restricted to a diffuse fibrinous pneumonia. Microscopic lesions included mild neuronal vacuolation and spongiform change in the neuropil of selected brain stem nuclei and generalized astrocytosis. Immunohistochemistry for protease-resistant prion protein (PrPres) was positive in all brain sections but more pronounced in the section of the obex of the medulla. And the PrPres was also detected by western immunoblotting in the brain and spinal cord. All the remaining elk and deer that had been in contact with this elk were destroyed and negative for chronic wasting disease (CWD). To our knowledge, this is the first case of CWD occurring outside of the U.S.A. and Canada.
To investigate Brucella infection in cattle, sheep, goat, reindeer and yak in Mongolia, serological reactions of Brucella-infected and -vaccinated domestic animals were compared by the agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test with a polysaccharide (poly-B) of the B. Abortus strain S-19. The sensitivity and specificity were compared with conventional serological tests that are commonly used in Mongolia, such as the rose Bengal test, the tube agglutination test and the compliment fixation test. A total of 73.3, 100, 100, 95.8 and 61.9% of the sera from suspected cattle, yak, goat, sheep and reindeer, respectively, that were positive in the compliment fixation test, were also positive in the AGID test. Sera from vaccinated cattle, sheep and goat were positive over 90% by conventional tests 3 months after vaccination, but were negative by the AGID. These results suggest that the AGID test may be useful to differentiate infected and vaccinated animals in the field.
An intradural tumor in the upper cervical region was found in a dog with quadriparesis and chronic respiratory acidosis. Surgical removal of the tumor in the atlas and intraoperative radiotherapy were attempted. The tumor was histologically diagnosed as a neural glioma. A preoperative acid-base disturbance was dramatically improved after surgery. The clinical changes appeared in this case suggest that compression of the spinal cord at this region may cause paralysis of the respiratory muscles and secondarily result in chronic respiratory acidosis following the respiratory insufficiency.
This study was conducted to evaluate how exogenous amino acids could affect preimplantation development of ICR mouse embryos. Two-cell embryos collected from naturally mated mice were cultured in amino acid-, glucose- and phosphate-free preimplantation (P)-1 medium. In Experiments 1, 19 amino acids (aa; 1% and 0.5% of MEM essential and nonessential amino acid solutions, respectively) were added to P-1 medium supplemented with either fatty acid-free bovine serum albumin (BSA; 3 mg/mL) or human follicular fluid (hFF; 10%). Regardless of BSA or hFF addition, embryo development to the morula (84 to 86% vs. 97 to 100%) and the blastocyst (54% vs. 93 to 94%) stages was significantly (P<0.05) enhanced by the addition of aa compared with no addition. In Experiment 2, the cell number of blastomeres and inner cell mass (ICM) cells in blastocysts and the ratio of ICM cell to trophectodermal cell (TE) were evaluated after aa addition. In both BSA- and hFF-containing P-1 medium, a significant increase in total blastomere number were found after aa addition (47 to 52 vs. 62 to 63 cells) compared with no addition. However, the ICM/TE ratio was not significantly affected by aa supplementation in both media, while ICM cell number was greatly increased after aa addition in hFF-containing medium (12 vs. 17 cells). When blastocysts were further cultured up to 162 hr post-hCG injection, development to the hatched blastocyst stage was significantly promoted by aa addition (0% vs. 11 to 20%) in both BSA- and hFF-containing media. In conclusion, aa significantly promote the preimplantation development to the hatched blastocyst stage and such effect mainly exerted on supporting blastomere proliferation.
To examine the effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) on the maturation of bovine oocytes, human recombinant VEGF165 was used in 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured for 22 hr in modified Synthetic Oviduct Fluid (m-SOF) supplemented with 0 (control) or 5 ng/ml of VEGF. Maturation rate increased (P<0.05) from 78.2% in the control to 90.5% in the VEGF treated group. In Exp. 2, bovine COCs were matured in m-SOF and co-incubated with sperm in modified BO medium, each supplemented with or without 5 ng/ml VEGF. Normal fertilization rate was improved (P<0.05) from 63.0% (control) to 79.8% or 82.3% with VEGF during maturation or both maturation and fertilization. In Exp. 3, bovine COCs were matured the same way as in Exp. 1, then co-incubated with sperm for 6 hr and cultured for 162 hr in m-SOF without VEGF. Cleavage rate and development rate to the 4- to 8-cell stage were examined at 42 hr post-co-incubation and development rate to blastocyst was examined at 162 hr post-co-incubation. Cleavage, the development to the 4- to 8-cell stage and blastocyst rates (82.0%, 70.3% and 45.1%, respectively) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the VEGF group than those in the control (67.3%, 52.5% and 33.3%, respectively). These results indicate that VEGF has a beneficial effect on the maturation of bovine oocytes.
The effects of the long-acting prostagrandin F2α-analogue fenprostalene were investigated. Twenty-three female beagles (24 cases) 1-6 years of age were divided into 6 groups, and a dose of 5-150 μg/head of fenprostalene was subcutaneously administered at 25 days after ovulation to investigate its effects based on peripheral blood progesterone (P4) levels. The dogs were also examined for shortening of their estrous cycle after administration and fecundity after the recurrence of estrus. The results showed that the administration of 50 μg/head of fenprostalene or more reduced the levels of peripheral blood P4 to about 1 ng/ml 2 days after administration, indicating early regression of the corpus luteum, and that the administration of these doses shortened the time to the subsequent estrus by a mean of about 80 days, and that conception rates were normal if estrus recurred about 2 months after fenprostalene administration or later.
Cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) is well known for being induced by aromatic hydrocarbons, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). We determined the complete cDNA sequence of a CYP1A open reading frame with both 5'- and 3'-ends in zebrafish (zfCYP1A), a useful model for environmental toxicology. zfCYP1A shows high percentage identity with CYP1As of mammals, domestic fowl and xenopus (51.9-60.4%), as well as the other fish species (63.8-89.2%). As revealed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, zfCYP1A was scarcely detected in control embryos but was markedly induced by TCDD especially in heart, vascular endothelial cells, intestinal epithelium, pronephros and outer integument in both prehatched and hatched embryos. These expression patterns are consistent with possible involvement of zfCYP1A in TCDD-induced toxicities.