We developed a real-time PCR procedure followed by melting curve analysis using the green fluorescence dye SYBR Green I for rapid detection and differentiation of hemplasmas in cattle. Analysis of the melting temperature (Tm) of the PCR products allowed for differentiation of the 2 bovine hemoplasmas, Mycoplasma wenyonii and a provisional species, `Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' (a synonym of `Candidatus M. haemobovis'). The Tm (mean ± S.E.) of the PCR products from the bovine hemoplasmas were 86.98 ± 0.12°C for M. wenyonii and 82.04 ± 0.27°C for `Candidatus M. haemobos' in the melting experiments. The protocol described in the present study can decrease the time to results by simultaneous detection and differentiation of the two hemoplasmas in cattle. By using this protocol, we examined hemoplasma prevalence in 109 cattle in Miyagi Prefecture and found that 67 (61.5%) were infected with M. wenyonii, 25 (22.9%) were infected with `Candidatus M. haemobos' and 14 (12.8%) were infected with both.
The Egyptian fruit-bat Rousettus aegyptiacus which had been raised at the private commercial aquarium in Seoul, Korea for indoor exhibition was found dead and submitted to College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University for postmortem examination. A pure bacterium of Kluyvera ascorbata was isolated from the blood specimen. The isolation of K. ascorbata from fruit bat is very important, because it is the most infectious agent of the genus Kluyvera that cause serious diseases to animals and human. Fruit-bats which are distributed in pet shops through black-market in Korea although unproven become popular pet nowadays. This situation enhances chance of zoonosis. This paper describes the first isolation of K. ascorbata from the Egyptian fruit-bat.
Mycoplasma sp. strain EDS-4 was isolated from the oral cavity of EDS line of a house musk shrew (Suncus murinus) originated from Bangladesh, and was distinguished from all previously described mollicutes. It lacks a cell wall; ferments glucose; does not produce film and spots; and does not hydrolyse arginine and urea. The strain could be distinguished from all previously described mollicutes by 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons. The results suggest that the isolate is new species of mollicutes originated from the shrew. The strain EDS-4 has been deposited with Japan collection of Microorganisms, Bioresource Center, RIKEN in Japan (JCM15930). The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain EDS-4 is available through the DDBJ under accession number (AB469852).
The study has been conducted to assess the applicability of partial 26S ribosomal DNA sequence for the phylogenic analysis of P.zopfii and to arrive relationships between specific genotype of P.zopfii and clinical mastitis. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that all genotype 2 isolates were grouped into the cluster of type strain of P.zopfii. Thus, all mastitis isolates in Japan were identified as P.zopfii genotype 2 and were independent of the cluster of the genotype 1 isolates. In one clinical case, a fecal isolate could not be identified by the 18S rDNA-based genotype specific PCR-assay and appeared to belong to a same cluster with the type strain of P. blaschkeae by 26S rDNA analysis. The isolate was the first isolation in Japan.
The positron emission tomography (PET) imaging technique, which is utilized in human behavior and psychiatric disorder research, was performed on the brains of clinically normal mixed breed dogs, 3 hound-type (long floppy ears) mixed breed dogs and 3 non-hound retriever-type mixed breed dogs. Glucose metabolism was obtained with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and quantitative analysis was performed by standardized uptake value (SUV) measurement. Magnetic resonance (MR) images were obtained in each dog, and these images were superimposed on PET images to identify anatomical locations. The glucose metabolism in each region of interest was compared between the three hound-type dogs and 3 non-hound-type dogs. The two anatomically different types of dog were compared to assess whether breed-typical behavioral tendencies (e.g., sniffing behavior in hound-type dogs, staring and retrieving in Labrador-type dogs) are reflected in baseline brain metabolic activity. There were no significant differences between the hound-type dogs and non-hound-type dogs in cerebral SUV values. These data might serve as normal canine cerebral metabolism data for FDG PET studies in dogs and form the basis for investigations into behavioral disorders in dogs such as compulsive disorder, anxiety disorders and cognitive dysfunction.
Our aim was to investigate the differences in the duration of diuretic effects and impact on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA) system of furosemide as a model of short- and long-acting loop diuretics. Anesthetized dogs (n=6) were randomized into placebo, intravenous bolus administration (IB) and chronic rate infusion (CRI) groups. This study was conducted with a crossover study. Furosemide (4 mg/kg) was diluted to 18 mL in sterile saline. Furosemide was infused at 0.5 mg/kg/hr for 8 hr in the CRI group or was injected at 0 and 4 hr (both 2 mg/kg) in the IB group. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline and at 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 and 8 hr. Compared with the baseline, the IB group had a significantly increased urine output at 1 and 5 hr. The CRI group had a significantly increased urine output persisting for 4 hr compared with the baseline. Compared with the placebo group, 8-hr urine output and 8-hr sodium excretion were significantly increased in the IB and CRI groups; the values in the CRI group were significantly higher than those in the IB group. Eight-hour potassium excretion was significantly increased in the IB and CRI groups. The plasma aldosterone concentration was significantly elevated in the IB group at 8 hr. Duration of action may be a predominant cause of loop diuretic-related differences. Persistent diuresis may cause greater diuretic effects than transient diuresis, with less elevation of the plasma aldosterone concentration.
The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, birth to sugar supplementation (Birth-Pre), the 8 weeks during supplementation (Pre-Post) and after feeding to delivery to market (Post-Market). The periodic DG showed a marked increase after supplementation in Pre-Post and Post-Market compared with before supplementation during Birth-Pre in 2 groups (0.93 and 1.11 vs. 0.51 kg/day for L-H-H [n=19], 0.66 and 1.19 vs. 0.42 kg/day for L-L-H [n=24]), but no difference was observed in L-H-L (n=3) and L-L-L (n=3). Peripheral blood was collected on the day before supplementation (Pre), 8 weeks after supplementation (Post) and eight weeks after cease of supplementation. The blood concentrations of both insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose showed significant increases in L-H-H and L-L-H, but decreases in non-esterified fatty acid were observed in L-H-H and L-L-L on day Post compared with day Pre, respectively (p<0.05). At delivery to market, the sugar-supplemented calves had body weights similar to the market average. The growth effect of sugar supplementation could be stimulated through rumen papillae development induce by sucrose, the main component of table sugar.
Histological and immunohistochemical studies were conducted using herniated intervertebral disc materials obtained surgically from 39 miniature dachshunds. Infiltration of inflammatory cells, such as macrophages, neutrophils, T or B lymphocytes, and multinucleated giant cells, were identified in intervertebral disc materials in 23 cases. Furthermore, proliferations of connective tissue, including neovascularization, were also observed in 17 cases. These results suggest that spontaneous regression of herniated intervertebral disc material could occur in affected dogs.
Mycoplasma wenyonii and `Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos' are pathogens associated with bovine hemoplasmosis. Hematological parameters of these two hemoplasma species were compared in a cattle herd that was known to be infected with these 2 pathogens. `C. M. haemobos'-infected cattle exhibited lower red blood cell levels, hemoglobin concentrations and packed cell volumes than M. wenyonii-infected cattle and hemoplasma-negative controls. On the other hand, cattle infected with M. wenyonii did not show any significant differences in hematological parameters compared with the hemoplasma-negative cattle.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of erdosteine on renal reperfusion injury. Twelve male Landrace and Yorkshire mixed pigs were randomly divided into two groups: untreated control group (I/R), erdosteine treated group (I/R + erdosteine). Each group is composed of six pigs, and the pigs were unilaterally nephrectomized and their contralateral kidneys were subjected to 30 min of renal pedicle occlusion. The elevations of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were lower in the treated group compared with the control group. The catalase activity and the glutathione peroxidase activity were higher in the erdosteine group. As a result, this study suggests that the erdosteine treatment has a role of attenuation of renal I/R injury recovery of renal function in pig.
We have developed an in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay system to detect initiation activities of chemicals on multi-organ carcinogenesis. However, cell proliferation stimuli during the test chemical treatment period, required in the previously used assay models using adult rats, are laborious; moreover, those cause decrease of hepatic metabolic enzymes and psychological and physical discomfort to animals resulting in inaccurate interpretation. Therefore, we investigated the utility of another in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay model using 4-week-old rats without the cell proliferation stimuli. In this study, we confirmed that 4-week-old and 4.5-week-old male rats have high hepatocyte proliferation activity and similar enzyme activities of hepatic Cytochrome P450 subtypes as compared with 8-week-old male rats. Next, the in vivo medium-term liver initiation assay model using 4-week-old rats without cell proliferation stimuli was evaluated for the detection of the initiation activity of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH), which is a well-known genotoxic carcinogen. Four-week-old rats were orally administered DMH (single dose, 4 or 16 mg/kg; or 4-day repeat, 1 or 4 mg/kg); subsequently, these rats were treated promotion treatment consisted of administration of 2-acetylaminofluorene and carbon tetrachloride. Four weeks after the first DMH administration, the glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive foci induced by DMH in the liver was measured immunohistochemically. The inductions of GST-P-positive foci in all DMH-treated groups were dose-dependent, duration-dependent and significantly higher than that in non-DMH-treated group. From these results, our assay model was detected the initiation activity of DMH simply, and would be useful to evaluate the carcinogenicity of chemicals.
A mass lesion in the subependymal region of the lateral ventricle in a 13-year-old neutered male mongrel cat with a complaint of somnolence, right circling movement and posture abnormality was examined. The magnetic resonance image examination revealed a relatively large T1-hypointense and T2-hyperintense mass lesion in the left interventricular foramen region, and there were no abnormalities in the chest and abdominal x-ray radiographic, funduscopic, and electric retinogram findings. The cat was died 43 days after the initial referral, and the post-mortem examinations revealed a poorly demarcated subependymal mass. Histologically, the brain lesion consisted of complex proliferation of highly pleomorphic cells resembling histiocytes with atypia and abundant mitotic figures. Moderate infiltrates of small reactive lymphocytes were admixed with the pleomorphic cell population. Gemistcytic astrocytes were also intermingled with the periphery of neoplastic foci. Immunohistochemically, most of the pleomorphic cells were positive for HLA-DR alpha-chain and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1, and few were positive for lysozyme and alpha-1 antichymotrypsin. The atypical pleomorphic cells were negative for CD3, IgG (H and L), glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurofilament, suggesting monocytic/histiocytic-origin of the cells. The number of Ki-67-positive cell nuclei was extremely large, reflecting the high growth activity of these cells. Based on the findings, the lesion was considered as histiocytic sarcoma.
Two young dogs belonging to the same kennel placed nearby Treviso (north-eastern Italy) died at the end of 2008 with clinical signs of renal failure. They were subjected to necropsy and were evaluated for histopathological and toxicological changes. Both the animals had same clinical signs and laboratory evidence of uremia. Post mortem investigations revealed severe nephrotoxicosis, associated with uroliths deposition within renal tubules and pelvis. The predominant crystal type was identical to those observed in the kidneys of animals involved in the 2004 and 2007 melamine-associated renal failure epidemic in Asia and US, providing evidence that they share the same causative agent. High doses of melamine were detected in the pet food administered to the dogs, likewise melamine was identified in renal tissue from one dead dog and in urine samples from both the animals. Therefore, a diagnosis of melamine-related nephrotoxicosis was made. To the author's knowledge this is the first report about melamine contamination of pet food from EU.
The distribution of annexin A5, a cytosolic protein related to gonadotropin releasing hormone action, was examined in the mammary gland of rats by immunohistochemistry with special reference to changes by lactation. Annexin A5 was observed in the interstitial tissues but not alveolar cells in virgin rats, while mammary epithelial cells became positive for annexin A5 in pregnant rats. The intensity of annexin A5 was decreased in lactating rats and dramatically increased after weaning, especially on the nucleus. When pups were removed from their dam at mid-lactation (day 10), annexin A5 was also increased on day 12. Apoptotic epithelial cells detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling were simultaneously increased. Annexin A5 mRNA expression of mammary tissues was increased after pup removal. These results are the first to demonstrate the distribution of annexin A5 in the mammary glands of lactating rats, and the enhanced expression in mammary epithelial cells after lactation suggests its involvement in mammary epithelial cell involution.
We studied the reflex actions of the cutaneous afferents innervating the trunk to hindlimb motoneurons in the spinal cat using an intracellular recording technique. Stimulation of the trunk cutaneous afferents entering into the L2-L5 spinal segment produced different types of polysynaptic potentials in hindlimb motoneurons via polysynaptic neuronal pathways. The trunk cutaneous afferents predominantly caused excitatory PSPs in the flexor motoneurons and inhibitory PSPs in the extensor motoneurons. The size and latency of polysynaptic potentials were related to the proximity of the spinal segments of the nerves stimulated to the spinal segments of motoneurons. These findings suggest that the neuronal pathways from trunk cutaneous afferents to hindlimb motoneurons play an important role in coordinating between the trunk and hindlimbs.
We characterized 53 Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium strains recovered from healthy pigs during 1998-1999 (n=12) and 2004-2005 (n=41) as to their carriage of DT104 spacer region, class 1 and 2 integrons, virulence genes (spvC, rck, and pefA), and XbaI- and BlnI-Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. No DT104 strain was detected in 1998-1999, whereas 65.9% (27/41) of the strains in 2004-2005 were DT104 showing resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and cephaloridine (R-type ACSSuT+). Class 1 intergron-associated genes, aadA2 (1.0-kbp amplicon) and pse1 (1.2-kbp amplicon), were found in all the DT104 strains (27/27). One strain showing resistance to streptomycin, sulfonamides, tetracyclin, and trimethoprim (R-type SsuTTm) harbored another class 1 integron-associated gene (dhfrXII-orfF- aadA2) on 1.9-kbp amplicon. Virulence gene spvC was found in 92.5% (49/53) and rck and pefA were found in 88.7% (47/53) of the strains, whereas spvC, rck, and pefA were found in all the DT104 strains. Ser. Typhimurium strains were categorized into four clusters (X1, X2, X3, and X4a/X4b) by XbaI-PFGE, or into nine clusters (B1, B2, B3a/B3b, B4, B5, B6, B7, B8, B9a/B9b) by BlnI-PFGE analyses. DT104 strains were restricted into X2, or into B2, B3a/B3b, and B6 clusters, indicating that our multidrug-resistant DT104 strains from healthy pigs might have derived from at least three independent clones, with the most widespread clone being the cluster B6 strains isolated in Kanto, Tokai, Chugoku, and Kyushu regions.
Twelve strains of Bacillus anthracis isolated in Japan were subjected to multiple locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis using 25 marker loci (MLVA25). The results showed that Japanese strains could be divided into two distinct genetic clusters, A3a and A3b. By using newly devised comprehensive single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analysis, Japanese strains were also divided into two groups. The results obtained by the MLVA25 and plasmids SNP analysis well coincided, indicating that both methods were highly sensitive to discriminate B. anthracis strains. These results suggested that MLVA25 had sufficient discrimination power to identify B. anthracis at the strain level, and that MLVA25 as well as comprehensive SNPs analysis could facilitate further studies of B. anthracis strains including Japanese and other Asian strains.
Granulocytes play a pivotal role in natural immunity. Under inflammatory conditions, granulocytes are universally primed by several agents, such as endotoxins and inflammatory cytokines. Primed granulocytes exert potent adhesiveness, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, effectively eliminating invading agents. Reactivity against priming agents is known to vary with species; however, there have been few reports on the effects of priming agents on canine granulocytes. In the present study, we assayed the priming effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), recombinant canine tumor necrosis factor-α (rcTNF-α) and recombinant canine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rcGM-CSF) on canine granulocyte function in vitro. Isolated recombinant canine were primed with various concentrations of LPS, rcTNF-α and rcGM-CSF, and CD11b expression was assayed. Furthermore, actin polymerization, phagocytosis and ROS production were then assayed at primer concentrations where enhancement of CD11b expression was observed. LPS did not enhance canine granulocyte function. Phagocytosis and actin polymerization were not enhanced by priming agents; however, rcTNF-α and rcGM-CSF enhanced CD11b expression and ROS production in canine granulocytes. These results suggest that priming effects are mainly reflected in CD11b expression and ROS production, with rcGM-CSF and rcTNF-α having a priming effect similar to that observed in humans.
It has been shown that addition of the surfactant Orvus ES paste (OEP) and its main component sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) to boar or dog semen before freezing improves post-thaw sperm motility and protects acrosome caps. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of the addition of OEP (0, 1, 2 and 4%) or SLS (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg/ml) to cat ejaculates before freezing and their concentrations. Among the OEP addition groups, the 1% OEP group showed higher sperm motility than the other groups. Among the SLS addition groups, the 3 mg/ml SLS group showed slightly higher sperm motility and viability than the other groups. Comparison between the 1% OEP and 3 mg/ml SLS addition groups suggested a higher percentage of sperm with an acrosome cap in the 1% OEP group. The other sperm properties did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. These results indicate that addition of 1% OEP or 3 mg/ml SLS is effective for freezing of cat ejaculated semen.
This study investigated the reproductive characteristics in 2 cloned female beagle dogs (Clones A and B) during proestrus and early estrus. The pre-ovulatory estradiol peak occurred 2 days before the pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge, while the follicle stimulating hormone surge started concomitantly with the LH surge in both cloned dogs. Serum progesterone levels increased during proestrus and estrus and its concentration on the day of the LH surge was 3.59 and 2.71 ng/ml in Clones A and B, respectively. Gradual follicular growth was observed by ultrasonography during proestrus. Although the numbers are limited, these cloned female dogs showed normal ranges of reproductive hormone levels and follicular changes during proestrous and early estrous stages of the cycle.
Previously, we have reported drastic strain differences of diazepam metabolism in the livers of a variety of rat strain. In this study, to characterize strain and sex differences of diazepam metabolism in the kidney, renal microsomal diazepam metabolic activities were determined in the Dark Agouti (DA), Sprague-Dawley (SD), Brown Norway (BN) and Wistar (WS) strains of rat. We found that the major pathway of diazepam metabolism in the kidney was diazepam N-demethylation, which is different from that in the liver, 3-hydroxylation. A Dose-course (12.5-200 μM of diazepam) study revealed that the DA and WS male rats had higher diazepam N-demethylation activity than the SD and BN rats. In contrast to the males, a lower activity of diazepam N-demethylation was observed in female BN rats. By Western blot analysis, constitutive protein expressions of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C11, which is responsible for diazepam N-demethylation, were detected in the 4 strain in both the male and female rats, and the BN rats had lower expression levels of CYP2C11 protein. However, we did not observe significant differences in the kinetic parameters of diazepam N-demethylation. Our results suggested that there was a strain difference in CYP-dependent diazepam N-demethylation in the rat kidney, which is different from the finding in liver microsomes.
Infection of pigs with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes a variety of disorders collectively referred to as porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVADs). PCV2 isolates can be classified into two major types: PCV2a and PCV2b. In the present study, effects of vaccination on antibody titers in sera, PCV2 viremia, and shedding of PCV2 in feces were studied on Japanese commercial pig farms where vaccination of piglets against PCV2 was performed using commercially available vaccines. The effectiveness of vaccination against various PCV2 genotypes was also assessed. Among the 16 farms studied, 10 and 6 had been infected with PCV2a and PCV2b, respectively. PCV2a was further subdivided into PCV2a-1 and PCV2a-2. PCV2a-1 and PCV2a-2 prevailed on 6 and 4 farms, respectively, among the 10 farms infected with PCV2a. The PCV2 vaccines were effective in reducing PCV2 infection on commercial pig farms. Mean mortality rates were significantly decreased over 8 months after the start of the PCV2 vaccination program as compared to those before the start of the PCV2 vaccination program on farms infected with PCV2a-2 (20.8% vs. 12.1%) and PCV2b (26.5% vs. 13.7%). On the farms with PCV2a-1 infected pigs, there was no significant difference in the mean mortality rate before versus after the start of the vaccination program (14.7% vs. 14.1%). Mortality rate reduction with the PCV2 vaccination might depend on the genetic types of PCV2.
In xenotransplantation from pigs to humans, a bio-artificial endocrine pancreas (Bio-AEP), in which pancreatic endocrine cells are encapsulated within a semipermeable membrane of 100 nm pore size, has been developed. We evaluated the permeability of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) through membrane filters using a pseudotype virus (LacZ(PERV-A)) containing a viral core derived from murine leukemia virus and an envelope (Env) from PERV subgroup A. Contrary to our expectations, LacZ(PERV-A) lost its infectivity by filtration through a 200 nm membrane filter. This unusual phenotype was not observed in pseudotype viruses harboring Envs from other gammaretroviruses. The infectivity of LacZ(PERV-A) was significantly decreased by repeated freeze/thaw treatment, indicating that LacZ(PERV-A) was physically labile. In addition, LacZ(PERV-A) may be agglutinated because copy numbers of viral RNA after filtration were significantly reduced by filtration through the 200 nm membrane. This phenotype is advantageous to develop a safe Bio-AEP blocking PERV infection.
T-lymphotropic feline leukemia virus (FeLV-T) induces immunodeficiency in cats. FeLV-T is fusion-defective and requires a cofactor, termed FeLIX, for infection. FeLIX is a truncated envelope glycoprotein of an endogenous FeLV and mediates infection by binding a phosphate transporter Pit-1. In this study, we established a feline sarcoma-positive leukemia-negative cell line expressing FeLIX, named QN/FeLIX cells. Upon infection, FeLV-T induced prominent foci with syncytia in QN/FeLIX cells and could be titrated by the focus assay. In addition, we established a FeLIX-expressing feline fibroblast cell line, named AH/FeLIX cells. FeLV-T productively infected AH/FeLIX cells and induced severe CPE with syncytia. QN/FeLIX and AH/FeLIX cells will be useful for the study of FeLIX-dependent mutants in FeLV-infected cats.