During kidney development, the metanephric mesenchyme (MM) develops into the nephron through mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). We have previously reported that knock-down of the expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (Hnf4a) gene induces failure of cellular organization in the condensed mesenchyme (CM) of cultured embryonic kidneys. To elucidate the details of MET during nephrogenesis, embryonic mouse kidneys were analyzed by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biology. The findings showed that the intercellular junction, but not the basal lamina, was present in the CM. Additionally, immediately after Hnf4a gene expression, the expression of epithelial genes (Krt8, Tjp1, and Cdh1) increased, and those of mesenchymal genes (Acta1 and Vim) decreased, in the CM compared to the MM. To clarify the relationship between MET and Hnf4α, the fibroblast cell line with forced expression of Hnf4α protein were analyzed. In this model, it was noted that Hnf4α induced increasing epithelial and decreasing mesenchymal gene expression. In these, up-regulation of Pvrl1, -2, and Mllt4 genes which mediate the formation of apico-basal polarity, were found. These results, and those of previous findings, indicate that Hnf4α protein is associated with the initiation of MET in early nephrogenesis.
Establishment of a disposal plan for carcasses in advance is important for prevention of epidemics. A disposal plan for contaminated goods such as poultry carcasses infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was studied in Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. We investigated all poultry farms with over 1,000 birds for their locations, species and numbers of birds, structure and size of poultry facilities and land spaces of the farms. Moreover, we judged whether they could dispose of all the carcasses at their farms. In 2005, 5.5 million layers and 2.7 million broilers were being kept. If HPAI had broken out, 44.0% of the farmers could bury all the carcasses, and 65.6% could compost them at their farms. However, 23.4% could not dispose of them except by burning them at incineration facilities. We decided to choose burning first for rapid disposal as long as the virus was not a pandemic type.
Seven miniature pigs were injected intravenously with deoxynivalenol (DON) at 1 mg/kg body weight; afterward, the number of leukocytes in peripheral blood, the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of neutrophils, the serum or plasma concentration of cytokines and acute-phase proteins were evaluated to determine the effects of acute exposure to DON on inflammatory responses. White blood cell counts were transiently increased at 3, 6, and 12 hr post-injection (PI) due to the increased number of neutrophils. The luminol-dependent chemiluminescence value of neutrophils was significantly elevated at 24 hr PI, indicating the activation of the bactericidal function of neutrophils. Significant increases of interleukin (IL)-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α at 3 hr PI and IL-6 at 6 hr PI were detected in the serum. The concentration of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A was significantly increased at 24 hr PI. These results suggest that acute exposure to DON induced a temporary recruitment of neutrophils in the peripheral blood by IL-8 and subsequent activation of the bactericidal function, and a transient increase of proinflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins, indicating the immunomodulatory effects of DON in pigs.
One of the most important functions of the kidney is to concentrate urine through the reabsorption of water. Urine specific gravity (USG) is used in routine tests of urine concentration and can be estimated using a refractometer. However, as the scale of Japanese refractometer is based on experimental data from healthy Japanese people, and human USG obtained by Japanese refractometers show higher values than that by refractometer produced in Europe or the U.S.A. The purpose of this study was to establish correction formulas for the USG of dogs and cats measured using Japanese refractometers. In this study, we found that Japanese refractometers overestimated USG in both dogs and cats. This study shows that the correlation formulas described in this study are useful for the accurate evaluation of USG.
Probiotic strains have been reported to have the ability to control allergic and inflammatory diseases. In this study, we studied the inhibitory effect of Bacillus subtilis (natto) (BS) on atopic dermatitis. The effects of continuous oral administration of BS for 4 weeks on the development of atopic dermatitis induced by Dermatophagoides farinae body antigen (DF) in NC/Nga (NC) mice were evaluated using 4 groups of mice: group (Gp) DF, DF(+) with no administration of bacteria (n=3); Gp DF/BS, DF(+) and BS(+) (n=5); and Gp PBS, DF(-) with no administration of bacteria (n=3). The mice were gavaged with 1.2 × 1017 CFU/head of BS 6 times a week for 4 weeks, and DF was applied twice a week for 4 weeks. Histopathological examination revealed significant differences in auricular thickness between Gp DF (664.4 μm, SD=78.0) and Gp DF/BS (278.7 μm, SD = 88.8; p<0.01). The dorsal skin of Gp DF/BS (316.7 μm, SD=187.4) was significantly thinner than that of Gp DF (503 μm, SD=116.3). These results suggest that continuous oral administration of fermented food-derived bacteria (BS) can be effective in alleviating the development of skin lesions induced by DF in NC mice.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of polyphenols from seed shells of Japanese horse chestnut (JHP) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced intestinal injury in rats. MTX application caused intestinal morphological injury and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, decrease in levels of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in small intestine. However, oral administration of JHP ameliorated MTX-induced intestinal injury and inhibited the increase in MDA and the decrease in GSH and GSH-Px activity in small intestine. In conclusion, our results indicated that oral administration of JHP alleviated MTX-induced intestinal injury through its antioxidant properties.
We have developed a West Nile virus (WNV) subgenomic replicon harboring the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene instead of viral structural genes (designated repWNV/SEAP). The repWNV/SEAP allowed easy evaluation of viral replication efficiency by direct measurement of SEAP secretion in the cell culture medium in physical containment level 2 facilities. Furthermore, we validated the availability of this system using a known anti-flavivirus gene, mouse oligoadenylate synthetase 1b (Oas1b). The Oas1b-transfected cells were more resistant to repWNV/SEAP replication than the original cells. Thus, this system not only affords a useful tool for identification/evaluation of anti-flavivirus genes/drugs in terms of safety, ease of use and reliability, but should be able to reduce or replace the bioassay using laboratory animals.
Currently, murine noroviruses (MNV) are the most prevalent viral pathogens identified in laboratory animal facilities. While several reports exist concerning the prevalence of MNV in North American research facilities, very few reports are available for other parts of the world, including Korea. This study evaluated the prevalence of MNV infection in 745 murine sera collected from 15 animal facilities in Korea by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive cases were subcategorized by murine strain/genetics, housing environments and animal sources. In summary, 6.6% of inbred/outbred mice purchased from commercial vendors were seropositive, 9.6% of in-house colonies were seropositive and 27.0% of genetically modified mice (GMM) were seropositive. Partial gene amplification of fecal isolates from infected animals showed that they were homologous (100%) with MNV-4.
To identify a gene responsible for the hooded phenotype in the rat, high-resolution linkage mapping for the hooded locus was performed using IS (non-hooded) and LEA (hooded) rats. The map revealed that only Kit gene existed in the critical region, suggesting that the Kit is a strong candidate gene. However, mutation was not found in the coding region of the LEA rat Kit gene. Further, the expressions of Kit mRNA were not different in fetal neural tubes and both neonatal and adult skins between IS and LEA rats. Furthermore, Kit-positive cells, possibly melanocytes, were found in the non-pigmented hair follicles of hooded phenotype rats. Several hypotheses are conceivable to account for mechanisms in the appearance of hooded phenotype.
African trypanosome species are causative agents for sleeping sickness in humans and nagana disease in cattle. Trypanosoma brucei can generate ATP via a reverse reaction with glycerol kinase (GK) when alternative oxidase (AOX) is inhibited; thus, GK is considered to be a crucial target for chemotherapy combined with AOX. However, the energy metabolism systems of African trypanosome species other than T. brucei are poorly understood. Thus, GK genes were surveyed from genome databases and cloned by PCR from T. vivax and T. congolense. Then, recombinant GK proteins (rGK) of T. vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei were expressed and purified. Kinetic analysis of these rGK proteins revealed that the Km values of T. congolense rGK for ADP and G-3-P substrates were lower than those of T. vivax and T. brucei. The expression level of GK molecules was highest in T. congolense cells and lowest in T. vivax cells. Based on these results, effective combination dosages of ascofuranone, a specific inhibitor of AOX, and glycerol, an inhibitor of the GK reverse reaction, were determined by using in vitro-cultured trypanosome cells.
The intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii lacks the ability to synthesize sterol and scavenges cholesterol from the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) pathway of its host to facilitate replication. Sterol biosynthesis inhibitors, however, have a demonstrated anti-Toxoplasma effect. In this study, we examined the host mevalonate pathway as a novel source of cholesterol for T. gondii and its effects on parasite growth in macrophages. Parasite growth did not significantly change in the absence of LDLR or when LDL was exogenously supplemented. Lovastatin and compactin, both inhibitors of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase in the mevalonate pathway, significantly inhibited T. gondii growth in both wild-type and LDLR-knockout macrophages. Parasite growth was also suppressed by squalestatin, an inhibitor of squalene synthase, despite mevalonate producing isoprenoid intermediates in host cells. The present study demonstrates that lovastatin, compactin and squalestatin have anti-Toxoplasma activities and that the host cholesterol synthesis may contribute to parasite growth in macrophages.
Theileria orientalis is a benign bovine protozoan parasite that occasionally causes serious economic loss in the livestock industry. We report the findings of a molecular epidemiological survey of T. orientalis in 94 Vietnamese yellow cattle, 43 water buffaloes, 21 sheep, 21 goats and 85 blood-sucking ticks of cattle in the Thua Thien Hue province of Vietnam. The major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene of T. orientalis was detected using polymerase chain reaction from 13 cattle (13.8%), 11 water buffaloes (25.6%), 1 sheep (4.8%) and 9 ticks (10.6%). Phylogenetic analysis using MPSP gene sequences showed the presence of seven genotypes, four previously categorized genotypes (Types 1, 3, 5 and 7) and three new genotypes (Types N-1, N-2 and N-3).
We have shown phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling activation in thyroid capsular invasive carcinomas (CICs), which are highly induced by promotion with sulfadimethoxine (SDM) in a rat 2-stage thyroid carcinogenesis model. To examine the potency of calcitriol, a synthetic vitamin D3 analog, on the development or progression of CICs, male F344 rats were injected with calcitriol (0.1 μg/kg body weight) three times a week intraperitoneally, during an entire period of SDM-promotion for 13 weeks (Experiment 1) or during the last 2 weeks of a 15-week SDM-promotion (Experiment 2). Initiation with N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine preceded all treatments. In Experiment 1, long-term calcitriol treatment reduced the multiplicity of CICs, while cell proliferation activity, estimated by Ki-67 cell index in the induced CICs, was unchanged with SDM-promotion alone. Considering the strong dependency of promotion with SDM during the early stages on thyroid-stimulating hormone, the reduced multiplicity in Experiment 1 may be due to the effect on an early stage of neoplastic proliferation. Although the magnitude was mild, cell proliferation activity was decreased in existing CICs after short-term calcitriol treatment in Experiment 2, which was associated with a mild decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase-2-positive cells, cytoplasmic immunolocalization of phosphorylated, inactive, Rb protein and a mild increase in nucleocytoplasmic expression of p27kip1. Although the effect was mild at the late stage of SDM-promotion in this hypothyroidism-related thyroid carcinogenesis model, our results suggest that calcitriol targets cell proliferation via inhibition of a molecular cascade downstream of PI3K/Akt signaling, controlling G1/S transition.
A 6-month-old male miniature pinscher dog developed chronic ascites, formation of fibrous membrane covering the abdominal organs, and numerous adhesions between the intestinal loops. The membrane and adhesions were surgically removed twice, but the dog died 1 month after initial presentation. Necropsy revealed recurrence of the membrane and intestinal adhesions. The fibrous membrane was composed of a thick layer of mature collagenous connective tissue, covered by immature collagenous connective tissue with mild lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, prominent neovascularization, and fibrin exudation. Similar fibrotic lesions were observed in the serosa of the liver, spleen, stomach and intestines. These findings are consistent with encapsulating peritoneal fibrosis reported in humans and dogs. The dog also had a maldeveloped liver, which is characterized by disorganized hepatic lobules and disarranged hepatic cords.
In clinical situations, cellular resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy is a significant component of tumor treatment failure. The DNA repair protein Ku70 is a key contributor to chemoresistance to anticancer agents, e.g., etoposide and bleomycin, or radioresistance. Ku70 plays a key role as a sensor of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced following exposure to ionizing radiation as well as treatment with some chemotherapeutic drugs. The responses of different organs to radiation vary widely and likely depend on the cell population in the organs. However, it is not clear whether Ku70 plays a role in the low-dose radioresistance of lung epithelial cells. In this study, we established Ku70-deficient epithelial cell lines from murine lungs lacking Ku70. Ku70-/- lung epithelial cells exhibited reduced Ku80 expression. Moreover, Ku70-/- lung epithelial cells were more sensitive than controls (Ku70+/- lung epithelial cells) to low-dose X-irradiation (< 0.5 Gy). We also found that consistent with the Ku70 function as a sensor of DSBs, Ku70 mainly localized in the nuclei of murine lung epithelial cells. These findings clearly indicate that Ku70 plays a key role in regulation of the Ku80 expression level in and the radioresistance of lung epithelial cells. Our data also suggest that these cell lines might be useful not only for study of Ku70 functions and the DSB repair pathway, but also for study of the molecular mechanism underlying the sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation in lung epithelial cells.
To better understand the mechanism of excessive gas accumulation in the abomasum in bovine abomasal displacement, we performed gastric fluoroscopy in vagotomized cattle. Fifteen 6-month-old Holstein steers were divided into three groups: a non-vagotomized control group (Group C; n=5), a ventral thoraco-vagotomized group (Group V; n=5), and a dorsal and ventral thoraco-vagotomized group (Group DV; n=5). These groups were examined by fluoroscopy before and during a 5-week observation period after surgery. In Group C, no change was observed throughout the observation period. In Group DV, immediately after surgery, reticuloruminal motility was completely absent and ruminal distention was seen. Two weeks after surgery, abnormal reticulum motility and increased gas accumulation in the abomasal body were noted. Abomasal dilatation was also observed. In Group V, 1 week after surgery, gas inflow into the abomasum and relatively normal reticulum motility were observed along with a rapid increase in abomasal gas. Abomasal dilatation was also observed. In addition, left-displaced abomasum occurred in one of the steers in this group. From these results, we concluded that one of the mechanisms of excessive gas accumulation in the abomasum is reticulum-mediated gas inflow from the rumen combined with vagotomy-induced hypomotility.
Delayed wound healing is one of the complications of diabetes mellitus. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of Aloe vera oral administration on open wounds in type 2 diabetic rats. Full thickness open wounds (1.5 × 1.5 cm) were created under general anesthesia on the backs of the rats. These rats were divided into two group, a control group (Group C) and an Aloe vera oral administration group (Group A). Each wound area was measured on days 1, 2, 4 and 8 postwounding. The stages of wound granulation tissues were evaluated histopathologically. The expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by immunohistochemically. The wounds were significantly contracted in Group A on days 2, 4 and 8 postwounding. Histological results revealed that the inflammatory cell infiltration, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix deposition and epithelialization were promoted in Group A, respectively. The immunohistochemical results revealed that both TGF-β1 and VEGF protein-positive cells increased in Group A on day 4 postwounding. We concluded that Aloe vera oral administration accelerated wound healing in type 2 diabetic rats.
A 13-year-old neutered female Shih Tzu was referred for investigation of a cranial abdominal mass. Investigations including conventional radiography, abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography confirmed the mass in the caudate lobe of the liver. As a collateral vein originating from the caudal vena cava (CVC) communicated with the azygos vein, the CVC was ligated and transected cranial to the right renal vein and cranial to the mass under temporary occlusion of the thoracic descending aorta and posthepatic CVC. The mass combined with the CVC was excised. The mass was confirmed as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This report describes the first case with successful en bloc resection of a large HCC involving the CVC in a dog.
Age of gilts at first mating (AFM) is a factor associated with reproductive performance of female pigs. The objectives of the present study were to compare AFM and reproductive performance across parity between three herd groups based on a productivity measurement and to determine lifetime performance by AFM and the herd groups. The female data included 38,212 mated gilts entered between 2001 and 2003, and the herd data included mean measurements from 2001 to 2006 in 101 herds. The average female inventory of the 101 herds was 370.2 females. Females were categorized into five groups: AFM 188-208, 209-229, 230-250, 251-271 or 272-365 days. Three herd groups were formed on the basis of the upper and lower 25th percentiles of pigs weaned per mated female over six years: high-, intermediate- and low-performing herds. Multilevel mixed-effects models were performed to analyze comparisons. The AFMs (± SEM) in the high-, intermediate- and low-performing herds were 239.5 ± 0.22, 247.4 ± 0.21 and 256.7 ± 0.35 days, respectively. As the AFM increased from 209-229 to 272-365 days, annualized lifetime pigs born alive (PBA) decreased from 18.2 to 15.3 pigs, and the number of parities at removal decreased from 4.8 to 4.1 (P<0.05). In parity 1, females with an AFM of 209-229 days had fewer PBA, but had a lower culling risk and shorter weaning-to-first mating interval than those with an AFM of 251-271 days (P<0.05). In conclusion, we recommend management practices such as boar exposure to hasten puberty in gilts and decrease AFM.
The objective of this study was to clarify the effect of ovarian status and follicular size on morphological normality and maturational ability of cat oocytes. Ovarian status was classified into inactive, follicular, luteal and prepubertal, and follicles were classified into three groups according to their diameter (400-800, 800-1200 and 1200-2000 μm). In each ovarian status, the number of follicles decreased but the percentage of morphologically normal oocytes increased with the growth of follicles (p<0.05). Only a single follicle that was 1200-2000 μm in diameter was observed in two of the five prepubertal cats. In follicles that were 800-1200 μm in diameter, the percentage of normal oocytes and maturation rate were higher in prepubertal cats than in mature cats (p<0.05). Oocyte diameter tended to increase with the growth of follicles. After oocytes were cultured individually in droplets of maturation medium, the oocyte maturation rate increased with the growth of follicles in each ovarian status (p<0.05). In conclusion, oocytes collected from larger follicles possess higher maturational ability in vitro in sexually mature cats. In prepubertal cats, a higher maturation rate can be obtained from oocytes derived from small follicles compared with in mature cats.
The low viability of embryos reconstructed by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is believed to be associated with epigenetic modification errors, and reduction of those errors may improve the viability of SCNT embryos. The present study shows the effect of trichostatin A (TSA), a strong inhibitor of histone deacetylase, on the development of murine SCNT embryos. After enucleation and nuclear injection, reconstructed murine oocytes were activated with or without TSA for 6 hr (TSA-6 hr). After activation, TSA treatment was extended to 3 hr (TSA-9 hr), 5 hr (TSA-11 hr) and 18 hr (TSA-24 hr) during culture. As a result, the SCNT embryos in the TSA-11 hr group showed a remarkably higher blastocyst rate (21.1%) when compared with the nontreated embryos (3.4%), while the concentration of TSA did not significantly affect embryonic development. The expressions of histone deacetylase (HDAC1 and HDAC2) and DNA methylation (DNMT3a and DNMT3b) genes decreased in the TSA-11 hr and TSA-24 hr groups, while there was an increase in the expression of histone acetyltransferase (P300 and CBP), pluripotency (OCT4 and NANOG) and embryonic growth/trophectoderm formation (FGF4)-related genes in the same groups. The expression of CDX2, a critical gene for trophectoderm formation was upregulated only in the TSA-24 hr group. Our results show that TSA treatment during the peri- and postactivation period improves the development of reconstructed murine embryos, and this observation may be explained by enhanced epigenetic modification of somatic cells caused by TSA-induced hyperacetylation, demethylation and upregulation of pluripotency and embryonic growth after SCNT.
The present study investigated the infiltration of leukocyte subpopulations in the utero-tubal junction (UTJ) and each part of the oviducts at about 24 hr after intra-uterine insemination (IUI) and deep intra-uterine insemination (DIUI) compared to conventional artificial insemination (CAI) in sows. Fifteen crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire multiparous sows were used (CAI, n=5; IUI, n=5; DIUI, n=5). The sperm dose contained 3,000 × 106 (100 ml), 1,000 × 106 (50 ml) and 150 × 106 (5 ml) motile spermatozoa for CAI, IUI and DIUI, respectively. The sows were inseminated with extended fresh semen at 6 to 8 hr prior to the expected time of ovulation. At 25.2 ± 1.6 hr after insemination, the oviducts and the UTJ were collected. The tissue samples of UTJ, caudal isthmus, cranial isthmus and ampulla were transversely cut to a thickness of 5 μm and stained with H&E. The total numbers of lymphocytes, neutrophils, macrophages, eosinophils and plasma cells were determined under light microscope. It was found that the numbers of lymphocytes, eosinophils and macrophages after CAI, IUI and DIUI were not significantly different (P>0.1) in both epithelial and sub-epithelial connective tissue layer of the UTJ, caudal isthmus, cranial isthmus and ampulla. Intra-epithelial neutrophils in the UTJ were higher than cranial isthmus (P<0.05) and ampulla (P<0.05). In the UTJ, the intra-epithelial neutrophil in the CAI group was higher than DIUI group (P<0.01). Plasma cells in sub-epithelial layer of the endosalpinx in the CAI group were higher than DIUI group (P<0.05) and tended to be higher than the IUI group (P=0.08). In conclusion, compared to CAI, IUI and DIUI do not influence the infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages and eosinophils in the UTJ and the oviduct prior to fertilization. But a lower number of neutrophils in the intra-epithelial layer of the UTJ and plasma cells in the sub-epithelial layers of the oviduct was observed in the DIUI group compared to CAI.
Ivermectin is considered a very safe drug; however, there are reports of toxic effects in particularly sensitive populations or due to accidental overdose. The aim of this study was (1) to further characterize the central and peripheral toxic effects of ivermectin in animals and (2) to determine possible therapeutic strategies for use in cases of ivermectin poisoning. We tested the effects of experimental doses of ivermectin previously reported to cause various intensities of CNS depression. However, in our study, ivermectin at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 mg/kg i.v. did not produce visible CNS depression in rats and 10 mg/kg resulted in sleepiness and staggering 10 to 40 min after application, while a dose of 15 mg/kg caused CNS depression very similar to general anesthesia. Ivermectin dose-dependently potentiates thiopentone-induced sleeping time in rats. Flumazenil (0.2 mg/kg), the benzodiazepine antagonist, did not affect the action of thiopentone; however, it significantly reduced sleeping time in rats treated with a combination of ivermectin (10 mg/kg) and thiopentone (25 mg/kg; from 189.86 ± 45.28 min to 83.13 ± 32.22 min; mean ± SD). Ivermectin causes an increase in the tonus (EC50=50.18 μM) and contraction amplitude (EC50=59.32 μM) of isolated guinea pig ileum, very similar to GABA, but without the initial relaxation period. These effects are dose-dependent and sensitive to atropine. Our results confirm the central and peripheral GABAergic properties of ivermectin in mammals and also indicate involvement of the cholinergic system in its toxicity. In addition, the results suggest that flumazenil and atropine have potential clinical roles in the treatment of ivermectin toxicity.
In the present study, group-specific antigen VP7 of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 21 isolated from cattle in Tochigi prefecture in Japan in 1994 was characterized by sequencing and expression. Gene was amplified from cDNA synthesized on viral dsRNA using reverse-transcriptase-PCR. Nucleotide sequence of this isolate showed high similarity with other published BTV VP7 sequences. Full-length and C-terminal truncated forms of VP7 were expressed in insect cells by a baculovirus gene expression system under control of the viral polyhedrin promoter. Expression of full-length recombinant VP7 was confirmed by immunoprecipitation with VP7 specific monoclonal antibody (8A3B.6, ATCC). Recombinant proteins expressed with or without 6x His-tag showed good expression levels in TN5 cells and reacted well with the monoclonal antibody in the indirect ELISA. However C-terminal truncated VP7 with His-tag failed to react with this monoclonal antibody, while poor antigenicity was evident when it was reacted with infected bovine serum. Reduced antigenicity of the latter suggested that C-terminal truncation affects 8A3B.6 epitope construction probably via inhibition of VP7 trimer structure formation.