This study describes the clinical presentation of superficial swellings and evaluates the utility of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of such swellings in sheep and goats. Ninety-three sheep and 73 goats were included in this study on the basis of presence of superficial swellings on the head (n=56), neck (n=16), chest wall (n=3), abdominal wall (n=40), umbilicus (n=14), scrotum (n=16), testes (n=1), udder (n=7), limbs (n=2), gluteal region (n=5), tail (n=1), and penile urethra (n=5). Ultrasonographic evaluation of these superficial swellings allowed the diagnosis of abscesses (n=54; 32.52%), cysts (n=12; 7.23%), hernias (n=57; 34.33%), hematomas (n=14; 8.44%), tumors (n=24; 14.45%), and urethral diverticula (n=5; 3.03%). Each lesion type could be precisely discriminated (sensitivity, 88–100%; specificity, 80–100%; and P=0.001). Ultrasonography was found to have a specificity of 100% for the diagnosis of hernias, urethral diverticula, and tumors, and a lower specificity of 80% for hematomas and 93% for abscesses when used for evaluation of superficial swellings in sheep and goats. In conclusion, ultrasonography is a unique, non-invasive diagnostic imaging tool that allows the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and subsequent surgical treatment of different types of superficial swellings in sheep and goats.