Since March 1997 two strains of foot and mouth disease (FMD) virus have found their way into Taiwan, causing severe outbreaks in pigs and in Chinese yellow cattle. Outbreaks occurred in March 1997 were caused by a pig-adapted virus strain (O/Taiwan/97) which did not infect other species of cloven-hoofed animals by natural route. The epidemic spread over the whole region of Taiwan within two months and the aftermath was 6,147 pig farms infected and 3,850,746 pigs destroyed. In June 1999, the second strain of FMD virus (O/Taiwan/99) was isolated from the Chinese yellow cattle in the Kinmen Prefecture and in the western part of Taiwan. By the end of 1999, Chinese yellow cattle were the only species infected and those infected cattle did not develop pathological lesions. Seroconversions of serum neutralization antibody and on non-structural protein (NSP) antibodies were the best indicators for infection in non-vaccinated herds. The infected animals, however, excreted infectious levels of virus to infect new hosts. Based on the detection of the specific antibody to FMD virus, and virus isolation from oesophageal-pharyngeal (OP) fluid samples, ten herds of Chinese yellow cattle located in Kinmen and Taiwan were declared to have been infected. During the period of January to March 2000, however, five outbreaks caused by FMD virus similar to the O/Taiwan/99 virus occurred in four prefectures of Taiwan. The infected species included goats, Chinese yellow cattle and dairy cattle. Those outbreaks have caused high mortality in goat kids under two weeks old and also developed typical clinical signs of infection in dairy cattle.
The role of nitric oxide (NO) on the ductus arteriosus (DA) patency was examined in fetal rats at various stages of gestation. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 50 mg/kg, ip), an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, or indomethacin (3 mg/kg, po), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, was administered at 3 hr before cesarean section to pregnant rats ranging from day 17 to day 21 of gestation. Dams were decapitated and the fetuses were obtained by cesarean section. The fetuses were rapidly frozen in an acetone-dry ice mixture. Using rapid-freezing and shaving methods, the calibers of the DA and pulmonary artery were measured. The constrictive effect of L-NAME on the fetal DA caliber was stronger than that of indomethacin in 19-day-old and immature fetuses. In near-term fetuses, the constrictive effects of L-NAME were reduced, while indomethacin caused marked DA constriction. We conclude that endogenous NO may play a major role in regulating the patency of the DA in earlier fetal stages, while dilator prostaglandins may play a greater role in regulating the ductal patency in the near-term fetus.
The two color types (grayish northern and reddish southern types) of the common tree shrew (Tupaia glis and Tupaia belangeri) were co-distributed in Hat-Yai region (South Thailand). Although the Isthmus of Kra in South Thailand has been considered as distribution barrier of the two types, the sympatric distribution of both types was confirmed in southern side of the Isthmus. In the principal component analysis, the skull measurement character from Hat-Yai region could also be separated into the northern and southern groups according to the skin color identification of corresponding individuals. We could generally distinguish the common tree shrew into two types by skull morphology as well as external skin color.
A total of 4,418 samples of commercial layer feeds obtained in 1998 were investigated for the presence of salmonellae. A total of 146 strains of salmonellae which consisted of 32 serovars, including 20 strains of Salmonella Enteritidis, were isolated from 143 feed samples.
To determine a safe and efficacious dose of flecainide acetate for treating equine atrial fibrillation (Af), the safe dosage level was determined by injecting 1, 2, or 3 mg/kg i.v. of 1% flecainide acetate solution at a rate of 0.2 mg/kg/min to five clinically healthy horses. Clinical signs and the ECG were monitored (HR, PR, QRS, and QT intervals) and blood was taken to measure the plasma flecainide concentration pre- and post-administration. No abnormal signs were observed in the 1- or 2-mg/kg groups, while agitation was observed in three of five horses in the 3-mg/kg group. The QRS, and QT intervals for the 3-mg/kg group increased significantly. The peak plasma flecainide concentrations were 1,316 ± 358 (SD) ng/ml, 1,904 ± 314 ng/ml, and 2,251 ± 387 ng/ml for the 1-, 2-, and 3-mg/kg groups, respectively. To evaluate the efficacy of flecainide, Af was induced by right atrial pacing in six clinically healthy horses, and 1 0.000000lecainide acetate solution was then administered until they converted to sinus rhythm. All horses with induced Af converted. For the conversion, a total dose of 1.40 ± 0.63 mg/kg flecainide was required, the duration of administration was 7.00 ± 3.15 min and plasma flecainide concentration at conversion was 1,303 ± 566 ng/ml. In conclusion, flecainide acetate is a safe and effective antiarrhythmic agent for equine Af, and the clinically effective dosage is 1 to 2 mg/kg.
This study was conducted to determine why Babesia gibsoni replicates well in reticulocytes. First, B. gibsoni was cultivated in resealed erythrocyte ghosts loaded with either erythrocyte or reticulocyte lysate, and in reticulocyte ghosts loaded with either erythrocyte or reticulocyte lysate. The parasites multiplied well in the erythrocyte or reticulocyte ghosts loaded with reticulocyte lysate compared to the other resealed cells loaded with erythrocyte lysate. Second, the parasites were cultivated in erythrocytes in culture medium supplemented with either erythrocyte or reticulocyte lysate. The parasites multiplied better in reticulocyte lysate-containing cultures than in erythrocyte lysate-containing cultures. Finally, the parasites were cultivated in erythrocytes in culture medium supplemented with glutamate, aspartate, asparagine, glycine, isoleucine, proline, taurine or GSH, which were present in higher concentrations in reticulocytes than in erythrocytes. Supplementation of the culture medium with glutamate and GSH resulted in enhancement of the multiplication of the parasites, while the other amino acids did not enhance the multiplication. These results indicated that the high levels of the multiplication of B. gibsoni in reticulocytes are partly due to the high concentrations of glutamate and GSH in reticulocytes.
The 16S rRNA gene of the SMR strain of cilia-associated respiratory (CAR) bacillus, which was isolated from a spontaneously infected rat at our institute, was sequenced. Its 1,521 nucleotides were determined. On the basis of the results of the sequence analysis, the SMR strain was found to be most closely related to members of the Flavobacter/Flexibacter group. This sequence was compared with the previously determined 16S rRNA gene sequences (rat-origin: three; mouse-origin: one; rabbit-origin: one) of CAR bacillus isolates. The SMR strain showed the highest sequence similarity (99.9%) to the rat-origin CARB-NIH strain (Schoeb et al., 1993), and it was concluded that the strains are identical.
The surface proteins of Babesia rodhaini have previously been shown to induce a high degree of protective immunity. In the present study, one of those proteins, B. rodhaini antigen p26 was expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus. These proteins were recognized by immune serum from a drug-cured BALB/c mouse. While BALB/c mice immunized with both recombinant antigens and Freund's adjuvants showed 40-100urvival rate against challenge infection with B. rodhaini, saponin failed to induce protection, although significant levels of B. rodhaini-specific antibodies were produced in both immunized mice (1:1,000-2,000 by indirect immunofluorescent antibody test). The immunization of IFN-γ-deficient mice with the recombinant proteins was not protective against B. rodhaini infection, indicating that IFN-γ is one of the important factors for the survival against lethal B. rodhaini infection.
In order to establish base-line data on angiogenic factors in development of mesenchymal tumors, expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in implanted MT-8 and MT-9 tumors, both derived from a transplantable malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) in the F344 rat, were investigated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting method. MT-8 and MT-9 tumors were developed in syngeneic rats by implant of a tumor tissue fragment. MT-8 tumors were examined on post-implantation (PI) days 3, 6, 9 and 17, and MT-9 tumors were on PI days 9, 14, 17 and 23. The growth of MT-8 tumors was faster than that of MT-9 tumors. Histologically, MT-8 tumors were features of undifferentiated sarcomas, whereas MT-9 tumors exhibited a typical storiform growth pattern of MFH. Immunohistochemically, all cells constituting MT-8 and MT-9 tumors reacted with antibodies to VEGF and bFGF, indicating production of these factors by mesenchymal neoplastic cells. However, there were no marked differences in these immunoreactions between tumors examined. Thus, the bands obtained in the Western blotting methods were densitometrically scanned. The expression levels of VEGF and bFGF gradually increased PI day 3 to 9 in MT-8 tumors and PI day 9 to 17 in MT-9 tumors. On last examination day, the levels of bFGF in both tumors and of VEGF in MT-9 tumors decreased, but the VEGF expression level in MT-8 tumors was still increased. These findings indicated that VEGF and bFGF may contribute cooperatively to angiogenesis in an early growth of mesenchymal tumor development.
Tightly spiral bacteria were observed only in the pyloric mucosa of 4 (8.0%) of 50 swine stomachs, mainly in the surface of epithelia, the gastric pits and the lumen of gastric glands. The presence of the spiral bacteria was significantly associated with chronic pyloric gastritis (p<0.05). Mean gastritis score of the bacteria-positive pyloric mucosa was 3.25 ± 0.25, whereas that of the bacteria-negative pyloric mucosa was 2.37 ± 0.12. Parakeratosis and hyperkeratosis were spontaneously seen in the mucosa layer of pars oesophagea, regadless of the bacterial infection. Marked infiltration of mononuclear cells and granulocytes were seen in the cardiac mucosa, regardless of the bacterial infection. Mean gastritis score of the bacteria-positive cardiac mucosa was 3.27 ± 0.32, whereas that of the bacteria-negative cardiac mucosa was 2.84 ± 0.13. There was no significant difference between the bacteria-positive and negative cardiac mucosa (p>0.05). Inflammatory response in the fundic mucosa was rare (gastritis score=0.75 ± 0.08). The tightly spiraled bactera were not cultured with various culture media. These results suggest that the presence of tightly spiraled bacteria is associated with only the pyloric gastritis in pigs.
The involvement of cyclin A, cyclin D1 and p53 proteins in canine and feline tumorigenesis was analyzed immunohistochemically. In the present study, a total of 176 cases were examined, among which there were 108 canine cases (75 mammary lesions, 16 squamous cell carcinomas and 17 basal cell tumors) and 68 feline cases (43 mammary lesions, 20 squamous cell carcinomas and 5 basal cell tumors). Speckled nuclear staining for cyclin A was observed in 19/38 (50%) canine malignant mammary tumors and 18/37 (48.6%) feline mammary carcinomas, while this was not seen in benign mammary tumors of either dogs or cats. Marked intense nuclear cyclin A staining was seen in 7/16 (43.8%) canine squamous cell carcinomas and 18/20 (90.0%) feline squamous cell carcinomas. Only 3/17 (17.6%) canine basal cell tumors showed slight and scattered staining for cyclin A. Expression of cyclin D1 was very rare in both canine and feline tumors. Nuclear staining of p53 was found in 7/37 (18.9%) feline mammary carcinomas. Intense immunoreactivity for p53 was found in 6/16 (37.5%) canine squamous cell carcinomas and 8/20 (40%) feline squamous cell carcinomas. These results suggest that cyclin A may have a role in the proliferation of canine malignant mammary tumors, feline mammary carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of dogs and cats, and p53 may associate with the tumorigenesis of feline mammary carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of dogs and cats.
Male F344 rats received diet containing 3,000 ppm 2,6-dimethylaniline (DMA) after initiation with a single subcutaneous injection of 2,400 mg/kg of N-bis(2-hydroxypropyl)nitrosamine (DHPN), and histological and electron microscopic examinations of the nasal cavity were performed at 4, 13, 26 and 52 weeks to examine sequential changes induced by DMA. Severe atrophy of Bowman's glands and epithelial disarrangement were apparent from week 4, followed by dilatation and/or proliferation of Bowman's glands, degeneration of epithelial cells, and proliferation of undifferentiated epithelial cells from week 13. Focal glandular hyperplasias, dysplastic foci, and adenomas were observed from week 26, and carcinomas at 52 week. These nasal lesions were mostly evident in the olfactory mucosa in the nasal cavity, and their severity and/or incidences, other than atrophy of Bowman's glands, increased with the treatment period. Electron microscopically, carcinoma cells demonstrated desmosomes, dense secretory granules identical to those in normal Bowman's glands, a basement membrane, and microvilli. These results suggest that Bowman's glands are the target of DMA, giving rise to nasal carcinomas after DHPN-initiation.
Detection method of Lawsonia intracellularis was studied in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded intestinal tissues from 5 naturally infected pigs by immunohistochemistry with a monoclonal antibody against outer membrane protein of L. intracellularis. Warthin-Starry silver stain revealed clusters of argyrophilic, slightly curved rod-shaped organisms in the apical cytoplasm of enterocytes. Immunohistochemical staining with a L. intracellularis-specific monoclonal antibody confirmed the presence of the organism in the apical cytoplasm of hyperplastic enterocytes. The presence of L. intracellularis in the ileum of pig with proliferative enteropathy was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) further on the basis of amplification of 319 base pair products specific for porcine L. intracellularis chromosomal DNA. Immunohistochemistry and PCR may be a complementary method to confirm the diagnosis of L. intracellularis infection in pigs.
DNAs from 33 canine mammary tumors and 8 feline mammary carcinomas were examined by Southern blot analysis to clarify genomic abnormalities of the cyclin A gene. Amplification of cyclin A was detected in 27.3% (9/33) of canine mammary tumors and 87.5% (7/8) of feline mammary carcinomas. It was suggested that amplification of cyclin A do not correlate directly with the tumorigenesis of canine mammary tumors, because there was no significant difference of incidence of cyclin A amplification between the benign and malignant tumors. In feline mammary carcinomas, the high frequency of cyclin A amplification raised the possibility that the amplification lead to the protein overexpression and play an important role in the tumorigenesis.
The physiological significance of taurine in milk in the growth of rat pups was investigated. Our results confirmed that taurine was at an exceptionally high concentration in rat milk during the lactational period, especially for the first few days after birth. Pups taking no milk from natural dams but from foster mothers at an advanced lactational period showed a slower growth rate. Intraperitoneal administration of taurine to the foster mothers in the first five days restored this growth retardation. On the other hand, intraperitoneal administration of β-alanine, a transport antagonist of taurine, to the natural dams through the lactational period induced a slower growth rate of pups. This β-alanine treatment to dams increased β-alanine concentration, but did not decrease taurine concentrations in milk, and serum taurine concentration in the pups receiving this milk was elevated. Direct administration of β-alanine to pups also increased the serum taurine concentrations dose-dependently. β-Alanine administration to pups significantly decreased [3H]taurine incorporation into all the organs examined, and in contrast, [3H]taurine concentrations in serum and urine were elevated. Thus, β-alanine inhibited taurine incorporation into cells and accelerated taurine excretion into either urine or milk. Serum IGF-I levels in pups receiving β-alanine either directly or via their mothers was significantly lower than those in control pups. Cumulatively, taurine ingestion from milk at an early lactational period seems critical for normal growth of rat neonates due to its role in maintaining normal serum IGF-I levels.
Pituitary folliculo-stellate (FS) cells were able to modify the effect of activin-A on gonadotropes through the paracrine factor, follistatin. The present study was aimed to examine whether a hypothalamic peptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP), could be a regulator of this paracrine interaction. Co-culture of FS cell-originated cell line TtT/GF cells with rat anterior pituitary cells showed faint inhibitory effect on the stimulatory action of activin-A on FSH secretion. When PACAP was added to the culture during the co-culture period, however, the presence of TtT/GF cells caused significant suppression of the effect of activin-A on FSH secretion. Conditioned-media (CM) from TtT/GF cells, obtained by incubation of TtT/GF cells in the presence or absence of PACAP, were next added to the cultures of anterior pituitary cells alone. CM from TtT/GF cells without PACAP treatment revealed slight, but not significant, suppressive effect on activin-induced increases in FSH secretion and the percentage of FSH cells. Meanwhile, CM from PACAP-treated TtT/GF cells attenuated both effects of activin-A. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of the CM was neutralized when follistatin antibody was present in the culture. These results suggest that PACAP is able to regulate the paracrine action of FS cells on pituitary gonadotropes. Besides expressing direct actions on pituitary endocrine cells, PACAP may have roles as a regulator of cell-to-cell interactions within the pituitary gland.
Chipmunks that had been housed at 22°C under a light-dark cycle of 14L:10D for at least one year were exposed to a short photoperiod (10L:14D) and low temperature to induce unseasonable hibernation. We were able to induce hibernation at any time of year and there was no significant difference in the duration of the hibernation bout, the duration of interbout euthermia and duration of bouts of torpor throughout the year; however entrance into hibernation took about 60 days in summer but only about 30 days in any other seasons. In addition, interbout euthermia predominantly occurred during the light phase in winter, whereas in spring interbout euthermia occurred equally in the light and dark phases. These results suggest that both the circadian and circannual systems are linked to hibernation in chipmunks. Subcutaneous infusion of a serotonin antagonist, para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA), facilitated entrance into and interrupted hibernation in aroused and hibernating chipmunks in summer, respectively. On the other hand, opioid antagonist, naloxone, did not affect hibernation, but extended the period of interbout euthermia. These results suggest that the role of serotonin in entrance into and maintenance of hibernation in chipmunks is independent of the circannual system, and that opioid system may not be involved in hibernation in chipmunks.
A 4-month-old male infant manifested diarrhea and Salmonella Virchow was isolated from his stool. The pathogen was repeatedly isolated from the infant over one month despite three regimens of treatment with antibiotics, to which the isolate was sensitive. Three household dogs were kept in his home and S. Virchow was isolated from two of them. The infant was admitted to hospital and was treated with antibiotic, then the pathogen was finally eliminated. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern and PFGE pattern produced by restriction enzyme Xba I of the isolate from the infant was completely similar to those of the isolates from the dogs. The above findings indicated that the present S. Virchow infection in the infant was transmitted by the household dogs.
A 2-year-old female Labrador retriever was presented with anorexia and abdominal distention. Laparotomy revealed the presence of a 31-cm ovoid mass in the portion of the left ovary and an 11-cm round mass in the left retroperitoneal region. Both masses were surgically removed. Histopathological examination of the masses revealed a mixture of tissues characteristic of teratomas, such as multiple bronchial and intestinal cysts, hair follicles, sebaceous and apocrine sweat glands, and neuron tissue with intervening cartilage, bone and fat tissue. This paper appears to be the first report of primary retroperitoneal teratoma in the dog.
The infusion of ozone into the inflamed quarter of cows with clinical mastitis was performed and the efficacy of ozone therapy was evaluated. Ozone was infused into the inflamed quarter via a teat canal using ozone gas generating equipment. Nineteen Holstein cows with acute clinical mastitis were divided into two groups: 15 cows treated with ozone therapy, and 4 cows treated with antibiotic therapy. Systemic and local clinical signs, California Mastitis Test scores, the mastitis causing pathogens, electronic conductivity of milk, and somatic cell counts in milk from ozone- and antibiotic-treated quarters, were compared between the groups. Sixty percent (9/15) of cows with acute clinical mastitis treated with ozone therapy, did not require any antibiotics for recovery. This newly developed ozone therapy method was proven to be effective, safe, and cost effective, and carries no risk of drug residues in milk.
Ultrasonographic examination was carried out in a cow wiyh an ovarian abscess. Real time ultrasound scanning using a 7.5 MHz linear probe per rectum revealed an active left ovary with follicles of up to 11 mm in diameter and an enlarged right ovary measuring 6 × 6 cm, with a mass of 4 × 3 cm. The mass had varied echotexture, a thick hyperechoic boundary and a hypoechoic centre with echoic foci. It was tentatively diagnosed as an ovarian tumour or abscess. After ovariectomy, grossly the right ovary measured 6 × 6 × 5 cm and on cutting cheesy pus oozed out. The abscess was completely localised within the ovary, 4 cm in diameter and encapsulated thickly. On bacteriological examination Staphylococcus spp. was isolated. This is a rare case of ovarian abscess.
A type-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using equine herpesvirus types 1 (EHV-1) and 4 (EHV-4) glycoprotein G was applied for sero-epizootiology of EHV infections in Japan. Recently, an inactivated EHV-1 vaccine has been administered to racehorses for prevention of upper respiratory disease. To examine the effect of the vaccination on the result of the ELISA, 6 horses were experimentally inoculated three times intramuscularly or intranasally with inactivated EHV-1 vaccine. Sera collected from these horses were used to the type-specific ELISA and complement-fixation (CF) test. Although the CF test detected a significant increase of antibody elicited by vaccination, the ELISA did not detect any antibody response. Next, sera collected from thirty-eight horses, which were intramuscularly inoculated with inactivated EHV-1 twice at an interval of four weeks, were used in the ELISA and CF test. The results also indicated that CF titers increased by vaccine inoculation, but ELISA titers did not. To examine epizootiology of EHVs serologically in racehorse populations at two Training Centers of the Japan Racing Association, the type-specific ELISA and CF test were carried out using paired sera collected from racehorses before and after the winter season. The results showed that the ELISA could distinguish EHV-1 and EHV-4 infections in vaccinated horses serologically. In conclusion, the type-specific ELISA is considered to be useful for sero-diagnosis and sero-epizootiological research on EHV-1 and EHV-4 infections not only in unvaccinated horses, but also in vaccinated horses in Japan.
The time course for appearance of antibodies to Borna disease virus (BDV) major antigens, p40, p24, p18 and p10 were investigated in BDV-inoculated adult rats by Western blotting. Anti-p10 antibodies were detected in sera as early as anti-p40 and -p24 antibodies at four or five weeks after inoculation. Furthermore, in addition to these major antigens of BDV, the rat serum could detect additional 80-, 58-, 43-, 20-, and 16-kDa proteins in BDV-infected cultured cells and/or animal brain cells by Western blot analysis. Of these proteins, the 20- and 16-kDa proteins were shown to be related to p24 protein by their reactivity with anti-p24 monoclonal antibody. Interestingly, the 58- and 24-kDa were found only in BDV-infected animal brain cells but not in cultured cells. The results in this study could provide a useful information on the mechanism for the viral replication and pathogenesis.
Since bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), known as bovine lentivirus, has been detected in dairy and beef cattle in various countries around the world, a prevalence study of antibodies to BIV and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was conducted in draught animals in five provinces in Cambodia, where protozoan parasite infections were suspected in some animals. To clarify the status of draught animals including Haryana, Brahman, mixed-breed, local breed cattle and muscle water buffaloes, a total of 544 cattle and 42 buffaloes were tested, and 26.3 and 16.7%, respectively, were found positive for anti-BIV p26 antibodies determined by Western blotting. There were 5.30ositive for anti-BLV antibodies detected by immunodiffusion test among the cattle, but no reactors among buffaloes and no dual infection for both BIV and BLV was determined in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BIV-seropositive cattle were found to have BIV-provirus DNA, as detected by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent Southern blot hybridization. This is the first evidence for the presence of BIV and BLV infections in draught animals in tropical countries such as Cambodia. This wide distribution of BIV suggests its association with problems in animal health as reported worldwide, and that a primary BIV infection can predispose death of affected animals by other aggressive pathogens or stresses.
Epidemiology of upper respiratory infections of cats was studied. Nasal, ocular, and oral swabs collected from 111 cats presented at animal hospitals during the past 2.5 years were examined. Twenty-four (21.6%) and 4 (3.6%) cats were diagnosed as feline calicivirus (FCV) infection and feline viral rhinotracheitis, respectively, indicating FCV is more prevalent than feline herpesvirus-1, which revealed a considerable shift from data obtained in 1970s. Cat sera immunized by using vaccines containing either FCV F9 or 255 strains neutralized 42.9% and 66.70f the FCV isolates, respectively. Chlamydia psittaci, examined by a PCR assay amplifying the ompA gene, was found in 26.90f 26 diseased cats that typically showed conjunctivitis and rhinitis.
Latex beads agglutination (LA) for the detection of the antibody against virus infection-associated (VIA) antigen of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus was estimated using experimentally infected animals. The VIA antibody titer by the LA test were compared with the neutralization titer and the titer by agarose gel diffusion (AGD) test, which has been used as a standard method for VIA antibody titration. The latex beads were coated with VIA antigen in carbonate buffer solution (0.5M, pH9.6) for the test. The sensitivity of the LA test was clearly higher than that of the AGD test in the results for cattle and swine infected experimentally. The antibody was detected in the bovine serum obtained at the 13th week after inoculation by the LA but not by the AGD test. The LA test appears to be simple, rapid and sensitive for the detection of the antibody of FMD virus in the surveillance of FMD and the FMD quarantine of imported animals.