Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
77 巻 , 3 号
March
選択された号の論文の20件中1~20を表示しています
Anatomy
  • Masato HIYAMA, Ken Takeshi KUSAKABE, Ai TAKESHITA, Sinji SUGI, Nobue K ...
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 305-311
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/11/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    LC3 − the mammalian homolog of Atg8 − was found as autophagosome membrane binding protein in mammals and widely used as an autophagosomal marker. LC3A, B and C show different expression patterns in each tissue. The aim of this study was to reveal the differences of expression patterns among LC3 families in mouse placenta under normal condition and nutrient starving condition. LC3A and B were highly expressed in decidual cells. LC3A and B were increased in D14 compared with D12 and D16 in mouse placenta, while LC3C was decreased. Starvation induced increase in LC3B expression specifically. Immunohistochemistry showed different expression patterns among LC3A, B and C. LC3A expression in syncytiotrophoblast was vanished by starvation. The results of real time RT-PCR suggested differences between D12 and D16 in autophagic cascade induced by starvation. Taken together, this study suggests that autophagy could play a role in placental invasion system and that nutrient starvation affects LC3B expression.
  • Tae-Ho CHUNG, Hee Soo CHOI, Choong Hyun LEE
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 349-352
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/11/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    A previous study showed that 1 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment did not lead to the any neuronal death/degeneration in the mouse hippocampus. In the present study, we examined the time-dependent changes of calbindin D-28k (CB) protein expression in the mouse hippocampus after a systemic administration of 1 mg/kg LPS. CB immunoreactivity was markedly increased in pyramidal cells of the hippocampal CA1/2 regions and in granule cells of the dentate gyrus from 3 hr to 48 hr after LPS treatment. At this point in time, CB protein level was also significantly increased in the mouse hippocampus. Thereafter, CB protein expression was decreased at 96 hr after LPS treatment. These results indicate that changes of CB protein expression may be associated with no neuronal death in the model of neuroinflammation with systemic administration of 1 mg/kg LPS.
Avian Pathology
  • Masaji MASE, Katsushi KANEHIRA
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 381-385
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/12/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    To further understand the epidemiology of avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1) in migratory waterfowls in Japan, we conducted the surveillance of this virus from feces derived from the migratory waterfowls collected in 41 Japanese prefectures between October 2011 and March 2013. Six APMV-1 viruses were isolated from total 661 samples. All isolates were identified as the avirulent (lentogenic) type on the basis of intracerebral pathogenicity tests. Genetic analysis showed that these viruses possessed the deduced amino acid sequence of 112GKQGR-L117 or 112ERQER-L117 at the cleavage site of the F0 protein, which was identical to the motif in the avirulent type. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial fusion protein gene classified these APMV-1 isolates into 2 major genetic groups. Four isolates were classified as class II genotype I, and they were genetically closely related to strains isolated in Asian countries, including Japan. In contrast, two isolates were classified as class I, and they were genetically closely related to strains mainly isolated in the U.S.A.
Bacteriology
  • Haruka SASAKI, Kiyoko WATANABE, Toshizo TOYAMA, Yasunori KOYATA, Nobus ...
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 265-271
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/11/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    Porphyromonas gulae is considered to be associated with canine periodontitis. We have previously reported that the P. gulae American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 51700 comprised 41-kDa fimbriae. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the roles of 41-kDa fimbrial protein in periodontal disease. In this study, we examined the involvement of the 41-kDa fimbrial protein in osteoclast differentiation and cytokine production in murine macrophages. Furthermore, alveolar bone resorption induced by P. gulae infection in rats was evaluated. To estimate osteoclast differentiation, bone marrow cells and MC3T3-G2/PA6 cells were cultured with or without the 41-kDa fimbrial protein for 7 days. BALB/c mouse peritoneal macrophages were stimulated with the 41-kDa fimbrial protein, and the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Osteoclast differentiation was significantly enhanced by treatment with the 41-kDa fimbrial protein in a dose-dependent manner. The total area of pits formed on the dentine slices with osteoclasts incubated with the 41-kDa fimbrial protein was significantly greater than that of the control. The purified 41-kDa fimbrial protein induced IL-1β and TNF-α production in BALB/c mouse peritoneal macrophages after 6 hr of incubation in a dose-dependent manner. The bone loss level in rats infected with P. gulae was significantly higher than that of the sham-infected rats. These results suggest that P. gulae 41-kDa fimbriae play important roles in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.
  • Arunee THANASARASAKULPONG, Pichayanut POOLPERM, Pallop TANKAEW, Takuo ...
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 321-326
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/12/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    Recombinant outer membrane protein H (rOmpH) is a potential fowl cholera vaccine candidate. The present study was aimed at developing rOmpH formulations for intranasal administration. The rOmpH was purified and formulated with either Escherichia coli enterotoxin B (LTB) or CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) as an adjuvant. Antibody responses in chickens intranasally immunized with rOmpH in combination with 2 different adjuvants were significantly increased (P<0.05) post immunization. Chicken survival rates showed that rOmpH formulated with ODN and LTB elicited 90% and 70% protection, respectively. Our findings indicated that rOmpH formulated with ODN elicited protection better than that formulated with LTB. Therefore, the vaccines formulations in the present study can be considered new intranasal vaccine formulations for fowl cholera in chickens.
Clinical Pathology
  • Hiroyuki OHNISHI, Shinya MIZUNO, Yoko MIZUNO-HORIKAWA, Takashi KATO
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 313-319
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most key pathological event for accelerating progression to chronic kidney disease through vascular endothelial injury or dysfunction. Thus, it is critical to elucidate the molecular mechanism of endothelial protection and regeneration. Emerging evidence indicates that bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) contribute to tissue reconstitution in several types of organs post-injury, but little is known whether and how BMCs contribute to renal endothelial reconstitution, especially in an early-stage of AKI. Using a mouse model of ischemic AKI, we provide evidence that incorporation of BMCs in vascular components (such as endothelial and smooth muscle cells) becomes evident within four days after renal ischemia and reperfusion, associated with an increase in stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF1) in endothelium and that in CXCR4/SDF1-receptor in BMCs. Notably, anti-CXCR4 antibody decreased the numbers of infiltrated BMCs and BMC-derived endothelium-like cells, but not of BMC-derived smooth muscle cell-like cells. These results suggest that reconstitution of renal endothelium post-ischemia partially depends on a paracrine loop of SDF1-CXCR4 between resident endothelium and BMCs. Such a chemokine ligand-receptor system may be attributable for selecting a cellular lineage (s), required for renal vascular protection, repair and homeostasis, even in an earlier phase of AKI.
Internal Medicine
  • Yasuo FUSHIMI, Mitsuhiro TAKAGI, Hiroaki KAWAGUCHI, Noriaki MIYOSHI, T ...
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 337-340
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    Eosinophilic enteritis (EOE) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease and is characterized clinically by chronic obstinate diarrhea. Three Japanese Black (JB) fattening cattle (2 males and 1 female) on different cattle farms presented with chronic episodic diarrhea without fever or dehydration. Soft reddish spherical carneous tissues (1−3 cm) were occasionally excreted within the diarrheic feces. Administration of antibiotics, antidiarrheal drugs and vermicides had no therapeutic effect, but dexamethasone improved the fecal characteristics. The symptoms persisted until the animals were slaughtered at 27–30 months of age. Histopathological examination of the intestines revealed marked eosinophilic infiltration in the lamina propria and submucosa. From these findings, we diagnosed these cattle as the first cases of EOE in JB cattle.
  • Masumi YOSHIDA, Ken ONDA, Yasunori WADA, Masayoshi KUWAHARA
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 375-379
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/12/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    Parameters of heart rate variability would explain changes in heart rate during the disease status in cows and to evaluate whether such changes might provide a more sensitive and quantitative indicator of these conditions than crude indices. For this purpose, we recorded electrocardiograms for 24 hr using a Holter-type electrocardiograph and applied power spectral analysis of heart rate variability in both five clinically healthy and four hospitalized cows. The significant findings of the current investigation were that the diurnal variations of autonomic nervous function are abolished in cows that are sick. This abnormal rhythm was induced by predominant parasympathetic inhibition in these cows. Therefore, the heart rate variability may be a useful indicator of sickness condition in cows.
Laboratory Animal Science
  • Kimie NIIMI, Ayaka OGUCHI, Kenji NISHIO, Yasushi OKANO, Eiki TAKAHASHI
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 345-348
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/11/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    The following is a report on a congenital vaginal malformation, imperforate vagina, in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). This anomaly was observed for the first time in an adult female in our research colony. There was no uterine and vaginal aplasia or atresia in her grossly normal genital tract. The plasma progesterone concentration suggested that the ovarian cycle had ceased. However, this may not be related to a functional anomaly, but rather to suppressed ovulation resulting from subordination to cagemates considering the various stages of follicular development observed.
  • Jun-ichi SUTO
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 353-358
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/11/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis for litter size (total number of pups born and/or number of pups born alive) in 255 backcross mice derived from C57BL/6J and RR/Sgn inbred mice. We identified one significant QTL on chromosome 7 and 4 suggestive QTLs on chromosomes 3, 5, 10 and 13. In addition, two suggestive QTLs were identified on chromosomes 1 and 4 for the number of stillbirth. These results suggested that both litter size and number of stillbirth were heritable traits, although they were controlled by distinct genes. The RR allele was associated with reduced litter size and increased stillbirth at all QTLs. Therefore, RR mothers were observed to have reduced prolificacy in this particular genetic cross.
Pathology
  • Atigan THONGTHARB, James K. CHAMBERS, Kazuyuki UCHIDA, Ken-ichi WATANA ...
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 371-374
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/12/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    A 4-year-2-month-old female Japanese domestic cat was diagnosed with lymphangiosarcoma through tissue biopsy of an amputated leg. Two months later, the cat was euthanized, and postmortem findings revealed edema, and bruising at the caudal region of the trunk, pulmonary hemorrhage, pulmonary nodules and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Microscopically, neoplastic tissues were observed in the dermis and subcutis of the trunk, lung, mediastinal lymph nodes, diaphragm, omentum and mesentery. The tumor cells were spindle to polygonal-shaped with nuclear pleomorphism aligning along pre-existing collagen bundles and forming irregular vascular channels in which the erythrocytes were rarely observed. These cells were immunopositive for vimentin, von Willebrand factor and CD31. Based on the histopathological and immunohistochemical features, the neoplasia was diagnosed as lymphangiosarcoma with systemic metastases.
Pharmacology
  • Sileshi BELEW, Jin-Yoon KIM, Md.Akil HOSSAIN, Ji-Yong PARK, Seung-Jin ...
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 327-329
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/11/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of marbofloxacin (MRFX) in Korean cattle, Hanwoo, were determined following its intravenous (i.v.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administration at a dose of 2 mg/kg. Area under the curve (AUC0–24 hr), half-life (t1/2) and total body clearance (CLB) of i.v. MRFX were 6.87 hr∙µg/ml, 2.44 hr and 0.29 l/kg∙hr, respectively, and the corresponding values for i.m. administration of MRFX were 5.07 hr∙µg/ml, 2.44 hr and 0.39 l/kg∙hr. The suggested optimal doses of MRFX in Hanwoo cattle, calculated by integration of PK data obtained in the present study and previously reported minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for MRFX against susceptible (MIC ≤1 µg/ml) and intermediate (MIC ≤2 µg/ml) pathogenic bacteria, were 2.1 and 4.2 mg/kg/day by i.v. route and 3.9 and 7.8 mg/kg/day by i.m. route.
Physiology
  • Maki ISHIBASHI, Akiyoshi HAYASHI, Hideo AKIYOSHI, Fumihito OHASHI
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 297-304
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/12/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    Recently, hyperbaric oxygen therapy with a lower pressure and oxygen concentration (L-HBOT) than previous methods has been used for dogs in Japan; however, the influences of L-HBOT on dogs have not been clarified. To verify the influences of L-HBOT on physiological mechanism in dogs, we investigated blood gas parameters, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, heart rate variability, stress-related hormones and skin conductance (SC) in 4 clinically normal beagle dogs with catheters in their carotid arteries and jugular veins when they were quiet, after running, after receiving L-HBOT (30% oxygen concentration, 1.3 atmospheres absolute, 30 min) or after not receiving L-HBOT. The results showed there were no changes in blood gas parameters, heart rate variability and catecholamine levels after L-HBOT. GPx activity was significantly higher, and the SC and cortisol level were lower in dogs that received L-HBOT than those when they were quiet. These results suggested that L-HBOT may have a small influence on oxygenation dynamics, activate antioxidant enzymes such as GPx, restrain autonomic nervous activity and control the balance between oxidation and antioxidation inside the body.
Surgery
  • Ya-Pei CHANG, Hsuan-Ping HONG, Yen-Hua LEE, I-Hsuan LIU
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 273-280
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great potential in cell therapy and have attracted increasing interests in a wide range of biomedical sciences. However, the scarcity of MSCs and the prolonged isolation procedure limited the clinical application. To address these 2 issues, we developed a method to isolate MSCs from bone biopsy tissues of euthanized canine body donors. Compared to the traditional method to isolate MSCs from aspirated bone marrow (BMSCs), the isolation procedure for MSCs from harvested epiphyseal cancellous bone (EMSCs) was less time-consuming. The isolated EMSCs had similar plastic-adherence, tri-lineage differentiation and consistent surface marker profiles compared to BMSCs. We harvested BMSCs and EMSCs from 24 euthanized cases from clinics and 42 euthanized donors from a local shelter. The successful rate for EMSC isolation is significantly higher compared to BMSC isolation, while the other properties of the isolated MSCs including the clonogenicity, proliferative potentials and molecular phenotypes were not discernibly different between the MSCs established by the two methods. In conclusion, we demonstrated a new procedure to harvest MSCs by bone biopsy at the epiphyseal region. This method is less time consuming and more reliable, and the resulting MSCs are comparable to those harvested by bone marrow aspiration. The combination of the two methods can greatly improve the efficiency to harvest MSCs.
  • Mohammed Ahmed UMAR, Sho FUKUI, Kodai KAWASE, Takaharu ITAMI, Kazuto Y ...
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 281-288
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/11/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Cardiovascular effects of total intravenous anesthesia using ketamine-medetomidine-propofol drug combination (KMP-TIVA) were determined in 5 Thoroughbred horses undergoing surgery. The horses were anesthetized with intravenous administration (IV) of ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.04 mg/kg) following premedication with medetomidne (5 µg/kg, IV) and artificially ventilated. Surgical anesthesia was maintained by controlling propofol infusion rate (initially 0.20 mg/kg/min following an IV loading dose of 0.5 mg/kg) and constant rate infusions of ketamine (1 mg/kg/hr) and medetomidine (1.25 µg/kg/hr). The horses were anesthetized for 175 ± 14 min (range from 160 to 197 min). Propofol infusion rates ranged from 0.13 to 0.17 mg/kg/min, and plasma concentration (Cpl) of propofol ranged from 11.4 to 13.3 µg/ml during surgery. Cardiovascular measurements during surgery remained within clinically acceptable ranges in the horses (heart rate: 33 to 37 beats/min, mean arterial blood pressure: 111 to 119 mmHg, cardiac index: 48 to 53 ml/kg/min, stroke volume: 650 to 800 ml/beat and systemic vascular resistance: 311 to 398 dynes/sec/cm5). The propofol Cpl declined rapidly after the cessation of propofol infusion and was significantly lower at 10 min (4.5 ± 1.5 µg/ml), extubation (4.0 ± 1.2 µg/ml) and standing (2.4 ± 0.9 µg/ml) compared with the Cpl at the end of propofol administration (11.4 ± 2.7 µg/ml). All the horses recovered uneventfully and stood at 74 ± 28 min after the cessation of anesthesia. KMP-TIVA provided satisfactory quality and control of anesthesia with minimum cardiovascular depression in horses undergoing surgery.
  • Jun TAMURA, Tomohito ISHIZUKA, Sho FUKUI, Norihiko OYAMA, Kodai KAWASE ...
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 289-296
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/11/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    The pharmacological effects of the anesthetic alfaxalone were evaluated after intramuscular (IM) administration to 6 healthy beagle dogs. The dogs received three IM doses each of alfaxalone at increasing dose rates of 5 mg/kg (IM5), 7.5 mg/kg (IM7.5) and 10 mg/kg (IM10) every other day. Anesthetic effect was subjectively evaluated by using an ordinal scoring system to determine the degree of neuro-depression and the quality of anesthetic induction and recovery from anesthesia. Cardiorespiratory variables were measured using noninvasive methods. Alfaxalone administered IM produced dose-dependent neuro-depression and lateral recumbency (i.e., 36 ± 28 min, 87 ± 26 min and 115 ± 29 min after the IM5, IM7.5 and IM10 treatments, respectively). The endotracheal tube was tolerated in all dogs for 46 ± 20 and 58 ± 21 min after the IM7.5 and IM10 treatments, respectively. It was not possible to place endotracheal tubes in 5 of the 6 dogs after the IM5 treatment. Most cardiorespiratory variables remained within clinically acceptable ranges, but hypoxemia was observed by pulse oximetry for 5 to 10 min in 2 dogs receiving the IM10 treatment. Dose-dependent decreases in rectal temperature, respiratory rate and arterial blood pressure also occurred. The quality of recovery was considered satisfactory in all dogs receiving each treatment; all the dog exhibited transient muscular tremors and staggering gait. In conclusion, IM alfaxalone produced a dose-dependent anesthetic effect with relatively mild cardiorespiratory depression in dogs. However, hypoxemia may occur at higher IM doses of alfaxalone.
  • Takuma AOKI, Hiroshi SUNAHARA, Keisuke SUGIMOTO, Tetsuro ITO, Eiichi K ...
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 331-336
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    Infective endocarditis (IE) in dogs with cardiac shunts has not been reported previously. However, we encountered a dog with concurrent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and IE. The dog was a 1-year-old, 13.9-kg female Border collie and presented with anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia (40.4°C) and lameness. A continuous murmur with maximal intensity over the left heart base (Levine 5/6) was detected on auscultation. Echocardiography revealed a PDA and severe aortic stenosis (AS) caused by aortic-valve vegetative lesions. Corynebacterium spp. and Bacillus subtilis were isolated from blood cultures. The dog responded to aggressive antibiotic therapy, and the PDA was subsequently surgically corrected. After a series of treatments, the dog showed long-term improvement in clinical status.
  • Yusuke IZUMI, Yuki HOSHINO, Kenji HOSOYA, Satoshi TAKAGI, Masahiro OKU ...
    2015 年 77 巻 3 号 p. 359-363
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/12/05
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present study involved the isolation and characterization of canine tumor endothelial cells (TECs) from 2 malignancies. TECs were isolated using magnetic cell sorting following FITC labeling with UEA1 lectin, and they were characterized by measuring genetic and histopathological endothelial markers. Isolated TECs exhibited a cobblestone-like morphology and expressed both vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and Von Willebrand factor (vWF). Further, both TECs and tumor cells derived from a seminoma exhibited increased C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR7) expression. However, CXCR7 expression was not detected in TECs and tumor cells derived from a hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding TEC specific traits may be important in the development of more efficacious anti-angiogenic therapies that do not induce adverse effects.
Virology
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