The localization of bovine carbonic anhydrase isozyme VI (CA-VI) was examined immunohistochemically in bovine mammary glands during early lactation period (after 2-3 days of postpartum) and dry period (at about 2 months preparturition in adults), and young calves (at 30 and 150 days after birth) using specific CA-VI antiserum. The immunoreaction for anti-CA-VI antiserum was very weak in the mammary glands in young (prepubescent) calves. In dry period, CA-VI was also weakly expressed in secretory epithelial (acinar) and ductal cells. In contrast, the reaction was intense in mammary gland cells in early lactation period. Dot blotting analysis indicated that anti-CA-VI reacted positively to beastings and mature saliva, but weakly or not at all to milk during the dry period or calf saliva, respectively. The intense expression of CA-VI in the mammary glands in early lactation period might compensate for low levels of secretion from functionally and structurally immature salivary glands in young calves.
Skulls of the red-cheeked squirrel (Dremomys rufigenis) from various geographical locations: Malaysia (peninsular area), Vietnam (south district)-Laos, and Thailand (north district) were osteometrically examined. The skull size of the squirrels in the southern (Malaysia) population was fundamentally larger than that in the northern (Vietnam, Laos and Thailand) populations. The proportion indices indicated that the splanchnocranium was relatively longer in the Malaysia population, and that the interorbital space was narrower in Vietnam-Laos, and Thailand populations. We suggest that the long nose and laterally-oriented orbits in the skull may be better adapted for terrestrial-insectivorous life in the Malaysia population and the binocular sense facilitated by rostrally-oriented eyes contributes to the arboreal-fruit eating behavior in the two northern populations. The Malaysia population was clearly distinguished from the other populations by the principal component analysis. We suggest that the geographical barrier of the Isthmus of Kra influences the morphological variation of the skull among the squirrel populations.
Leptin is a protein synthesized and secreted primarily by adipose tissue. The blood leptin concentration is known to reflect body fat content in rodents, humans and dogs, and thereby is useful for quantitative assessment of obesity. In the present study, we produced recombinant feline leptin in Escherichia coli transfected with feline leptin cDNA we cloned previously. The recombinant feline leptin with a molecular weight of 16 kDa induced phosphorylation of the signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein in the cells expressing rat leptin receptor. The anti-feline leptin antibody raised in rabbits reacted well to feline and human leptin and less to rodents' leptin in Western blot analysis. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed, using rabbit anti-feline leptin antibody and recombinant feline leptin as a standard. In this ELISA system, cross-reactivity to human, rat and mouse leptin was 30.7%, 69.5% and 66.6%, respectively. The plasma leptin levels of 24 healthy cats were in a range from 0.3 to 29.7 ng/ml with the mean ± SEM of 4.5 ± 1.3 ng/ml, being positively proportional to body fat content. These results indicate that our ELISA system may be useful for assessment of obesity in cats.
Concentrations of plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and free fatty acid (FFA) and activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme pattern in plasma and leukocytes were investigated in lactating Holstein cows (dairy cattle) and fattening Japanese Black Wagyu x Holstein steers (beef cattle). IRI concentrations and LDH and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activities in the plasma of beef cattle were significantly higher than those in dairy cattle. The cytosolic ratio of MDH/LDH activity in the leukocytes of beef cattle was significantly higher than that of dairy cattle. These findings might be associated with the different energy metabolism between dairy and beef cattle.
Total 78 semen samples were obtained from 27 Thoroughbred stallions (aged 6 to 27 years), and were subjected to quantification of lactoferrin (Lf) in seminal plasma and examination of the seminal properties. The seminal plasma Lf concentration varied from 21 to 689 μg/ml, with a mean value of 244 ± 151 μg/ml (S.D.). The seminal plasma Lf concentration and total seminal plasma Lf positively correlated with the sperm concentration (r=0.5938, P<0.001) and with the total sperm number (r=0.6959, P<0.001), respectively. There was no correlation between seminal plasma Lf and sperm motility. These results suggest that seminal plasma Lf reflects gonadal function.
The electrophoresis pattern of apoptotic cells detected by the comet assay has a characteristic small head and spread tail. This image has been referred to as an apoptotic comet, but it has not been previously proven to be apoptotic cells by any direct method. In order to identify this image obtained by the comet assay as corresponding to an apoptotic cell, the frequency of appearance of apoptosis was examined using CHO-K1 and L5178Y cells which were exposed to gamma irradiation. As a method for detecting apoptosis, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used. When the frequency of appearance of apoptotic cells following gamma irradiation was observed over a period of time, there was a significant increase in appearance of apoptosis when using the TUNEL assay. However, there was only a slight increase when using the comet assay. In order to verify the low frequency of appearance of apoptosis when using the comet assay, we attempted to use the TUNEL assay to stain the apoptotic comets detected in the comet assay. The apoptotic comets were TUNEL positive and the normal comets were TUNEL negative. This indicates that the apoptotic comets were formed from DNA fragments with 3'-hydroxy ends that are generated as cells undergo apoptosis. Therefore, it was understood that the characteristic pattern of apoptotic comets detected by the comet assay corresponds to cells undergoing apoptosis.
A DNA vaccination trial was performed on sheep to determine whether vaccination with bovine leukemia virus (BLV) transactivator Tax DNA is effective against BLV infection. Immunization was carried out with cationic liposomes containing the Tax-expressing plasmid DNA and subsequently all sheep were challenged with BLV. BLV titers in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) determined by syncytium formation assay and BLV provirus load detected by genomic PCR analysis showed higher levels of virus titers in control sheep than those in Tax-vaccinated sheep. Higher levels of IFN-γ mRNA expression have been demonstrated in vaccinated sheep after the challenge. These results suggested that Th1 type immune response induced by Tax DNA vaccine inhibited BLV propagation in vaccinated sheep at the early phase of infection.
Djungarian (Phodopus sungorus) and Chinese (Cricetulus griseus) hamster IFN-γ genes were cloned and sequenced. The Djungarian and Chinese hamster genes were both 525bp nucleotides, resulting in 174 amino acids in full length with a predicted molecular weight (MW) of 19,560 dal and 19,775 dal, respectively. The first 23 amino terminal amino acids consisted of a hydrophobic signal sequence when cleavaged, which would result in a mature 151 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted MW of 17,115 dal in the Djungarian hamster IFN-γ and 17,255 dal in the Chinese hamster one.
A seven-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and suspected mitral stenosis (MS) based on electrocardiography, thoracic radiographs and echocardiographic findings. Post-mortem examination of the heart revealed morphological features consistent with HCM. In addition, there was marked fibrous deposition on the surfaces of the chordae tendineae extending to both mitral valve leaflets, which caused total chordal fusion into pillars of fibrous tissue and fusion of the commissures. The present case indicates that acquired MS can occur in association with HCM in the cat.
The therapeutic efficacy of imidocarb, artesunate, arteether, buparvaquone and arteether+buparvaquone combination was evaluated against Babesia equi of Indian origin in splenectomised donkeys with experimentally induced acute infection. Efficacies of these drugs were tested by administering each drug or drug combination to groups of donkeys (having three donkeys each group). One group of donkey was kept as untreated control for comparing the results. Parasitaemia, haematology (WBC, RBC, PCV, granulocytes and haemoglobin), biochemical parameters (SAST, SALT, alkaline phosphatase, albumin/globulin ratio) were monitored at regular intervals. Individually, arteether and buparvaquone were found to have no parasite clearing efficacy and the treated animals died within 5-6 days after showing high parasitaemia and clinical symptoms of the disease. However, artesunate treated animals were able to restrict the parasite multiplication but only during the treatment period. Animals treated with imidocarb and arteether+buparvaquone combination were able to clear the parasite from the blood circulation after 2-5 days post-treatment (PT). After 55-58 days PT, recrudescence of B. equi parasite was observed in both these groups and a mean survival period of 66 days and 69 days, respectively, was recorded in these groups. Results of haemato-biochemical parameters had shown that imidocarb had deleterious effect on the liver function while on the other hand arteether+buparvaquone combination was found to be safe. This limited study indicates that arteether+buparvaquone combination could be a better choice than imidocarb for treating B. equi infection, but further trials are required in detail.
Our previous study showed that the IgA monoclonal antibody (mAb) HUSM-Tb1 forms immunoprecipitates on the cuticular surface of infective larvae of Trichinella britovi, and that intraperitoneal injection of this mAb to mice 5 hr before challenge infection confers a high level of protection against intestinal T. britovi. The same treatment produced a similar effect in BALB/c mice inoculated orally with Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae, indicating that the effects may be seen upon most members of the genus Trichinella. Worms recovered from the intestinal mucosa at 1 hr after challenge infection with T. pseudospiralis was few in mice passively immunized with the mAb, whereas a substantial number of worms were recovered from the mucosa of control groups. These results suggest that the IgA mAb impedes establishment of infective Trichinella worms in the intestinal mucosa. Trichinella worms inoculated orally into BALB/c mice vaccinated with ultraviolet-irradiated muscle larvae 3 weeks earlier were expelled between days 4 and 7 after challenge infection. Although the mAb HUSM-Tb1 originated from the mesenteric lymph node cells of mice vaccinated repeatedly with such irradiated larvae, IgA-mediated expulsion does not seem to play an important role in this vaccination model.
To investigate the effect of antipyretics on the murine and poultry models of influenzal encephalitis, we injected large quantities of antipyretics, acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and dicrofenac sodium (voltaren). The effect of antipyretic treatment on the murine encephalitis model was unremarkable histologically and immunohistochemically. Whereas in chicks, CNS lesions consisting of perivascular cuffing and gliosis appeared only in those animals treated with the antipyretics and viral antigen was detected mainly in the nuclei of glial cells or vascular endothelia of voltaren-treated animals. We here demonstrate that antipyretic treatment aggravated the hematogenous spread of the influenza virus to the CNS in chicks, but did not affect the transneural infection in mice.
Degenerative lesions were induced in the knee joint of Wistar rats by intraarticular injection of chondrocyte metabolism inhibitor mono-iodoacetate (MIA) at doses of 0, 0.3 or 3 mg/joint. Histopathological examination and the measurement of hind paw weight ratio as an index of joint pain by incapacitance tester were performed. Histological findings that are similar to those observed in human osteoarthritis (OA), such as disorganization of chondrocytes, erosion and fibrillation of cartilage surface, and subchondral bone exposure etc., were observed in a MIA-dose-dependent manner. Saflanin-O fast green staining revealed that marked diffuse reduction of proteoglycan in cartilage tissue of rats treated with MIA. The clinical scores of the joint pain were closely correlated to the grade of histological findings. We conclude that the present experimental model in combination with a novel dual channel weight averager would be very useful for the study of human OA, and could be applied for estimation of therapeutic effect of new anti-OA drugs.
Canine necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) and granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis (GME) were compared pathologically. Gross observation exhibited lateral ventricular dilation and discoloration, malacia and/or cavitation of the cerebrum in NME. On the contrary, gross changes were milder in GME, except for occasional visible granulomatous mass formation. Histopathologically, the lesions of NME were distributed predominantly in the cerebral cortex and various degrees of inflammatory and necrotic changes were observed according to clinical stages. Besides, microscopic lesions of GME were mainly distributed in the white matter of the cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem, which are characterized by perivascular cuffing, multiple granulomas and leptomeningeal infiltrates. Although macrophages and lymphocytes were predominant in the inflammatory lesions of both disorders, macrophages in GME transformed into epithelioid cells and exhibited more massive infiltration. Although lectin RCA-1-reactive cells were numerous in both disorders, lysozyme immunoreactive cells in NME were fewer than that in GME. Parenchymal infiltration of MAC387-positive cells was common in GME and limited in NME. The number of CD3-positive lymphocytes in the GME lesions tended to be greater than in NME, though the difference was not statistically significant. Morphological and immunohistochemical differences of the lesions, in particular, the characteristics of infiltrative macrophages may reflect these different pathogeneses of the two disorders.
Acute hemorrhagic myonecrosis accompanied by severe inter- and intrafascicular edema and hemorrhage of the right gluteal area was diagnosed in a 13-year-old male thoroughbred horse. Once the muscular and fascicular changes were subsided, the horse then developed acute respiratory problem. Histologically, the lung had diffuse severe hemorrhage with mild neutrophilic infiltration. The cause of death was acute respiratory failure that is believed to occur secondary to toxaemic event. Alpha and β2 toxin secreting Clostiridum perfringens type A was isolated from the muscle and lung. The diagnosis was based on the light microscopic examination, bacterial toxinotyping and toxin genotyping from the muscular and pulmonary lesion. Also, susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobial agents was determined.
Multiple necrotic hepatitis lesions of 5 newly hatched broiler chicks in three flocks derived from two hatcheries were examined pathologically. The livers were brittle, and multiple yellowish or green foci were scattered on the surface and cut surface. The main histological finding was well demarcated multi-focal necrosis in the liver. Many Gram-positive large bacilli that reacted positively with polyclonal anti-Clostridium perfringens serum were observed in necrotic areas.
The contribution of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway to the relaxation induced by tamoxifen, a synthetic non-steroidal anti-estrogen, was examined in rat vascular smooth muscle. Tamoxifen (0.1-300 μM) inhibited the contraction induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1, 3 nM) in aortic smooth muscle in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of tamoxifen was not attenuated by 10 μM ICI 182,780, a selective antagonist of estrogen receptors. In the Ca2+ channel inhibitor verapamil (1 μM)-pretreated strips, tamoxifen also inhibited the contraction induced by ET-1. Both PD098059 and SB203580, inhibitors of MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase and p38 MAPK, respectively, inhibited ET-1-induced contraction in aortic smooth muscle. In Western blot analysis with anti-phosphorylated MAPK antibodies, ET-1 (3 nM) enhanced activities of both ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in aortic muscle strips, which were not attenuated by the treatment with 4 mM EGTA. Tamoxifen (100 μM) inhibited the activities of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK induced by ET-1 without significant changes in the expression of these kinases. These results suggest that tamoxifen induces relaxation of rat vascular smooth muscle, and that this is, at least in part, mediated by the inhibition of the Ca2+-independent MAPK pathway.
Puumala (PUU) virus and PUU-related viruses are difficult to isolate in cell culture. To determine whether animal inoculation would be a better alternative for virus recovery, the Sotkamo strain of PUU virus was inoculated into several animal species. Newborn Mongolian gerbils (MGs), mice, and rats were infected with the Sotkamo strain by intracerebral (ic), intraperitoneal (ip), and subcutaneous (sc) inoculation. Antibodies to PUU appeared in MGs at 30 days post-infection (dpi), and in mice and rats at 15 dpi. Interestingly, virus appeared at 7 dpi in lung and brain of MGs inoculated via ic and ip routes. Virus was detected in all tested tissues of MGs at 15 dpi, with a peak level of 1.36 × 10 5 focus forming units (FFU)/g in brain tissue. The virus titer declined with the onset of the antibody response and became undetectable by 75 dpi, when the antibody titer reached the maximum level. The appearance of the virus in mice and rats was delayed as compared to MGs, and the virus titer was apparently lower, at approximately 4 to 8 × 103 FFU/g, at 15 dpi. In addition, lung homogenates of antibody-positive Clethrionomys (C.) rufocanus (captured in Tobetsu, Hokkaido, Japan) were inoculated into MGs by the ic route. PUU-related viral RNA was detected at 16 dpi in the brains of MG inoculated with the lung homogenate, and antibodies were detected at 45 dpi. These findings indicate that newborn MG inoculation is an efficient method to recover PUU and PUU-related viruses.
A Miniature Dachshund, 3-month-old, 3.1 kg, was diagnosed as an intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (PSS) with the shunting vessel in 6-mm diameter. Percutaneous transvenous coil embolization (PTCE) was performed with a stainless steel coil in 8-mm diameter. Intraoperative portal pressure elevated about 2.5 times after one-stage coil occlusion. Two weeks after the PTCE, serum bile acid levels reduced within the normal range. The portogram showed complete occlusion of the shunting vessel 4 months after the PTCE. Approximately 3 years after the PTCE, the patient has shown no clinical signs. PTCE could be performed more easily and less invasively in a small-breed dog. It is therefore suggested that PTCE is a promising therapeutic technique in canine intrahepatic PSS.
Prolapse of vagina is one of the important maternal abnormalities during pregnancy in cattle and buffaloes. A field investigation was carried out on 26 Murrah graded buffaloes to study clinical characteristics of vaginal prolapse in buffaloes in Nepal. Fifty-seven percent of the 26 buffaloes with vaginal prolapse were either heifers or in first lactation. Sixty-five percent of the cases were in seventh month of pregnancy or later. About three quarters of the cases occurred between June and October. Twelve cases (63%) of the 19 animals excluding 7 heifers had a history of vaginal prolapse in previous gestations. A half of the buffaloes were showing prolapse of the vagina even when they were in standing position and showing moderate or vigorous straining. After the conventional treatments, twenty-three buffaloes retained the replaced vagina and calved normally. One animal aborted although the vagina was retained. Two buffaloes had severest degree of vaginal prolapse complicated with edema, injury and cyanosis, and they did not respond to the treatment. The two buffaloes had frequently recurrent prolapse and subsequently died. Early detection and prompt treatment may be imperative to control the vaginal prolapse in buffaloes.
Endothelin-2 (ET2) is a member of the endothelin family of 21-amino acid peptides with vasoconstrictive activity. We report here the molecular cloning of the canine full-length cDNA of the precursor form of ET2, prepro-ET2 (PPET2), from intestinal tissue by means of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in conjunction with 5'- and 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Aside from the poly (A) tail the cDNA was found to be 1195 bp and included an open reading frame of 534 bp encoding a PPET2 polypeptide of 178 residues, in which the regions corresponding to bioactive mature ET2 peptide, an intermediate form big-ET2, and endothelin-like peptide are found. The organ distributions of PPET2 mRNA and a splicing variant were analyzed by RT-PCR. PPET2 transcript was detected in duodenum, colon, stomach, lung, liver, uterus, ovary, testis and kidney, but not in spleen. A splicing variant was found in none of the organs. Thus, based on the cloned cDNA sequence, we established a quantitative assay for dog PPET2 mRNA level using a real-time PCR system. Quantitative analysis by this method in various organs of the dog demonstrated that the dominant gene expression occurs in the intestine, with higher expression in large intestine than in small intestine.
Phylogenetic tree and partial nucleotide sequence analysis of RNA segment 3 were conducted to compare the Ibaraki virus (IBAV) strains from three epidemics in Japan, and serotype 2 epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus strains isolated in Australia, Taiwan, and Canada. Each strain was classified relative to the Ibaraki disease (IBAD) epidemics, which occurred in 1959-1960, 1987, or 1997-1998. In particular, major variation of the gene was identified in the strains isolated after 1997 when a new type of IBAD with the abnormal birth was confirmed. Ibaraki viruses isolated in Japan were more closely related to Taiwanese and Australian strains based on genetics, while the Canadian strain was more distantly related.