This study was conducted to reveal the morphological characteristics of the lung and air sacs in Coturnix coturnix japonica (Japanese quails). Ten quails were allocated into two groups. Tracheas of 5 quails with neoprene latex and 5 quails with methylmetacrylate were injected to fill the trachea and air sacs. Latex embalmed animals were stored in 10% formaldehyde solution for two months. Animals given methylmetacrylate were maserated in 30% potassium hydroxide at 40°C for two days. Lungs were located in the dorsal part of the thorax and very close to the thoracic vertebrae and ribs. Shorter than the dorsal border, the ventral border lied between the 3rd and 6th ribs. Cervical, clavicular, cranial thoracic, caudal thoracic and abdominal sacs were identified. These sacs had connection with the 3rd, 4th and 5th lateroventral and 4th mediolateral bronchi. Saccus cervicalis was located on the left and right portions of the vertebrae cervicales et thoraricae with a pronounced communication ventromedially. However, the cervical sac aeration of only all cervical vertebrae was present in this study. Humerus was a non-aerated bone. Pneumatic foramen was absent and did not aerate the sternum. Cranial thoracic sac connected to the 1st, 2nd and 4th medioventral bronchi and gave no diverticulum for aeration. Cranial thoracic sac received air through the 4th medioventral and the 1st and 2nd lateroventral bronchi. Left and right abdominal air sacs paramedially produced diverticulum femorale, but this diverticulum did not enter the femur.
Xenogenic bone grafts have been widely researched because they are not limited in terms of volume and size like autogenous and allogenic grafts, and the favored bone for xenografts is bovine bone. However, the efficacy of cortical bone from bovine limb for xenografts is not clearly known. In this study, the distribution of cortical bone in bovine humerus, radius, femur, and tibia were investigated. Each experimental bone was split longitudinally with a bone saw and bone marrow and cancellous bone were removed. The thicknesses of cortical layers in sample diaphyses were measured at 1cm intervals using a micrometer. The mean lengths of cortical portions were; humerus 14.7 ± 2.3 cm, radius 19.0 ± 2.6 cm, femur 19.0 ± 3.2 cm, and tibia 23.0 ± 3.1 cm. Thickest cortical bone was found at the distal caudal metaphysis of the humerus, the proximal caudal metaphysis of the radius, the craniolateral and caudomedial midshaft of the femur and the lateral and medial midshaft of tibia. The mean surface areas of cortical bone were humerus 187.4 ± 15.44 cm2, radius 229.2 ± 43.31 cm2, femur 295.8 ± 8.93 cm2, and tibia 290.0 ± 30.44 cm2. And, mean volumes of cortical bone were humerus 149.42 ± 15.35 cm3, radius 166.26 ± 20.02 cm3, in femur 220.45 ± 22.73 cm3, and tibia 214.89 ± 20.05 cm3. The results of this study can be used to produce cortical bone-based plates and screws.
The taste buds of bovine fungiform papillae were studied by light and electron microscopy using both histological and immunohistochemical methods. The taste buds existed in the epithelium of the apical region of the papillae. By electron microscopy, two types of taste cells, namely type I and type II cells, could be classified according to the presence of dense-cored vesicles, the cytoplasmic density and the cell shape. Type I cells were thin, had an electron-dense cytoplasm containing dense-cored vesicles, and possessed long thick apical processes in the taste pore. Type II cells were thick, had an electron-lucent cytoplasm containing many electron-lucent vesicles, rather than dense-cored vesicles, and possessed microvilli in the taste pore. Immunohistochemical staining with an antiserum against gustducin was investigated by both light and electron microscopy using the avidin-biotin complex (ABC) method. Some, but not all, of the type II cells exhibited gustducin immunoreactivity, whereas none of the type I cells showed any immunoreactivity.
Carbonic anhydrase (CA) family is discovered in various species including mammals, avians and even plants, but it is rarely reported in fishes. Ten Pond Loaches were used in this study. The results indicated that no evidence of distribution of CA in esophagus. Nonetheless CA was found in the mucosal epithelium of stomach and in the villous epithelium of intestine demonstrated histochemically by the numerous black sedimentation of cobaltous sulfide (CoS) in these areas. In addition, black sedimentations of CoS were also found in all the vascular endothelium examined and red blood cells of digestive tract. The distribution of CA in Pond loach was more closely resemble amphibians than to other species, suggesting evolutional adaptation for Pond loach in aquatic environments.
The complementary DNAs of the Th1 (IL-2, IL-12p35, and IFN-γ) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) cytokine genes of the bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) were cloned, sequenced, and analyzed. IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p35, IL-13, and IFN-γ were found to have 465, 402, 537, 669, 411, and 501 bp length open reading frames with 154, 133, 178, 222, 136, and 166 amino acid encodings, respectively. The homology ranged from 58.8% to 100% between the nucleotide sequences of the camel cytokine genes and the published sequences of other mammalian genes, including the llama, pig, cow, horse, human, and mouse. The cDNA had highest homology with orders Artiodactyla (pigs and cattle) and Perissodactyla (horses), especially to the recently cloned llama sequences.
Prognostic factors associated with survival in dogs with lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis (LPE) were investigated through a retrospective study. Using case records, 48 dogs diagnosed with LPE were classified as survivors (n=32) or non-survivors (n=16), and the clinical and clinicopathological parameters were reviewed between the 2 groups by using univariate and multivariate prognostic analysis. Compared to the hospital population, non-survivors had an overrepresentation of the Shiba breed. Results of univariate analysis indicated that anorexia, severe weight loss, packed cell volume, and total protein were significantly associated with survival for 6 months after diagnosis. In multivariate analysis, anorexia and hypoproteinemia were significantly associated with survival. Furthermore, initial response to treatment was strongly associated with poor prognosis. Based on these clinical and laboratory parameters such as anorexia, hypoproteinemia and initial response to treatment, it may be possible to predict poor prognosis in canine LPE.
The purpose of this study was to clarify whether weight change rate (WCR) is useful in evaluating herd health. Five herds (A, B, C, D, and E) were examined monthly for approximately 1 year to measure both WCR and BCS. WCR was calculated using the following equation: WCR (%) = (body weight of current month-body weight of the preceding month)/body weight of current month × 100. In addition, blood profiles were performed in each herd before and after calving. The incidence of periparturient diseases was higher in Herds A, B, and C compared with Herds D and E. Reproductive performance in Herds A and B was rather poor compared with Herds C, D, and E. There were significantly lower WCRs in Herd A compared with Herd C during the period of day -30 to day 30 after calving. According to the blood profiles, high levels of non-essential fatty acids (NEFA) were observed during the period of day -30 to -1 and high β-hidroxybutyricacid (BHB) and low levels of glucose were observed at day 30 after calving in Herd A. A marked poor condition in Herd A during the peripaturient period was clearly expressed by low WCR in this experiment. WCR can express body condition of herds and is suggested to be a useful parameter in the determination of herd performance in field experiments.
The effect of vasopressin was compared with that of the established vasopressor epinephrine in experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock. After rapid crystalloid resuscitation in a ratio of three volumes of 0.9% saline to one volume of blood (3:1 crystalloid resuscitation), six dogs were given 0.4 IU/kg vasopressin and another six dogs were given 0.1 mg/kg epinephrine. Five dogs in the control group were given fluid resuscitation in the same manner as above without administration of any drugs. Administration of vasopressin increased diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) from 45.0 ± 4.9 to 91.2 ± 9.6 mmHg within 5 min, compared with epinephrine from 46 ± 4.0 to 51.8 ± 7.7, and control from 47.3 ± 7.5 to 46.3 ± 7.3. Systolic arterial pressure (SAP) did not increase significantly following vasopressin compared with epinephrine and control group. Results of DAP and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) suggested that vasopressin administration was vasoconstrictive after fluid resuscitation in decompensatory hemorrhagic shock in dogs, whereas epinephrine did not compared with control. In addition, epinephrine did not affect the cardiac index (CI) and SVRI, while a significant decrease in CI and increase in SVRI were observed in vasopressin group. The pressor effect of epinephrine in the vascular system was abrupt and only lasted a short period of time (within 5 min), while that of vasopressin was steady and lasted for more than 1 hr, especially regard to in DAP. When compared with epinephrine, vasopressin can be a more effective and safer choice in patients with severe hemorrhagic shock.
For evaluation of physiologically significant organic anions in the colonic environment, 87 samples of normal feces were collected from the rectum of 15 calves less than 60 days old. The calves were fed milk replacer with free access to starter diet and hay. After fecal extraction with water, pH, D- and L-lactate, succinate, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations were determined. There was wide variation in fecal pH (4.3 to 7.7). Higher lactate concentrations were observed in feces samples with lower pH, and most of these samples were collected during the first 4 weeks of life. Elevated lactate concentrations included both the D- and L-isomers, and the D-isomer comprised approximately 30-50% of total lactate. Elevated succinate concentrations were observed in only 8 fecal samples, while other samples had lower or trace amounts of succinate. Elevated fecal succinate showed no relationship with fecal pH or VFA concentrations. Fecal VFA concentrations were lower in samples collected in the early postnatal stage, but fecal VFA concentrations were not necessarily related to age. We confirmed that fecal D- and L-lactate concentrations increased with a concomitant decrease of VFA in the acidic lumen of the colon, although acidic feces were not necessarily accompanied by elevated concentrations of lactate. In contrast, succinate production was not related to fecal pH or VFA concentrations.
A female golden retriever was referred to assess a history of a palpable abdominal mass. A serum chemistry analysis revealed elevated concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, calcium, and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP). Exploratory laparotomy revealed an ovoid mass within the right ovary. This mass was removed surgically by performing an ovariohysterectomy. The right ovarian mass was diagnosed as a serous papillary adenocarcinoma. Following surgery, the dog recovered, and the serum calcium and PTH-rP concentrations decreased. Therefore, concentrations of PTH-rP and calcium might be associated with serous papillary adenocarcinomas. Serial evaluation of the serum PTH-rP and calcium was useful for evaluating the prognosis.
To quantify the radiographic parameters of the caudal vena cava (CVC) in healthy cattle and demonstrate their clinical usefulness, the present study compared the ratios of the diameter of the thoracic CVC to the diameter of the aorta (Ao) and length of the thoracic vertebrae (VL), which are all positioned in the same intercostal space, in 81 healthy control cattle (43 growing, 38 adult) and 10 cattle with heart disease. The average diameter of the CVC (CVCave) was correlated with the size of the Ao and VL in the control cows. Although the diameter and pulsation index of the CVC differed significantly between the growing and adult cows, the ratios of CVC/Ao and CVC/VL were fixed values for both the growing and mature cattle. However, in the cattle with heart disease, the pulsation index of the CVC was significantly lower or there was absence of pulsation due to a dilated CVC, and the ratio of CVCave/Ao and CVCave/VL were significantly higher than those in the healthy cattle.
Fecal samples were collected from 64 Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus) at 13 locations in the alpine zone of Japan and examined for internal parasites. We found 2 morphologically different types of eimerian oocysts. Based on morphological characteristics, one was identified as Eimeria uekii, which had already been found from Japanese rock ptarmigans in 1981, and the other was likely a new type of Eimeria. The new type of eimerian oocysts required a longer sporulation time than E. uekii. The prevalence of both eimerian oocysts in Japanese rock ptarmigans was 62.5%, while that of E. uekii was 60.9% and the new type 29.7%. Mixed infection of both types was found in 28.1%.
A 19.5-year-old male mongrel dog developed a progressive lameness and swelling around the right carpus. A tumor (6 × 3 × 3 cm) was found in the caudal of distal antebrachium of the right forelimb, including tendons of the superficial digital flexor muscle and deep digital flexor muscle. No joint destruction was observed. The tumor consisted of round and spindle cells arranged in a compact sheet. There were occasional slit-like spaces or lumina, and areas rich in collagen fibers giving an appearance of tendon tissues. Neoplastic cells gave a positive immunoreaction to vimentin, but negative reactions to antibodies against S-100 protein, cytokeratin and myoglobin. Based on these findings, this tumor was diagnosed as a synovial sarcoma generating from the tendon and tendon sheath, which is very uncommon in dogs.
We investigated the effect of dexamethasone (DEX) at clinical doses on the pharmacokinetics of quinidine (QN) in dogs. Dogs (5 healthy 1-year-old male beagles) were orally administered DEX once daily for 5 days at 2.5 or 7.5 mg/day. QN (2 mg/kg) was intravenously injected 3 weeks before and one day after the DEX treatment. The plasma concentration of QN was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection. Plasma concentrations of albumin and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were determined by a bromocresol green method and a single immunodiffusion method, respectively. In order to calculate unbound concentrations of QN in plasma, the binding kinetics of QN in plasma was examined by an ultrafiltration method using pooled plasma from the 5 dogs when they were drug-free. Total body clearance of QN was decreased dose-dependently By the DEX treatment, although the decrease was not statistically significant. Elimination half-lives significantly increased (more than twice at 7.5 mg), and intrinsic clearance significantly decreased (about 50%). The volume of distribution increased significantly (about two-fold). Plasma levels of AGP significantly decreased, and the unbound fraction of QN in plasma significantly increased. Our results demonstrate that clinical doses of DEX significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of QN, a CYP3A substrate in dogs, by decreasing CYP3A activity and plasma AGP levels. There is a possibility that adverse drug-drug interaction occurs during DEX therapy through its effects on CYP3A activity and plasma AGP levels.
We have previously produced human growth hormone (hGH) transgenic (TG) rats that show low circulating levels of both hGH and endogenous rat GH. Although body length of the TG rats is normal, they develop hyperphagia and severe obesity. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the causes of hyperphagia in the TG rats by focusing on temporal changes in plasma ghrelin levels and hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) contents. In both wild-type (WT) and TG rats, the highest value of plasma ghrelin levels was observed just before the dark phase, and thereafter plasma ghrelin levels were maintained higher in the TG than WT rats. Although NPY contents also showed the peak level just before the dark phase in both the arcuate (ARC) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) of the hypothalamus, the values in the ARC, but not the PVN, of the TG rats was always lower than those of the WT rats, suggesting increased transport of NPY from the ARC to PVN in the TG rats. In addition, treatment with antagonists for Y1 and Y5 receptors for NPY reduced food intake much more effectively in the TG than WT rats. Intermittent treatment with recombinant hGH for a week significantly decreased food consumption, adipose tissue weight and plasma triglyceride concentrations in the TG rats. These results suggest that, in the TG rats, insufficiency in circulating GH stimulates the ghrelin-NPY system with a resultant increase in food intake.
The indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) revealed seropositivity to Coxiella burnetii in aged non-laying chickens in poultry farms in a prefecture in the central part of Japan. Seropositivity was 7%, and antibody titers ranged from 16 to 64. No DNA fragment specific for C. burnetii was detected in the chickens by nested-PCR. The prevalence of C. burnetii infection in a prefecture of Japan in which poultry farming prospers was 7%.
The purpose of this study is to investigate keratan sulfate (KS) concentration in the serum of puppies and the effects of age, body weight, breed and diseases. Serum samples from six neonatal dogs (4 Beagles, 2 Labrador Retrievers), and from 127 adult dogs with various diseases were collected at a Teaching Animal Hospital. Canine serum KS concentration was measured by inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples from puppies were evaluated for growth-related changes, and samples from patients were evaluated for age, body weight, breed and disease-related changes. Serum KS concentration was high in puppies from birth to 4 months of age. KS values started to decrease from 4 months to 9 months of age, and then gradually reached to the plateau. Though in the small sample, mean KS concentration in a Labrador Retriever was higher than in Beagles during the first 10 months. The values of serum KS showed body weight-related increase within retrievers among teaching hospital population and there was significant increase in body weight-related change. Cartilage metabolism is high in canine immature joint and that activity continues for 5 months, and that higher in Labrador Retrievers rather than in Beagles. There was no effect from other factors, including age, body weight, breed and disease in all patients. Serum KS concentration of Retrievers is higher than Beagles, and that value increased with gain of body weight. We suggest that Retriever have higher cartilage metabolism with growth or ageing.
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP)-like condition was diagnosed in a Japanese domestic cat with stiffness, marked atrophy of the muscles, and limited mobility of all joints in both the pelvic limbs. Etretinate, a retinoid, was used for medical management; however, no improvement in the clinical signs was observed. Inheritance of the disorder has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, the clinical signs and histopathological findings of feline FOP-like condition in the present case differed from those of the previously reported cases.
An intrauterine insemination technique using a fiberscope was investigated in the giant panda. A septal wall was present about 5 cm from the vulva, the external urethral orifice was present in the ventral region, and the entrance (pseudocervix) to the vagina was present in the dorsal region. The uterovaginal region protruded in the dorsal region about 15 cm from the pseudocervix. The external uterine orifice was present in the uterovaginal region, revealing that intrauterine insemination can be easily performed. This technique may greatly contribute to artificial reproduction of the giant panda.
We investigated the distribution of 3 types of steroidogenic enzymes, P450scc, 3βHSD, and P450c17, in wild raccoon dog ovaries by immunohistochemistry. Six pairs of ovaries were obtained from wild raccoon dogs between 2001 and 2003, with 3 of the 6 pairs of ovaries containing corpora lutea. P450scc, 3βHSD, and P450c17 were localized in the granulosa and theca cells of these raccoon dogs. Furthermore, lutein cells were stained positively for P450scc and 3βHSD in the pregnant and non-pregnant raccoon dogs. These results suggest that granulosa and theca cells may synthesize progesterone and androgens, which may play an important role in follicular development, and that lutein cells are a major source of progesterone in wild raccoon dogs.
We investigated the efficacy of the oral administration of oseltamivir phosphate (OP) in horses experimentally infected with equine influenza A virus (H3N8). Nine horses were divided into three horses each of control, treatment and prophylaxis groups. An administration protocol for the treatment group (2 mg/kg of body weight, twice a day for five days) was started immediately after the onset of pyrexia (above 38.9°C). An administration protocol for the prophylaxis group (2 mg/kg of body weight, once a day for five days) was started on a day before viral inoculation. In the treatment group, periods of virus excretion (mean days ± standard deviation, 2.3 ± 0.6) and pyrexia (2.0 ± 0.0) were apparently shorter than those of the control group (6.0 ± 0.0 and 8.0 ± 1.0, respectively). In the prophylaxis group, although virus excretion and pyrexia were not prevented, the periods of virus excretion (5.0 ± 0.0) and pyrexia (4.7 ± 1.5) were shorter than those of the control group. Moreover, in the treatment and prophylaxis groups, bacterial counts of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus known as the common pathogen of secondary bacterial pneumonia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids collected seven days after inoculation were significantly fewer than that of the control group. The results indicated that the oral administration of OP to horses affected with equine influenza would contribute to reduce the magnitude of virus excretion, pyrexia and consequent secondary bacterial pneumonia.