Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) produced in the developing testis induces the regression of the Müllerian duct, which develops into the oviducts, uterus and upper vagina. In our true hermaphrodite mouse with an ovary on one side and a testis on the other (O/T), the oviduct and uterus are present only on the ovary side, and nothing derived from the Müllerian duct is present on the testis side. Here, we investigate the mechanism underlying the unilateral Müllerian duct regression and the mode of AMH signaling, by performing immunohistology, Western blotting, and organ culture analyses. The histological analysis revealed that during the start of the Müllerian duct regression, the duct in the O/T mice was clearly regressed on the AMH-positive testis side compared to the AMH-negative ovary side. The immunohistochemistry showed a diffuse immunoreaction of AMH in the interstitium surrounding the testis cord and boundary region between the testis and mesonephros, especially in the cranial portion. Western blotting revealed that the amount of AMH in the cranial half of the mesonephros was larger than that in the caudal half. AMH injected into the gonads in organ culture induced the regression of the Müllerian duct via the interstitium of the organ. These results suggest that AMH acts on the Müllerian duct in male mice by exuding into the interstitium surrounding the testis cord and infiltrating through the cranial region from the testis to the mesonephros.
This study demonstrated the potential of using urea and urea fertilizer to neutralize formaldehyde (Fd) in chicken cadavers. Initially, in vitro Fd neutralization with various concentrations of urea solution (US) and urea fertilizer solution (UFS) was conducted; subsequently, 18% US and 27% UFS were selected for infusing into the formalinized chickens. The measurement at 48 hr after infusion showed that both solutions could effectively lower Fd in chicken cadavers to below a permissible exposure limit without affecting cadaveric and histological quality. In addition, neutralizing power of 18% US was approximately 1.3 times that of 27% UFS. This is the first demonstration of neutralizing potential of US and UFS against Fd both in vitro and in vivo.
An acidic agent, potassium monopersulfate (PMPS), was evaluated for bactericidal and virucidal effects against Salmonella Infantis (SI), Escherichia coli, rifampicin-resistant Salmonella Infantis (SI-rif), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and avian influenza virus (AIV), in the absence or presence of organic materials. In addition, inactivation activity toward a virus on virus-spiked clothes was also examined. PMPS could inactivate SI, E. coli, and SI-rif even in the presence of organic materials under various concentrations and exposure/contact time conditions. PMPS could also inactivate NDV and AIV. In addition, PMPS could inactivate AIV on a virus-spiked rayon sheet. In conclusion, the present study showed that PMPS has good antimicrobial properties against SI, E. coli, SI-rif, NDV, and AIV when used at the optimal dosage and exposure timing. These results suggest that PMPS could be used as an alternative disinfectant for biosecurity enhancement in animal farms or hospitals.
A quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) was evaluated for its virucidal efficacies with food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa(OH)2). When the QAC was diluted 1:500 (QACx500) with redistilled water (dW2), it inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) within 30 sec at 25°C, while at 2°C, it required 1 hr for inactivation. When FdCa(OH)2 powder was added to QACx500 at a final concentration of 0.17%, the mixture, namely Mix500, inactivated AIV within 3 min at 2°C. After contamination with 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS), Mix500 inactivated AIV within 2 hr at 2°C, but QACx500 did not. These results indicate synergistic effects of the QAC and FdCa(OH)2 solutions on virucidal activity.
In total, 985 livers were collected from 275 backyard waterfowl farms distributed in seven provinces of southern China. The virus that was most commonly isolated was avian influenza virus, with a 12.1% positivity rate. Of the other positive samples, 10.6% tested positive for avian Tembusu virus, 6.8% for duck hepatitis A virus, 3.8% for duck plague virus, 3.4% for Muscovy duck parvovirus, 3.1% for goose parvovirus, 1.0% for mycoplasma and 0.9% for respiratory enteric orphan virus. The bacterium that was most commonly isolated was Escherichia coli, with a 47.1% positivity rate. This survey suggests that backyard waterfowl in southern China could be an important vector for the storage, variation, and transmission of various pathogens.
Bartonella bovis is a small Gram-negative bacterium recognized as an etiological agent for bacteremia and endocarditis in cattle. As few reports are available on the taxonomic position of B. bovis and its mechanism of virulence, this study aims to resolve the phylogeny of B. bovis and investigate putative virulence genes based on whole genome sequence analysis. Genome-wide comparisons based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and orthologous genes were performed in this study for phylogenetic inference of 27 Bartonella species. Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology (RAST) analysis was used for annotation of putative virulence genes. The phylogenetic tree generated from the genome-wide comparison of orthologous genes exhibited a topology almost similar to that of the tree generated from SNP-based comparison, indicating a high concordance in the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of Bartonella spp. The analyses show consistent grouping of B. bovis in a cluster related to ruminant-associated species, including Bartonella australis, Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella schoenbuchensis. RAST analysis revealed genes encoding flagellar components, in corroboration with the observation of flagella-like structure of BbUM strain under negative straining. Genes associated with virulence, disease and defence, prophages, membrane transport, iron acquisition, motility and chemotaxis are annotated in B. bovis genome. The flagellin (flaA) gene of B. bovis is closely related to Bartonella bacilliformis and Bartonella clarridgeiae but distinct from other Gram-negative bacteria. The absence of type IV secretion systems, the bona fide pathogenicity factors of bartonellae, in B. bovis suggests that it may have a different mechanism of pathogenicity.
A 12-year-old female Shih-Tzu with hyperadrenocorticism and hypothyroidism developed concurrent refractory generalized demodicosis that did not respond to doramectin treatment. Although amitraz treatment was effective, the dog developed severe diabetes, which resulted in the cessation of amitraz and trilostane. Attempts to control the diabetes were unsuccessful, and its hyperadrenocorticism was left untreated, leading to the recurrence of demodicosis. However, demodicosis went into complete remission with a single dose of fluralaner. Transient erythematous papules appeared on the trunk three days after the administration of fluralaner, but no other adverse reactions were noted. We demonstrated that fluralaner is a potent treatment for demodicosis, and skin eruptions are possible after the first dose of the drug.
Cerebral ischemia is a neurological disorder with high mortality. Quercetin is a flavonoid compound that is abundant in vegetables and fruits. It exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of quercetin in focal cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to induce focal cerebral ischemia. Quercetin or vehicle was injected 30 min before the onset of ischemia. A neurological function test, brain edema measurement, and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were performed to elucidate the neuroprotective effects of quercetin. Western blot analysis was performed to observe caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) protein expression. MCAO leads to severe neuronal deficits and increases brain edema and infarct volume. However, quercetin administration attenuated the MCAO-induced neuronal deficits and neuronal degeneration. We observed increases in caspase-3 and PARP protein levels in MCAO-operated animals injected with vehicle, whereas quercetin administration attenuated these increases in MCAO injury. This study reveals the neuroprotective effect of quercetin in an MCAO-induced animal model and demonstrates the regulation of caspase-3 and PARP expression by quercetin treatment. These results suggest that quercetin exerts a neuroprotective effect through preventing the MCAO-induced activation of apoptotic pathways affecting caspase-3 and PARP expression.
Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α was investigated in adiponectin knockout mice to elucidate the relationship between PPARα and adiponectin deficiency-induced diabetes. Adiponectin knockout (Adp−/−) mice were generated by gene targeting. Glucose tolerance test (GTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), and organ sampling were performed in Adp−/− mice at the age of 10 weeks. PPARα, insulin, triglyceride, free fatty acid (FFA), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) were analyzed from the sampled organs. Adp−/− mice showed impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Additionally, PPARα levels were decreased and plasma concentration of triglyceride, FFA and TNFα were increased. These data may indicate that insulin resistance in Adp−/− mice is likely caused by an increase in concentrations of TNFα and FFA via downregulation of PPARα.
The prevalence of snail-borne trematode (SBT) infections in farm animals on the offshore Saint (St.) Martin’s Island of Bangladesh were 68.9% for cattle, 76.7% for buffaloes, 56.3% for goats, respectively. Examination of fecal samples showed that paramphistomes infection was the most common at 50.5% followed by schistosomes at 23.7% and Fasciola at 2.3%. Fasciola infection was found in cattle (1.9%) and buffaloes (16.7%) but not in goats. Schistosome infection in cattle, buffaloes and goats were 31.1, 6.7 and 17.5%, respectively. Prevalence of SBTs was higher in older animals. Thiara tuberculata (Melanoides tuberculata) were found to serve as vector for paramphistomes and Indoplanorbis exustus for schistosomes and paramphistomes, respectively. Our results suggest that SBT and their vector snails are highly endemic on St. Martin’s Island of Bangladesh, and proper attention is needed to control these infections.
We examined the histological distribution of the lesions and the viral antigen associated with the virus and virus RNA in multisystemic organs in the early stages of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) O/JPN/2010 infection in pigs. Characteristic lesions commonly observed in pigs with FMD arise following inoculation with 106 tissue culture infectious dose (TCID)50/ml of FMDV O/JPN/2010 in pigs at 3 days post inoculation (dpi) by a natural infectious route. However, none of the six pigs inoculated with 103 TCID50/ml of FMDV O/JPN/2010 showed any evidence of infection up to 6 dpi. Immunohistochemical detection for the FMDV antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end labeling (TUNEL) showed that FMDV predominantly infected prickle cells in the stratum spinosum in the tongue, coronet and bulb of the heel, and caused these infected cells to undergo cell death by apoptosis. However, there was no evidence that FMDV O/JPN/2010 infected epithelial/epidermal basal cells in the basal layer. Epithelial lesions with viral antigen in the tongue were distributed in the dorsal surface but not in the papillae, corpus linguae or inferior surface of the tongue. Non-suppurative myocarditis and epithelial lesions in the esophagus with FMDV antigen were observed in all three pigs examined at 3 dpi.
We describe a case of choroid plexus carcinoma arising in the cerebrum of a 7-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rat. The tumor mass occupied the right lateral ventricle of the cerebrum. Histological analyses revealed that the epithelial tumor cells had proliferated in tubular, cribriform, papillary and solid growth patterns in the vicinity of the choroid plexus, with slight invasion into the cerebrum parenchyma. We divided the tumor cells into cuboidal, elongated and intermediate cells. Immunohistochemical studies showed that these tumor cells expressed relatively high levels of cytokeratin AE1/AE3, vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic proteins, and low levels of nestin, oligodendrocyte transcription factor and doublecortin proteins. The present case was diagnosed as a choroid plexus carcinoma with neuronal and glial differentiation.
The occurrence of accessory spleens in cetacean species is high yet confirmed reports of intrapancreatic accessory spleen, a congenital malformation, remain undescribed. The current study provides the gross, microscopical, histochemical and immunohistochemical features of an intrapancreatic accessory spleen in a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). Grossly, a 17 × 18 × 9 mm well-demarcated, dark brown to red mass expanded the left pancreatic lobe. Microscopically, this mass consisted of mature splenic tissue interspersed with exocrine pancreatic acini. Intrapancreatic accessory spleens should be considered in the list of differential diagnoses for intrapancreatic nodular lesions in cetaceans.
By simply inducing burn injuries on the bullfrog heart, we previously reported a simple model of abnormal ST segment changes observed in human ischemic heart disease. In the present study, instead of inducing burn injuries, we partially exposed the surface of the frog heart to high-potassium (K+) solution to create a concentration gradient of the extracellular K+ within the myocardium. Dual recordings of ECG and the cardiac action potential demonstrated significant elevation of the ST segment and the resting membrane potential, indicating its usefulness as a simple model of heart injury. Additionally, from our results, Na+/K+-ATPase activity was thought to be primarily responsible for generating the K+ concentration gradient and inducing the ST segment changes in ECG.
The mouse bioassay for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins has been used worldwide. In this study, dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and okadaic acid (OA) were compared for toxicity. The lethality rate increased and the median survival time decreased in a dose-dependent manner in both DTX-1 and OA. The median lethal dose value was 150.4 µg/kg (95% confidence interval=130.1–171.2 µg/kg) for DTX-1 and 185.6 µg/kg (95% confidence interval=161.2–209.6 µg/kg) for OA. The toxicity equivalent factor 1:1 has been used for OA and DTX-1 in the EU and Japan. Thus, it may be considered that toxicity potential of DTX-1 has remained underestimated as compared to that of OA and DTX-1 might be more toxic than OA.
The expansion of the wild deer population is a major problem for the Japanese farm and forestry industries because their damage to farm products and vegetation results in huge economic loss. To promote game meat consumption, hygiene inspections should be performed to detect main bacterial pathogens before products are shipped. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the ability of commercial test kits to genetically detect EHEC, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in venison. Our results demonstrated that the kits for three pathogens could be useful for venison as well as other domestic meat products. Our comparative study showed that the LAMP kits were more sensitive than the RT-qPCR kits in the detection of all of these pathogens.
The purpose of this study was to describe and assess the feasibility of a new intra-articular approach in the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency in dogs using an artificial ligament and a new bone-anchor system. Twelve canine cadavers weighting 26 to 45 kg were used in this ex-vivo study. Special tibial and femoral screws, two helicoils, and a high resistance artificial fiber compose the implant. Surgery was performed using the cranio-lateral approach to the stifle joint. Helicoil and tibial screw, connected to the fiber, were inserted in the center of the tibial insertion area of the cranial cruciate ligament. The fiber was passed over-the-top, tensioned, and fixed to the femoral screw, previously inserted with the helicoil in the distal part of the femur. Surgery was completed in all the cases. Occasional problems found during the insertion of the helicoils and screws were resolved with simple procedures. Post-operative clinical assessment showed negative cranial drawer test, negative cranial tibial thrust, and normal range of motion. Radiographic evaluation showed an appropriate positioning of both tibial and femoral implants in all the cases. The results of the first surgical appraisal of this new technique are encouraging, although further studies are necessary to demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of this procedure.
This study aimed to demonstrate the higher accuracy and reproducibility of quantitative computed tomography (QCT) compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a gold standard for measuring canine bone mineral density (BMD). Seven middle-aged beagle dogs underwent lumbar vertebral and bilateral femoral DXA and QCT scans. BMD (mg/cm2) was measured at the vertebral body from L2 to L6, femoral neck, and proximal and distal femoral diaphyses. The BMD values were measured 3 times and compared. The BMD value on QCT was higher than that on DXA for femoral BMD but not for vertebral BMD. The correlation was strong for the lumbar vertebrae (r=0.66) and was strongest for L3 (r=0.85). No correlation was found for the femoral neck (P=0.35), and only moderate correlations were found for the proximal and distal femoral diaphyses (r=0.43 and r=0.40, respectively). The limits of agreement were narrower for vertebral BMD than for femoral BMD, and L3 had the narrowest limits of agreement. The intraclass correlation (ICC) was higher for DXA than for QCT at all lumbar and femoral sites measured, but the ICC of QCT was higher than 0.7. In conclusion, L3 can be used to monitor changes in BMD, and relative values and sequential monitoring of femoral BMD can also be useful because of the high reproducibility of QCT measurements. QCT would be a useful technique for evaluation of BMD in veterinary practice.
A one-year-old male Golden Retriever presented with acute onset of vomiting and hemorrhagic diarrhea since 2 days. The dog was depressed, showing abdominal pain, 12% dehydration, tachycardia, and a bounding pulse. Diagnostic imaging showed severe dilatation and fluid retention of the entire gastrointestinal tract with decreased motility. A foreign body was found in the gastroduodenal region, but there was no obstruction or plication. The dog was tentatively diagnosed with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome and rapidly recovered after supportive treatment. However, on the morning of day 4, anorexia and vomiting recurred, and diagnostic imaging revealed intestinal plication with free peritoneal fluid, not found on the previous image. An emergency laparotomy revealed the foreign body to be two used feminine hygiene products. These contaminated products were suspected to induce acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome, and led to subsequent complication in this large dog.
Amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) from livestock are valuable resources for animal reproduction and veterinary therapeutic. The purpose of this study is to explore a suitable way to isolate and culture the buffalo AMSCs (bAMSCs), and to identify their biological characteristics. Digestion with a combination of trypsin-EDTA and collagenase type I could obtain pure bAMSCs more effectively than trypsin-EDTA or collagenase type I alone. bAMSCs could proliferate steadily in vitro culture and exhibited fibroblastic-like morphology in vortex-shaped colony. bAMSCs were positive for MSC-specific markers CD44, CD90, CD105, CD73, β-integrin (CD29) and CD166, and pluripotent markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, REX-1, SSEA-1, SSEA-4 and TRA-1-81, but negative for hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45 and epithelial cells specific marker Cytokeratin 18. In addition, bAMSCs were capable of differentiating into adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic and neural lineages, with expression of FABP4, Ost, ACAN, COL2A1, Nestin and β III-tubulin. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitor: kenpaullone promoted bAMSCs to differentiate into neural lineage. This study provides an effective protocol to obtain and characterize bAMSCs, which have proven useful as a cell resource for buffalo cell reprogramming studies and transgenic animal production.
Although neonicotinoid pesticides are expected to have harmful influence on mammals, there is little animal experimental data to support the effect and mechanisms. Since acetylcholine causes the release of dopamine, neonicotinoids may confer a risk of developmental disorders via a disturbance in the monoamine systems. Male mice were peripubertally administered dinotefuran (DIN) referring to no observed effect level (NOEL) and performed behavioral and immunohistological analyses. In an open field test, the total locomotor activity was increased in a dose-dependent manner. The immunoreactivity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra was increased in DIN-exposed mice. These results suggest that exposure to DIN in peripubertal male mice causes hyperactivity and a disturbance of dopaminergic signaling.
It has been suggested that an increase in the use of pesticides affects neurodevelopment, but there has been no animal experiment showing a causal relation between neonicotinoid pesticides (NNs) and depression. We examined whether dinotefuran (DIN), the most widely used NN in Japan, induces depression. Male mice were administered DIN between 3 and 8 weeks of age, referring to the no-observed-effect level (NOEL). The mice were then subjected to a tail suspension test (TST) and a forced swimming test (FST). After these tests, their brains were dissected for immunohistochemical analyses of serotonin (5-HT). Antidepressant activity in TST and no decrease in 5-HT-positive cells were observed. The subchronic exposure to DIN alone in juvenile male mice may not cause depression-like indication.
Recently, parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) infection has been increasingly reported in mammals. In this study, five PIV5 strains were isolated from diarrhea-affected piglets from four provinces or municipalities in China. An F-gene-based phylogenetic tree indicated that the five isolated strains were closely related to the PIV5 strain ZJQ-221 from a lesser panda in China, and the PIV5 strain 1168-1 from a dog in South Korea. The new isolates differed genetically from other pig, calf, rhesus macaque kidney cells, human, and dog PIV5 reference strains. Our study reveals the presence of PIV5 in intestinal tissue samples collected from diarrhea-affected piglets, and provides novel information regarding the epidemiology and tissue tropism of PIV5.
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) was detected for the first time in China in 2011. Since then, human cases have been reported in endemic regions, including Japan. To investigate the presence of tick-borne pathogens in Tokyo, 551 ticks (266 samples) were collected from October 2015 to October 2016. Although the SFTS virus was not detected by RT-PCR, a novel phlebovirus was detected in one sample. In a phylogenetic analysis based on the partial nucleotide sequences of the L and S segments of the virus, the virus clustered with Lesvos virus (Greece), Yongjia tick virus, and Dabieshan tick virus (China). Further studies involving virus isolation are required to characterize this novel phlebovirus and to expand the epidemiological knowledge of related pathogens.
A method based on Melting Temperature analysis of Hypervariable regions (HVR) of S1 gene within a RT-qPCR was developed to detect different genotypes of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and identify the Mass genotype. The method was able to rapidly identify the Mass genotype among IBV field isolates, vaccine attenuated strains and reference M41 strain in allantoic liquid and also directly in tissues. The RT-qPCR developed detected the virus in both tracheal and pulmonary samples from M41-infected or H120-infected birds, in a larger post-infection period compared to detection by standard method of virus isolation. RT-qPCR method tested provided a sensitivity and rapid approach for screening on IBV detection and Mass genotyping from IBV isolates.
Feline bocavirus (FBoV) is a newly identified bocavirus of cats in the family Parvoviridae. A novel FBoV HRB2015-LDF was first identiﬁed from the cat with severe enteritis in Northeast China, with an overall positive rate of 2.78% (1/36). Phylogenetic and homologous analysis of the complete genome showed that FBoV HRB2015-LDF was clustered into the FBoV branch and closely related to other FBoVs, with 68.7–97.5% identities. And the genes of VP1, NPA and NS1 shared 70.7–97.6, 72.4–98.6 and 67.2–98.0% nucleotide identities with other FBoVs, respectively. The results suggested that the FBoVs could be divided into two distinct lineages, and the difference of nucleotide identities was >20–30% between the lineages.
Sexual size dimorphism of craniomandibular morphology of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra in South Korea was analyzed using linear measurements. In total, 32 skulls (18 males and 14 females) and 22 linear measurements (16 cranial and 6 mandibular measurements) were used. Our results showed statistically significant sexual dimorphism between male and female skull size. Multivariate analyses using the cranial and mandibular traits showed significant differences between the sexes, respectively. The most dimorphic trait was ectorbital breadth (EOB), and the EOB of the male was approximately 10% greater than that of the female. This type of sexual size dimorphism, in which males are generally larger than females, is a general pattern shown in family Mustelidae. Several researchers have suggested various hypotheses about the factors causing sexual size dimorphism, i.e., ‘resource partitioning model’ and ‘sex-specific pressure model’. Our results are consistent with these hypotheses, and we suggest that these factors would have affected the sexual size dimorphism of the Eurasian otter in Korea.
We analyzed the gizzards, and grits retained in the gizzards of 41 cranes that migrated to the Izumi Plain during the winter of 2015/2016 and died there, either due to accident or disease. These included 31 Hooded Cranes (Grus monacha) and 10 White-naped Cranes (G. vipio). We determined body weight, gizzard weight, total grit weight and number per gizzard, and size, shape, and surface roundness of the grits. Average gizzard weights were 92.4 g for Hooded Cranes and 97.1 g for White-naped Cranes, and gizzard weight positively correlated with body weight in both species. Average total grit weights per gizzard were 19.7 g in Hooded Cranes and 25.7 g in White-naped Cranes, and were significantly higher in the latter. Average percentages of body weight to grit weight were 0.8% in Hooded Cranes and 0.5% in White-naped Cranes. Average grit number per gizzard was 693.5 in Hooded Cranes and 924.2 in White-naped Cranes, and were significantly higher in the latter. The average grit size was 2.8 mm in both species. No differences were found in the shape and surface roundness of grits between the two species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the grits retained in the gizzards of Hooded and White-naped Cranes.
Cetacean health may be potentially affected by anthropogenic sound. We have initiated investigations on the effect of low-frequency underwater sound on immunological gene transcript profiles of captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) using a probe-based quantitative gene expression assay. Six immunologic genes (IL-2Rα, -4, -10, -12, TNFα and IFNγ) were selected for analysis using two validated housekeeping genes (PGK1 and HPRT1) as reference genes. Twenty-four blood samples from six clinically healthy individuals and six blood samples from individuals after sound exposures were available. The gene transcript profile of sound-exposed dolphins was consistent with a stress-induced TH2 shift profile as compared to controls. This study may lead to better understanding of the effects of anthropogenic sound on immune responses of cetaceans.
To treat dental disorders and estimate age, it is important that veterinarians understand teeth eruption sequence for the animal in question. Few dental images of the eastern grey kangaroo have been published. In the present study, radiographic imagings of 29 kangaroos, ranging in age from 12 months to 10 years 9 months, was used to surveil the replacement of premolars and the eruption of molars. These images revealed eruption patterns in five stages, while the second and third deciduous premolars were shed non-systematically. Furthermore, the third premolars and fourth molars erupted in the mandible earlier than in the maxilla, which may contribute to the frequency of mandibular dental disorders.