Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is essential for osteogenesis. This study aimes at identification of the genomic region differentially methylated in DNA for regulation of Runx2 expression. In the proximal promoter of mouse Runx2, DNA methylation was frequent at the region further than 3 kb relative to the transcription start site, in contrast to lower methylation status of the closer locus within 2 kb from the transcription start site. At the intermediate part, we identified a novel differentially methylated region in the Runx2 promoter region (Runx2-DMR): from −2.7 to −2.2 kb relative to the start site of Runx2 transcription in mice. In this region, the DNA methylation rate correlated negatively with Runx2 expression among mouse organs as well as among primary cultures of bone marrow from different dogs. Induction of mouse and dog mesenchymal-like cells into osteoblastic differentiation decreased the methylation rate of Runx2-DMR. Thus, in this study, we identified a novel genomic region in which DNA methylation status is related to Runx2 expression and detected demethylation of Runx2-DMR during osteoblastic differentiation in mouse and dog.
The adrenal gland is an essential endocrine organ for the stress response. The functions of this organ may be studied by ligation of the adrenal artery or adrenalectomy. However, in prior studies, descriptions of the anatomical variations of the adrenal artery were insufficient and inconsistent. Therefore, anatomical variations of the arterial supply to the adrenal gland were studied in 18 male and 18 female Wistar rats by colored latex injection into the arteries. The vascularization pattern was categorized into 4 types based on the origin of each adrenal artery. The cranial and middle adrenal arteries arose from the caudal phrenic artery in Types 1–3, but the caudal adrenal artery emerged from the caudal phrenic artery in Type 1, from the renal artery in Type 2 and from the abdominal aorta in Type 3. In Type 4, the cranial and middle adrenal arteries stemmed from the cranial phrenic artery, and the caudal adrenal artery arose from the caudal phrenic artery. The number of adrenal arteries varied from 3 to 11 on the left side and from 4 to 12 on the right side, and the total varied from 9 to 20 (predominantly 14) in each individual. There was no sex difference in the vascularization pattern. The results show that more individual variations occur in the adrenal arteries of rats than was previously reported. Such variations should always be considered when experimental treatments of the rat adrenal gland are performed.
A rare complex dysraphic malformation, comprising segmental spinal dysgenesis with caudal agenesis, was found in a Holstein calf that was unable to stand and was slightly short at the lumbosacral spine with taillessness. The thoracolumbar and sacrococcygeal regions of the midline axial segments showed severe deformities. In the spinal cord, the thoracolumbar region showed severe constriction with myelodysplastic changes, and the sacrococcygeal region showed dorsoventral separation with connection to a neural mass. In the spine, vertebral anomalies according to the degree of the segmentation error were confirmed. The cervical and thoracic segments also showed milder dysraphic changes. These changes suggest a multisegmental causal insult impairing the early embryonic notochord. This represents the first bovine case definitively confirmed morphologically.
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is one of the most important bacterial diseases in terms of economic losses. Clostridium perfringens necrotic enteritis toxin B, NetB, was recently proposed as a new key virulent factor for the development of NE. The goal of this work was to develop a necrotic enteritis model in chickens by using a Japanese isolate of C. perfringens. The Japanese isolate has been found to contain netB gene, which had the same nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences as those of prototype gene characterized in Australian strain EHE-NE18, and also expressed in vitro a 33-kDa protein identified as NetB toxin by nano-scale liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry. In the challenge experiment, broiler chickens fed a commercial chicken starter diet for 14 days post-hatch were changed to a high protein feed mixed 50:50 with fishmeal for 6 days. At day 21 of age, feed was withheld for 24 hr, and each chicken was orally challenged twice daily with 2 ml each of C. perfringens culture (109 to 1010 CFU) on 5 consecutive days. The gross necrotic lesions were observed in 90 and 12.5% of challenged and control chickens, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrated that a netB-positive Japanese isolate of C. perfringens is able to induce the clinical signs and lesions characteristic of NE in the experimental model, which may be useful for evaluating the pathogenicity of field isolates, the efficacy of a vaccine or a specific drug against NE.
An alkaline agent, namely food additive grade calcium hydroxide (FdCa (OH)2) in the powder form, was evaluated for its bactericidal efficacies in chicken feces at pH 13. The point for this evaluation was neutralization of the alkaline agent’s pH at the time of bacterial recovery, since otherwise the results are substantially misleading. Without neutralization of the FdCa (OH)2 pH, the spiked bacteria were killed within min at the time of recovery in aqueous phase, but not in the solid form in feces, hence, it has been demonstrated that when bacteria were in solid, it took longer time than in liquid for the alkaline agent to inactivate them down to the acceptable level (≥3 log10 CFU/ml).
This study aimed to investigate the spread of methicillin-resistant coagulase-positive staphylococci (MRCoPS) among veterinary staff, hand-touch sites and surgical tissue during cystotomy operations on cats and dogs that were patients, and to analyze the genetic relatedness and antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates. Human and environmental samples were obtained from the nasal passageways of 12 surgeons and veterinary assistants and from 29 hand-touch sites of instruments in operative units and subjected to bacterial isolation and enumeration. Swab samples were collected in triplicate from 29 dogs and three cats at the site of incision, from the incision area, from the peritoneum during surgery and from the peritoneum before suture. MRCoPS were identified by mecA gene detection and characterized by their antibiogram profile, SCCmec type and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four staphylococci were isolated, derived from one veterinary assistant, 12 operating room floor areas and hand-touch sites, three dogs and one cat. Methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) was found on an electric clipper and rebreathing circuits in the operating room. Three dogs were positive for MRSP during surgery, and one methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in a cat. All MRCoPS were resistant to doxycycline, erythromycin, clindamycin and enrofloxacin, but no patients developed surgical site infections. According to their genotypic patterns, the clones obtained from the environment and human sources differed from the animal clones. Despite intensive hygienic management, a variety of MRCoPS clones were present within the surgical unit and during surgery.
To analyze the miRNA expression profiles in Lawsonia intracellularis-infected porcine intestines, infected pigs were first identified using PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Then, RNA from infected intestines and control tissues were isolated and subjected to microarray analysis and RT-PCR. Results showed that a total of 83 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the infected samples and controls, out of which 53 were upregulated and 30 were downregulated. Validation using RT-PCR showed a high degree of confidence for the obtained data. Using the current miRBase release 21.0, nine groups of miRNAs were located in the same cluster, and three groups of miRNAs were found to belong to the same family. Interestingly, except for ssc-miR-10a-5p, all clustered miRNAs and the family members exhibited the same expression patterns. Pathway analysis of the putative gene targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs showed that they were involved in the immune response, amino acid metabolism and cell communication/growth/motility. Thus, the results indicate that altered miRNA expression profiles can affect immunity, metabolism and cellular processes.
The pathophysiology of canine gallbladder diseases, including biliary sludge, gallbladder mucoceles and gallstones, is poorly understood. This study aimed to evaluate the component of gallbladder contents and bacterial infection of the gallbladder in order to elucidate the pathophysiology of biliary sludge and gallbladder mucoceles. A total of 43 samples of canine gallbladder contents (biliary sludge, 21 and gallbladder mucoceles, 22) were subjected to component analysis by infrared spectroscopy, and the resultant infrared spectra were compared with that of swine mucin. Of the 43 samples, 41 were also evaluated by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture. The contents of 20 (95.2%) biliary sludge and 22 (100%) gallbladder mucocele samples exhibited similar infrared spectra as swine mucin. Although biliary sludge and gallbladder mucocele contents exhibited similar infrared spectra, one sample of biliary sludge (4.8%) was determined to be composed of proteins. The rate of bacterial infection of the gallbladder was 10.0% for biliary sludge and 14.3% for gallbladder mucoceles. Almost all of the identified bacterial species were intestinal flora. These results indicate that the principal components of gallbladder contents in both gallbladder mucoceles and biliary sludge are mucins and that both pathophysiologies exhibit low rates of bacterial infection of the gallbladder. Therefore, it is possible that gallbladder mucoceles and biliary sludge have the same pathophysiology, and, rather than being independent diseases, they could possibly represent a continuous disease. Thus, biliary sludge could be considered as the stage preceding the appearance of gallbladder mucoceles.
Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in multiple dog breeds. A DM-associated mutation of the canine superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene, designated as c.118G>A (p.E40K), has been implicated as one of pathogenetic determinants of the disease in many breeds, but it remains to be determined whether the c.118G>A mutation is responsible for development or progression of DM in Collies. Previously, a Rough Collie was diagnosed clinically and histopathologically as having DM in Japan, suggesting the possibility that the Collie breed may be predisposed to DM due to the high frequency of c.118G>A in Japan. In this study, accumulation and aggregate formation of SOD1 protein were retrospectively demonstrated in the spinal cord of the DM-affected dog by immunohistochemical analysis. Furthermore, a molecular epidemiological survey revealed a high carrier rate (27.6%) and mutant allele frequency (0.138) of c.118G>A in a population of Collies in Japan, suggesting that the Collie breed may be predisposed to DM associated with c.118G>A, and the prevention of DM in Collies in Japan should be addressed through epidemiological and genetic testing strategies.
Induction of mucosal immune responses against Porphyromonas gingivalis within the oral cavity of dogs was studied by immunizing with pH-sensitive fusogenic polymer (MGluPG)-modified liposome-associated cell lysate. Dogs immunized with P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes by intraocular (eye drop) route displayed significant levels of P. gingivalis cell lysate-specific serum IgG and IgA as well as mucosal IgA antibodies in saliva secretion. Serum and salivary antibodies generated by intraocularly immunized with MGluPG-modified liposome-associated P. gingivalis cell lysate revealed a significant aggregation activity against P. gingivalis, whereas serum and saliva from dogs receiving MGluPG-modified liposomes unentrapping P. gingivalis cell lysate did not show the aggregation activity against P. gingivalis. Furthermore, P. gingivalis-specific antibodies in saliva of immunized dogs inhibited the adherence of P. gingivalis to cultured HeLa cells. More importantly, salivary antibodies induced by intraocular immunization with P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes significantly inhibited the coaggregation of P. gingivalis with Actinomyces naeslundii and the cell damage activity of P. gingivalis against FaDu cells, an oral epithelial cell. These results suggest that intraocularly administered P. gingivalis cell lysate-containing MGluPG-modified liposomes should be an effective mucosal vaccine against P. gingivalis infection in dogs and may be an important tool for the prevention of periodontitis.
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of postural change on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) views and parameters of interest anesthesia monitoring in healthy dogs. Twelve Beagle dogs were anesthetized and randomly positioned in one of four postures: right lateral-recumbency, left lateral-recumbency, supine position and prone position. After examinations in one posture, the same examination was demonstrated in another posture and repeated in all postures. In each posture, several standard TEE views were demonstrated: longitudinal cranial-esophageal aorta long-axis-view, transverse middle-esophageal mitral valve long-axis-view and transgastric middle short-axis-view. Additionally, echocardiographic parameters were attempted to measure, and direct blood pressure monitoring was performed in each view. As a result, oriented views, except for transgastric middle short-axis-view, could be obtained in all postures. Stroke volume and peak early diastolic velocity of mitral inflow were lower in supine position compared with those in right and left lateral-recumbency. Heart rate (HR) and systemic vascular resistance were higher in supine position compared with those in right and left lateral-recumbency. Left ventricular pre-ejection period/left ventricular ejection time corrected and uncorrected by HR were higher in supine position compared with those in right and left lateral-recumbency. In conclusion, longitudinal cranial-esophageal aorta long-axis-view and transverse middle-esophageal mitral valve long-axis-view provide useful information of interest anesthesia monitoring, because of their views enable to certainly obtain TEE parameters in various postures. Furthermore, TEE parameters allow to detect the changes of preload, afterload and HR that occur in supine position dogs.
Platelet function hyper-activity has been reported in Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm, HW)-infected dogs. Although the mechanism of increased platelet hyper-activity has not yet been elucidated, it is suggested to be mediated by unknown factors, which may be related to adult HW components. This study aims to determine whether adult male HW whole body extract induces canine platelet aggregation in vitro. The results indicate that HW extract caused an aggregation of canine platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. This aggregation ability of the HW extract was not mediated by the adenosine diphosphate receptor. In addition, the mechanisms of aggregation did not require cyclooxygenase-dependent pathways, and the aggregating activity of substances contained in the HW extract was heat stable; therefore, the active substances may be different from collagen. Furthermore, the platelet aggregating activity remained within the molecular weight (MW)≥100,000 fraction obtained by ultrafiltrating the HW extract. In contrast, the MW <100,000 fraction also had a platelet aggregation ability, but the aggregation pattern was reversible and the maximum extent decreased, compared with the MW≥100,000 fraction response. Our experiments have been conducted using a whole body extract from adult HWs to determine with certainty the aggregating activity of HW elements on canine platelets. More studies are necessary to evaluate the effects of the metabolic products released from live adult worms in pulmonary arteries and the symbiont bacterium Wolbachia-derived antigens on canine platelet aggregation.
It remains unclear whether epithelial cell-derived cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-25, IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), contribute to development of canine chronic enteropathy (CE), which includes antibiotic-responsive enteropathy (ARE), food-responsive enteropathy (FRE) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the present study, we examined mRNA expression of il-25, il-33 and tslp in the duodenal and colonic mucosae of dogs with ARE, FRE and IBD. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression of il-33 was significantly lower in the duodenum in dogs with FRE than in healthy dogs. The results suggest that epithelial cell-derived cytokines may not be an inducer of Th2-type immunity in the gut of dogs with CE, and decreased expression of IL-33 may be involved in induction of FRE. Further studies are required to clarify roles of epithelial cell-derived cytokines, especially IL-33, in the pathogenesis of canine CE.
The study examined whether royal jelly (RJ) can prevent obesity and ameliorate hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. This study utilized obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice. RJ (10 mg/kg) was administered by oral gavage. Body weight, plasma glucose and insulin levels were measured. mRNA and protein levels were determined using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. Four weeks of RJ administration improved hyperglycemia and partially suppressed body weight gain, although the latter effect did not reach statistical significance. In addition, RJ administration did not improve insulin resistance. RJ administration suppressed the mRNA expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), a key enzyme of gluconeogenesis, in the liver. Simultaneously, RJ administration induced adiponectin (AdipoQ) expression in abdominal fat, adiponectin receptor-1 (AdipoR1) expression in the liver and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) expression, which suppressed G6Pase levels in the livers of KK-Ay mice. pAMPK levels were also increased in skeletal muscle, but glucose transporter-4 (Glut4) translocation was not increased in the RJ supplementation group. The improvement in hyperglycemia due to long-term RJ administration may be because of the suppression of G6Pase expression through the upregulation of AdipoQ and AdipoR1 mRNA and pAMPK protein expressions.
Serology is important for the diagnosis and follow-up of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE). However, patient conditions are highly variable among those with AE, and antibody responses in serological follow-up have not been well-defined. We recently described a new AE rat model established by implantation of small AE tissue into a single arbitrary location in the liver; no metastasis and dissemination were observed. In the present study, we examined the serological characteristics in our rat model before and after surgical treatment. The results showed that antibody responses against crude antigens were increased at one month after transplantation and similar to those of other model animals. For the antigen Em18, antibody responses were slower in our rat model than in other animal models. After surgical resection, changes in antibody responses against Em18 were similar to those observed in human patients with AE. Because of the slow growth of lesions, establishment of a single hepatic lesion and patterns of antibody responses, our rat model may be useful for clarifying follow-up serodiagnoses in human AE and determining the mechanisms of multi-organ involvement by primary infection with oncospheres rather than metastasis.
In this study, blood samples obtained from 162 dogs in Jiangxi, China, were employed in molecular screening of canine tick-borne pathogens by PCR and sequencing. Babesia spp. gene fragment was detected in 12 (7.41%) dogs. All samples were negative for Hepatozoon spp., Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasma platys. Species-specific PCR analysis further confirmed that 8 (4.94%) and 4 (2.47%) dogs were infected by Babesia canis vogeli and Babesia gibsoni, respectively. Based on our analyses, Babesia spp. infection in Jiangxi appeared not related to age, gender, breed, usage, activity and health status or tick infestation history of the dogs. This is the first molecular report of Babesia canis vogeli and Babesia gibsoni in dogs from Jiangxi, China.
Linguatula serrata, a cosmopolitan parasite, is commonly known as tongue worm belonging to the subclass Pentastomida.We collected the nymphal stage of the worm from mesenteric lymph nodes of cattle and identified these as L. serrata based on morphology and morphometry. The 18S rDNA sequences showed no intraspecific variation, although cox1 sequences showed 99.7–99.9% homology. In the phylogenies inferred from both gene loci, members of the genus Linguatula (order Porocephalida) were closer to those of the order Cephalobaenida than to those of Porocephalida, reflecting a mismatch with the corresponding morphology-based taxonomy. Accordingly, analyses of additional gene loci using a larger number of taxa across the Pentastomida should be undertaken to determine an accurate phylogenetic position within the Arthropoda.
Lymphocytic adrenal medullitis characterized by inflammation and atrophy in the medulla of the bilateral adrenal glands was observed in an 18-month-old male laboratory beagle dog. It might be that the present lymphocytic adrenal medullitis is an autoimmune-mediated disease as the histological characteristics are consistent with an autoimmune pathogenesis. However, the actual cause remains unclear as the existence of serum autoantibodies against the adrenal medulla could not be confirmed. Although this dog also contracted lymphocytic thyroiditis along with serum thyroglobulin autoantibodies, indicating that the thyroiditis occurred with an autoimmune basis; the relation between the adrenal medullitis and thyroiditis is unknown.
In this study, 24 male and female broiler chickens at 30-day-old were divided into three groups with 8 animals in each group. The animals were administered with recombinant chicken interferon-α (rChIFN-α) at a dose of 1.0 × 106 IU/kg intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously, respectively. Serum samples were collected at different time points post administration, and the titers of rChIFN-α in the blood were determined by cytopathic effect inhibition assay. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic characteristics of rChIFN-α by intramuscular injection and subcutaneous injection were fitted to one compartment open model, and the Tmax was 3.21 ± 0.79 hr and 3.95 ± 0.85 hr, respectively, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 6.20 ± 2.77 hr and 5.03 ± 3.70 hr, respectively. In contrast, the pharmacokinetics of rChIFN-α via intravenous injection was in line with the open model of two-compartment and was eliminated in the first order, and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 4.61 ± 0.84 hr. In addition, compared with those in the intravenous group and the subcutaneous group, the bioavailability of rChIFN-α in the intramuscular group was 82.80%. In conclusion, rChIFN-α was rapidly absorbed and slowly eliminated after intramuscular administration of single dose of rChIFN-α aqueous formulations. Thus, rChIFN-α can be used as a commonly-used therapeutic agent.
Although methotrexate (MTX) is mainly transported by reduced folate carrier, P-gp and MRP1 may also be involved in its transport. In our previous study, a potent P-gp and MRP1 modulator, Cyclosporine A, potentiated MTX concentration in rat brain. Since it is important for MTX therapy for brain tumor to clarify which transporter is dominant, we herein determined whether the specific P-gp substrate, rhodamine123 (Rho123), potentiates the transport and retention of MTX in the brain. Rho123 was injected intravenously or intrathecally into rats immediately after injection of MTX. 6 or 12 hr after the MTX injection, brains were isolated just after the sampling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Blood was also collected intermittently. MTX concentrations were determined in plasma, CSF and the brain using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. When MTX was intravenously injected, Rho123 didn’t affect MTX concentrations in the brain. However, Rho123 resulted in significantly higher MTX concentrations in the brain at 12 hr after injection when MTX was intrathecally injected. It is suggested that Rho123 inhibits the excretion of MTX from the brain, but does not potentiate its distribution from the blood into the brain. This reveals that P-gp can be one of the major transporters of MTX in rat brain. Therefore, treatments with P-gp modulators may contribute to intrathecal MTX therapy for brain tumor. Since plasma concentration-time curves of MTX were not affected by Rho123, treatments with P-gp modulators may not potentiate the adverse effects of MTX.
The Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) is a bidirectional transporter that is controlled by membrane potential and transmembrane gradients of Na+ and Ca2+. To reveal the functional role of NCX on gastrointestinal motility, we have previously used NCX1 and NCX2 heterozygote knockout mice (HET). We found that NCX1 and NCX2 play important roles in the motility of the gastric fundus, ileum and distal colon. Therefore, we believed that NCX1 and NCX2 play an important role in transport of intestinal contents. Here, we investigated the role of NCX in a mouse model of drug-induced diarrhea. The fecal consistencies in NCX1 HET and NCX2 HET were assessed using a diarrhea induced by magnesium sulfate, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). NCX2 HET, but not NCX1 HET, exacerbated magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea by increasing watery fecals. Likewise, 5-HT-induced diarrheas were exacerbated in NCX2 HET, but not NCX1 HET. However, NCX1 HET and NCX2 HET demonstrated PGE2 induced diarrhea similar to those of wild-type mice (WT). As well as the result of the distal colon shown previously, in the proximal and transverse colons of WT, the myenteric plexus layers and the longitudinal and circular muscle layers were strongly immunoreactive to NCX1 and NCX2. In this study, we demonstrate that NCX2 has important roles in development of diarrhea.
This study investigates the effects of dietary oregano essential oil (OEO) and vitamin E (Vit E) supplementation on meat quality, stress response and intestinal morphology in pigs following transport stress. A total of 288 finishing pigs were randomly assigned to three groups: a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented either with 200 mg/kg Vit E or 25 mg/kg OEO. After a 28-day feeding trial, total of 132 finishing pigs according diet and transport stress were assigned to one of four treatment groups: 1) control treatment without transport stress (Control group), 2) control treatment with 5-hr transport stress (Negative group), 3) Vit E treatment with 5-hr transport stress and 4) OEO treatment with 5-hr transport stress. Transport stress pigs had lower muscle 45 min pH (pHi) and higher drip loss than control pigs. Dietary OEO and Vit E supplementation significantly increased 45min pH under transport stress, and the OEO groups produced lower 24-hr drip loss values (P<0.05) than that of pigs from the negative group. The OEO-supplemented pigs showed decreased serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and cortisol (P<0.05), and decreased Hsp 27 (heat shock protein 27) and Hsp 70 (heat shock protein 70) mRNA expression in the muscle (P<0.05). Additionally, histological analysis revealed intestinal epithelial damage in transport stress pigs that was reversed by dietary supplementation with OEO. In conclusion, supplementation with dietary OEO may be superior to supplementation with dietary Vit E in alleviating the meat quality, stress response and intestinal morphology of pigs after challenge due to transportation stress.
We aimed to assess the effects of lactoferrin (Lf) on glycemic regulatory responses under restraint stress (RS) in rats. Bovine Lf (bLf, 100 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered to rats before oral saline administration or oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) following 60 min of RS load. In the case of oral saline administration, RS significantly raised plasma glucose, but bLf did not affect the level. Plasma glucose in OGTT showed an overall lower transition in the bLf group, and the levels at 30 and 180 min or the area under the curve (AUC) were significantly decreased. Although bLf suppressed an increase in plasma corticosterone during RS, the levels of plasma insulin, epinephrine and glucagon were not changed by the bLf treatment.
Campylobacter hyointestinalis is considered as an emerging zoonotic pathogen. We have recently identified two types of cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) gene in C. hyointestinalis and designated them as Chcdt-I and Chcdt-II. In this study, we developed a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay that can differentiate Chcdt-I from Chcdt-II. When the PCR-RFLP assay was applied to 17 other Campylobacter strains and 25 non-Campylobacter strains, PCR products were not obtained irrespective of their cdt gene-possession, indicating that the specificity of the PCR-RFLP assay was 100%. In contrast, when the PCR-RFLP assay was applied to 35 C. hyointestinalis strains including 23 analyzed in the previous study and 12 newly isolated from pigs and bovines, all of them showed the presence of cdt genes. Furthermore, a restriction digest by EcoT14-I revealed that 29 strains contained both Chcdt-I and Chcdt-II and 6 strains contained only Chcdt-II, showing 100% sensitivity. Unexpectedly, however, PCR products obtained from 7 C. hyointestinalis strains were not completely digested by EcoT14-I. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the undigested PCR product was homologous to cdtB but not to Chcdt-IB or Chcdt-IIB, indicating the presence of another cdt gene-variant. Then, we further digested the PCR products with DdeI in addition to EcoT14-I, showing that all three cdt genes, including a possible new Chcdt variant, could be clearly differentiated. Thus, the PCR-RFLP assay developed in this study is a valuable tool for evaluating the Chcdt gene-profile of bacteria.
Fiber tractography is a technique capable of depicting the three-dimensional structure and connectivity of nerve fibers using serial magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). To establish fiber tractography and DTI methods in veterinary clinical medicine, we evaluated fiber tractography and DTI parameters: apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and fractional anisotropy (FA) values, in various spinal cord diseases. Spinal cord DTI was examined in 28 dogs with spinal cord diseases. The ADC and FA values were measured at lesion sites and cranial normal sites on spinal cords, and both values of lesion sites were compared with normal sites. In thoracolumbar intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH) cases, depending on their neurologic grades, fiber tractography indicated rupture of fiber trajectories, loss of neuronal bundles and disorder of fiber directions. In these cases, the average ADC values at lesion sites significantly decreased compared with normal sites (P=0.016). In the progressive myelomalacia case, the average ADC and FA values of hyperintense swollen regions in T2WI decreased compared to both values in other disease cases. Finally, in the meningioma case, the continuity of fiber trajectories improved after the administration of an anticancer agent. This study suggests that fiber tractography and DTI are useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of veterinary spinal cord diseases.
In the present study, we tried to determine whether bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1) plays a role in ovarian follicular development and early embryo development. We systematically investigated the expression and influence of BMP1 during porcine follicle and early embryonic development. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the BMP1 protein is expressed in granular cells and oocytes during follicular development, from primary to pre-ovulatory follicles, including atretic follicles and the corpus luteum. The mRNA expression of BMP1 significantly increased as the porcine follicles grew. Immunofluorescence analysis indicated that BMP1 was expressed in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs), oocytes and porcine embryos during early in vitro culture. qPCR and western blot analysis showed that the expression of BMP1 was significantly up-regulated in mature porcine oocytes and COCs compared to immature oocytes and COCs. BMP1 is expressed in early porcine embryos, and its expression reaches a peak at the 8-cell stage. To determine the effect of BMP1 on the maturation of oocytes and the development of early embryos, various concentrations of BMP1 recombinant protein or antibody were added to the in vitro culture media, respectively. BMP1 significantly affected the porcine oocyte maturation rate, the cleavage rate and the blastocyst development rate of embryos cultured in vitro in a positive way, as well as the blastocyst cell number. In conclusion, BMP1 is expressed throughout porcine ovarian follicle development and early embryogenesis, and it promotes oocyte maturation and the developmental ability of embryos during early in vitro culture.
Thirty-two microsatellites and a mitochondrial DNA haplotypes of endangered Yonaguni horses were analyzed to establish a pedigree registration system and to understand their genetic diversity for planning effective conservation. Blood samples were collected from 78 of the 130 horses in existence, and DNA was extracted and genotyped. There were two major findings. One is that it is possible to use microsatellites for Yonaguni horse pedigree registration in the future because the power of exclusion of parentage testing is reliable at 0.999998. The second is the clarification of the current genetic diversity of Yonaguni horses. The average number of alleles, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity and fixation index were 4.4, 0.591, 0.601 and 0.016, respectively, for the analyzed horses. The probability of a genetic bottleneck, under the assumptions of the stepwise mutation model, was 0.432, suggesting that the genetic structure of the horses was not influenced by a recent bottleneck. Genetic distance between individuals was visualized by a phylogenetic tree based on the proportion of shared alleles. Structure analysis based on Bayesian clustering revealed the possibility that Yonaguni horses comprise four or five subpopulations. Consequently, although only two haplotypes were identified in the mitochondrial analysis, genetic diversity of Yonaguni horses was not particularly low in comparison with that of other breeds that are at risk of extinction.
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes the O-methylation of endogenous catechol amines and estrogens and exogenous catechol-type of drugs. A Parkinson’s disease model of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) has been widely used in preclinical studies to evaluate inhibitory potential of new drug candidates on marmoset COMT. Despite COMT inhibitors could potentiate the pharmacological action of levodopa on Parkinson’s disease in animal models, marmoset COMT cDNA has not yet been identified and characterized. In this study, a cDNA highly homologous to human COMT was cloned from marmoset livers. This cDNA encoded 268 amino acids containing a transmembrane region and critical amino acid residues for catalytic function. The amino acid sequences of marmoset COMT shared high sequence identity (90%) with human COMT. COMT mRNA was expressed in all five tissues tested, including brain, lung, liver, kidney and small intestine, and was more abundant in marmoset liver and kidney. Membrane-bound COMT was immunochemically detected in livers and kidneys, whereas soluble COMT was detected in livers, similar to humans. These results indicated that the molecular characteristics of marmoset COMT were generally similar to the human ortholog.
Bisphenol A (BPA), a well-known endocrine disruptor, is metabolized and eliminated rapidly from the body in adult animals. However, many authors have reported that perinatal BPA exposure alters development of the brain, reproductive system and behavior in the next generation. Recently, BPA substitutes, especially bisphenol F (BPF), have been used because of concerns about the influence of BPA on children, although the actual effects on the next generation are unknown. In this study, we observed behavioral adverse effects of the offspring of mice exposed to BPA or BPF in fetal period. Female C57BL/6 mice were given oral BPA or BPF (0 or 10 mg/kg body weight) daily from gestational day 11.5 to 18.5. The open field test, the elevated plus maze test and the forced swim test were performed at postnatal week 10. BPF exposure altered offspring behavior significantly, resulting in increases in anxiety and depressive state. The influence of BPF was stronger than that of BPA. We demonstrated novel evidence that BPF influences the behavior of offspring.
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by secondary metabolism of several fungi belonging to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is potentially nephrotoxic, neurotoxic, immunotoxic and carcinogenic in several animal species and in humans. This toxin has been detected in several human food and animal feed. The aim of this study was to determine OTA in blood samples of healthy and affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD) dogs. CKD group showed higher incidence of OTA-positivity than healthy dogs (96 vs. 56%) and a significantly higher median value of OTA plasma concentration (0.008 vs. 0.144 ng/ml). No significant correlation was observed between OTA levels and creatinine values in CKD dogs. This is the first study regarding OTA detection in plasma samples of healthy and CKD dogs; the presence of this toxin is higher in nephropatic patients but is not yet clear, if it is correlated with progression of the disease.
Canine coronavirus (CCoV) is an important pathogen that causes enteritis in dogs, but there is no information on CCoV infection in Vietnam. To examine the prevalence of CCoV infection among Vietnamese dogs, 201 serum samples were analyzed by virus-neutralization (VN) test. The results showed that antibody against CCoV-II was present in 87 dogs (43.3%). To detect genes of CCoV, fecal samples collected from 30 diarrheic and 50 healthy dogs were examinated by RT-PCR, confirming that 2 diarrheic dogs and 5 healthy dogs were positive for CCoV. Nucleotide sequences of N-terminal region of spike (S) gene indicated that CCoV strains were divided into two subgenotypes, CCoV-IIa and -IIb, respectively. Furthemore, we succeeded in isolating CCoV/dog/HCM47/2015, the isolate was plaque-purified three times, and 3’-terminal one-third of the genome was analyzed. Interestingly, the plaque-purified virus had a large deletion in ORF3abc and E genes (1,165 nt), and a short deletion in ORF7b gene (60 nt), suggesting that these regions are not necessary for in vitro replication of CCoV. Next, the antigenicity between the isolated CCoV-IIb and the other CCoV-IIa was compared by VN test, revealing that antigenicty of the isolated CCoV is equal or higher than that of the other CCoV. In summary, two subgenotypes of CCoV-II are spreading among Vietnamese dogs. The isolated virus with a large deletion after in vitro passage may be useful for the development of vaccine, owing to its antigenicity and efficient viral growth in vitro.
In this study, a large-scale serological survey of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection was conducted between March 2011 and October 2012. 3,437 goat blood or milk samples were collected from 65 goat farms throughout Taiwan. A commercial ELISA kit was used to detect antibodies against CAEV. The overall seropositive rate was 61.7% (2,120/3,437) in goats and in 98.5% (64/65) of goat farms. These results provide the first large-scale serological evidence for the presence of CAEV infection, indicating that the disease is widespread in Taiwan.
An eighteen-month-old female Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) that was 50 cm in length and 4.5 kg in weight was presented with anorexia and vomiting. The hematological and blood biochemical profiles revealed no remarkable findings, and no Salmonella, Shigella or Vibrio spp. were isolated from the fecal culture. However, radiographic imaging revealed a long linear foreign body presenting from the lower esophagus to the stomach. To retrieve this foreign body, flexible endoscopic extraction was performed using flexible rat tooth grasping forceps. A long bamboo stick (29 × 1 cm) was removed from the stomach, and the penguin fully recovered.
Vol. 78, No. 12 (2016), The “received date” year in the manuscript was printed incorrectly.
Error: Received 25 March 2015
Correction: Received 25 March 2016
The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science Editorial Office would like to offer our sincere apologies
for this mistake.