The distribution of anti-hantavirus antibodies in humans and rodents in northern Vietnam was examined. In total, 837 serum samples from healthy humans (617) and patients with fever (220), living in six different areas were screened for IgG antibodies against Hantaan or Seoul virus (SEOV) by ELISA, IFA, and Western blot analysis. Antibody-positive sera were identified in 7/617 (1.1%) healthy donors, 5/150 port workers in the port of Hai Phong, and 2/185 residents of Ha Nam Province. In comparison, positive sera were detected in 5/220 (2.3%) fever patients in the provinces of Ha Nam (1/58) and Thanh Hoa (4/146). Antibody-positive Rattus norvegicus
were found in the provinces of Ha Nam (7/52) and Thanh Hoa (1/67), in Haibatrung District (7/43) in Hanoi, and in Hai Phong Port (21/62), while antibody-positive R. rattus
(2/17) were found in Hai Phong Port. Part of the Gc region from the viral genome was amplified by RT-PCR using lung tissue samples from R. norvegicus
in Haibatrung (2/7) and Hai Phong Port (7/9), but not from R. rattus
(0/2). Viral sequences were located in the SEOV clade and formed a single lineage with Indonesian SEOV, suggesting that Vietnamese SEOV is part of a distinct lineage among Asian SEOVs.