Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Online ISSN : 1347-7439
Print ISSN : 0916-7250
ISSN-L : 0916-7250
77 巻 , 6 号
June
選択された号の論文の20件中1~20を表示しています
Anatomy
Bacteriology
  • Yao ZOU, Xiaoming ZHU, Hassan Mushtaq MUHAMMAD, Ping JIANG, Yufeng LI
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 653-660
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Recently, a series of acute swine erysipelas outbreaks occurred in Eastern China. Eight strains isolated from cases of septicemia were determined as serotype 1a, and 4 of the isolates were resistant to acriflavine. One isolate strain named HX130709 was attenuated on agar media containing acriflavine dye. The 432-bp hypervariable region in spaA gene of the field and attenuated strains were amplified and sequenced. It was further compared with the vaccine strain G4T10, and thus, the eight field strains can be divided into four spaA-types. The partial spaA gene analysis also showed that no point mutations occurred among different archived passages of HX130709 during the attenuation. Results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that eight distinct patterns with 22 to 30 DNA fragment bands were produced from field strains, and twelve distinct patterns with 23 to 27 DNA fragment bands were produced from different passages of the attenuated strains. Mouse pathogenicity test showed that the mortality of the mice infected with 104 CFU field strains was 100% and the attenuation of strain HX130709 occurred between 46 and 50 passages. All the field and attenuated strains were highly sensitive to β-lactam antibiotics, tetracyclines and macrolides. So, we can make conclusions that the acute swine erysipelas outbreaks in Eastern China were caused by serotype 1a E. rhusiopathiae strains with different biochemical characteristics, and the virulence of serotype 1a E. rhusiopathiae strains is unrelated with some point mutations in 432-bp hypervariable region of the spaA gene.
  • Masanao MATAYOSHI, Takashi KITANO, Tetsu SASAKI, Masaji NAKAMURA
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 705-710
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    A total of 349 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) strains, which were isolated between 2008 and 2012 from 349 pigs at two slaughterhouses in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. All isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial agents for which isolates showed a high incidence of resistance were as follows: ampicillin (100%) and streptomycin (100%), followed by gentamicin (99.7%), oxytetracycline (99.7%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (99.4%), nalidixic acid (40.1%) and oxolinic acid (40.1%). All isolates were sensitive to cefuroxime, ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin and danofloxacin. The predominant resistance phenotypes and genotypes were: resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (58.5%, 204/349) and blaTEM-strA-strB-aadA1-aadA2-aacC2-tet (B)-sul1-sul2-dhfrXII-dhfrXIII (36.1%, 126/349). The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of the quinolone-resistant isolates (n=12) showed amino acid substitutions of Ser-83→Phe or Asp-87→Tyr in GyrA and Ser-107→Ala in ParC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance among S. Choleraesuis strains in Japan.
Biochemistry
  • Liselotte Bruun CHRISTIANSEN, Flemming DELA, Jørgen KOCH, Takashi YOKO ...
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 669-675
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    No studies have investigated the mitochondrial function in permeabilized muscle fiber from cats. The aim of this study was to investigate tissue-specific and substrate-specific characteristics of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in feline permeabilized oxidative muscle fibers. Biopsies of left ventricular cardiac muscle and soleus muscle, a type I-rich oxidative skeletal muscle, were obtained from 15 healthy domestic cats. Enzymatic activity of citrate synthase (CS), a biomarker of mitochondrial content, was measured. Mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity with various kinds of non-fatty-acid substrates and fatty-acid substrate in permeabilized muscle fiber was measured by using high-resolution respirometry. CS activity in the heart was 3 times higher than in the soleus muscle. Mitochondrial state 3 respiration, ADP-stimulated respiration, with complex I-linked and complex I+II-linked substrates, respectively, was significantly higher in the heart than in the soleus muscle when normalized for muscle mass, but not for CS activity, indicating that greater capacity for mitochondrial OXPHOS with these non-fatty-acid substrates in the heart may depend on higher mitochondrial content. In contrast, the soleus muscle had higher mitochondrial state 3 respiration with fatty acids than the heart when normalized for CS activity, indicating greater capacity for fatty-acid oxidation per mitochondrion in the soleus. Our findings suggest that there are tissue- specific and substrate-specific quantitative and qualitative differences in mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity between the different types of oxidative muscles from cats.
Internal Medicine
  • Hajime ASADA, Hirotaka TOMIYASU, Yuko GOTO-KOSHINO, Yasuhito FUJINO, K ...
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 677-684
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/21
    ジャーナル フリー
    Canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive tumor type originating from histiocytic cell lineages. This disease is characterized by poor response to chemotherapy and short survival time. Therefore, it is of critical importance to identify and develop effective antitumor drugs against HS. The objectives of this study were to examine the drug sensitivities of 10 antitumor drugs. Using a real-time RT-PCR system, the mRNA expression levels of 16 genes related to drug resistance in 4 canine HS cell lines established from dogs with disseminated HS were determined and compared to 2 canine lymphoma cell lines (B-cell and T-cell). These 4 canine HS cell lines showed sensitivities toward microtubule inhibitors (vincristine, vinblastine and paclitaxel), comparable to those in the canine B-cell lymphoma cell line. Moreover, it was shown that P-gp in the HS cell lines used in this study did not have enough function to efflux its substrate. Sensitivities to melphalan, nimustine, methotrexate, cytarabine, doxorubicin and etoposide were lower in the 4 HS cell lines than in the 2 canine lymphoma cell lines. The data obtained in this study using cultured cell lines could prove helpful in the developing of advanced and effective chemotherapies for treating dogs that are suffering from HS.
  • Kazuya KUSHIDA, Urs GIGER, Toshihiko TSUTSUI, Megumi INABA, Yoshio KON ...
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 743-746
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    Erythrocyte pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency is an inherited glycolytic erythroenzymopathy caused by mutations of the PKLR gene. A causative mutation of the feline PKLR gene was originally identified in Abyssinian and Somali cats in the U.S.A. In the present study, a TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR genotyping assay was developed and evaluated for rapid genotyping and large-scale screening for this mutation. Furthermore, a genotyping survey was carried out in a population of four popular purebred cats in Japan to determine the current mutant allele frequency. The assay clearly displayed all genotypes of feline PK deficiency, indicating its suitability for large-scale survey as well as diagnosis. The survey demonstrated that the mutant allele frequency in Abyssinian and Somali cats was high enough to warrant measures to control and prevent the disease. The mutant allele frequency was relatively low in Bengal and American Shorthair cats; however, the testing should still be carried out to prevent the spread of the disease. In addition, PK deficiency should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of anemia in purebred cats in Japan as well as worldwide.
Laboratory Animal Science
  • Yu Ri HONG, Hyun LEE, Min Hee PARK, Jong Kil LEE, Ju Youn LEE, Hwa Deo ...
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 693-699
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    Niemann-Pick type C disease (NP-C) is a rare and ultimately fatal lysosomal storage disorder with variable neurologic symptoms. Loss of neuronal function and neuronal cell death occur in the NP-C brain, similar to the findings for other neurodegenerative diseases. Targeting of neuronal cells in the brain therefore represents a potential clinical intervention strategy to reduce the rate of disease progression and improve the quality of life. We previously reported that bone marrow stem cells show a neurogenic effect through CCL2 (also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, MCP-1) secretion in the brains of NP-C mice. However, the direct effect of CCL2 on neurogenesis has not been ascertained. Here, to define neurogenic effects of CCL2 in NP-C, we applied human recombinant CCL2 to neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from NP-C mice. CCL2-treated NSCs showed significantly increased capacity for self-renewal, proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Similar results were observed in the subventricular zone of NP-C mice after CCL2 treatment. Furthermore, infusion of CCL2 into the NP-C mouse brain resulted in reduction of neuroinflammation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that CCL2 is a potential new therapeutic agent for NP-C.
  • Kunio SATOU, Jun-ichi SUTO
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 753-759
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    We investigated the effect of the Y chromosome on testis weight in (B6.Cg-Ay × Y-consomic mouse strain) F1 male mice. We obtained the following results: (1) Mice with the Mus musculus domesticus-type Y chromosome had significantly heavier testis than those with the M. m. musculus-type Y chromosome. (2) Variations in Usp9y and the number of CAG repeats in Sry were significantly associated with testes weight. The Ay allele was correlated with a reduced testis weight, and the extent of this reduction was significantly associated with a CAG repeat number polymorphism in Sry. These results suggest that Y chromosome genes not only influence testis weight but also modify the effect of the Ay allele in mediating this phenomenon.
Pathology
  • Hideyuki KANEMOTO, Rei MORIKAWA, James Kenn CHAMBERS, Koichi KASAHARA, ...
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 715-719
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    A Pomeranian dog, 1 year- and 8 month-old neutered female, was presented with persistent respiratory distress and recurrent generalized demodicosis. Physical examination revealed cyanosis, rough respiratory sounds, multifocal alopecia and dermal erosions on the dorsal side of the forelimbs, perineal area and skin around the eyes. A severe diffuse interstitial lung pattern was observed on thoracic radiographs. The blood examination revealed neutrophilia and hypoglobulinemia. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations of IgG and IgA were low. Histopathological examination revealed severe diffuse interstitial pneumonia with Pneumocystis carinii infection. Severe lymphoid depletion was observed in the spleen and other organs with lymphoid follicles consisted mainly of CD3-positive T cells and few cells of B-cell lineage. B-cell hypoplasia with subsequent antibody deficiency was suspected.
  • Noriyuki HORIUCHI, Makoto KOMAGATA, Keiichi SHITAMURA, Shiori CHIBA, K ...
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 729-732
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    An 11-year-old Holstein-Friesian cow exhibited anorexia and jaundice. A large mass was found in the liver during necropsy. Macroscopically, the mass was composed of dark red multilobular tissue and a centrally located abscess, which was connected to the hepatic duct. Histologically, the mass consisted of proliferation of small neoplastic cells and was demarcated from the hepatic parenchyma by a thick region of granulation tissue. The neoplastic cells were predominantly arranged in solid sheets, but they also formed blood-filled cancellous structures, and proliferating foci were seen around blood vessels. Periodic acid-Schiff reaction demonstrated that a fine basement membrane-like structure surrounded the neoplastic cells. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and alpha smooth muscle actin and negative for cytokeratin, factor VIII-related antigen, chromogranin and desmin. Based on its histopathological features, the hepatic neoplasm was diagnosed as a primary glomus tumor. This is the first report about a primary glomus tumor of the liver in a cow.
  • Takayuki MINESHIGE, Go SUGAHARA, Tamio OHMURO, Junichi KAMIIE, Kinji S ...
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 739-742
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    A 12-year-old mixed-breed neutered female dog was referred with cutaneous tumors at the left auricle. Histologically, the cutaneous tumor located in the dermis comprised numerous clefts and cavernous channels lined by neoplastic endothelial cells with no erythrocytes. Bone tissue without direct contact with neoplastic cells was seen in the well-developed stromal connective tissue. The neoplastic endothelial cells exhibited mild to moderate atypia. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were positive for vimentin and negative for cytokeratin and factor VIII-related antigen. Basement membrane around the neoplastic lumens was positive for laminin in a linear or granular pattern. Ultrastructural examination revealed discontinuous basement membrane beneath the tumor cells. Histopathological features of this case were consistent with lymphangiosarcoma, and stromal ossification was characteristic.
Pharmacology
  • Yasuhiro UNO, Masakiyo HOSOKAWA, Teruko IMAI
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 721-724
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    Arylacetamide deacetylase (AADAC), a microsomal serine esterase, hydrolyzes drugs, such as flutamide, phenacetin and rifampicin. Because AADAC has not been fully investigated at molecular levels in cynomolgus macaques, the non-human primate species widely used in drug metabolism studies, cynomolgus AADAC cDNA was isolated and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequence, highly homologous (92%) to human AADAC, was more closely clustered with human AADAC than the dog, rat or mouse ortholog in a phylogenetic tree. AADAC was flanked by AADACL2 and SUCNR1 in the cynomolgus and human genomes. Moreover, relatively abundant expression of AADAC mRNA was found in liver and jejunum, the drug-metabolizing organs, in cynomolgus macaques, similar to humans. The results suggest molecular similarities of AADAC between cynomolgus macaques and humans.
Physiology
  • Rieko OKAME, Keiko NAKAHARA, Yumiko KATO, Makoto BANNAI, Noboru MURAKA ...
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 661-668
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/10
    ジャーナル フリー
    It has been suspected that in comparison with glucose or fatty acids, the levels of amino acids may readily change with different forms of exercise. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of amino acids, glucose, triglycerides, total protein and total cholesterol in the blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of rats subjected to forced running exercise on a treadmill, and voluntary running exercise using a wheel, with a constant running distance of 440 m. Rats that performed no running and rats subjected to immobilization stress were used as controls. We observed a few significant changes in the levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, total protein and total cholesterol in all groups. Whereas, plasma amino acid levels were significantly changed by exercise and stress, especially during the light period. The plasma levels of many amino acids were specifically increased by forced running; some were decreased by immobilization stress. Few amino acids showed similar changes in their levels as a result of voluntary running. In addition, there was a significant difference in the degree of amino acid imbalance between blood and CSF. These results provide the first information on changes in levels of amino acids in plasma and CSF resulting from forced and voluntary exercises.
Surgery
  • Seonmi KANG, Sangwan PARK, Hyunwoo NOH, Jiyoon KWAK, Kangmoon SEO
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 685-692
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    This study was performed to evaluate changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) during standard coaxial phacoemulsification using 4 different bottle heights (BHs) and 2 different incision sizes. Coaxial phacoemulsification was performed with a venturi-based machine in 8 enucleated canine eyes through 3.0 and 3.2 mm clear corneal incisions (CCIs). A pressure transducer inserted in the peripheral cornea monitored the IOP in real-time. The surgery was subdivided into 4 stages: sculpt-segment removal, irrigation/aspiration, capsular polishing and viscoelastic removal. The mean IOP and the difference between the maximum and minimum IOPs were calculated at each stage and compared. The ultrasound time and volume of irrigation fluid used were recorded. The mean IOP increased with an elevation in the BH. The mean IOP in the irrigation/aspiration stage was significantly higher than that in the sculpt-segment removal stage at the same BH. The difference between the maximum and minimum IOP at each stage was greater in the 3.2 mm than the 3.0 mm CCIs, although the mean IOP was lower with the 3.2 mm than the 3.0 mm CCIs. The ultrasound time and irrigation fluid volume were greater with the 3.2 mm than the 3.0 mm CCIs. Therefore, fluidic parameters during each stage could be reassessed and adjusted to reduce complications arising from an elevated IOP. Phacoemulsification with 3.0 mm CCIs at a lower BH might lead to less stress on the eye from IOP fluctuations, ultrasound energy and irrigation fluid.
  • Sho FUKUI, Yoshifumi ENDO, Kazuko HIRAYAMA, Hiroyuki TANIYAMA, Tsuyosh ...
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 747-751
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    Simultaneous removal of bilateral thyroid tumors was performed while preserving the parathyroid gland in six dogs. At least one external parathyroid gland was identified in all dogs. In five cases, the external parathyroid gland and its blood supply were preserved intact. In one dog, the vessels supplying the external parathyroid gland had been invaded by the tumor, and the gland was thus removed and reimplanted into the sternohyoid muscle. That dog required postoperative treatment with oral calcium gluconate and vitamin D3. Local tumor recurrence was not observed in any of the cases. The mean survival time was 920 days. We found that the external parathyroid gland could be identified and preserved in most dogs undergoing total thyroidectomy.
Theriogenology
  • Naidong WANG, Anwen YUAN, Jun MA, Zhibang DENG, Liqun XUE
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 711-714
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    The use of serologically detectable male (SDM; also called H-Y) antigens to identify male embryos may be limited by the source of anti-SDM antibody. In the present study, novel anti-SDM B9-Fab recombinant clones (obtained by chain shuffling of an A8 original clone) were used to detect SDM antigens on murine embryos. Murine morulae and blastocysts (n=138) were flushed from the oviducts of Kunming mice and incubated with anti-SDM B9-Fab for 30 min at 37°C. With an indirect immunofluorescence assay, the membrane and inner cell mass had bright green fluorescence (presumptive males). Overall, 43.5% (60/138) were classified as presumptive males and 56.5% (78/138) as presumptive females, with 85.0 and 88.5% of these, respectively, confirmed as correct predictions (based on PCR analysis of a male-specific [Sry] sequence). We concluded that the anti-SDM B9-Fab molecule had potential for non-invasive, technically simple immunological sexing of mammalian embryos.
Virology
  • Niyokwishimira ALFRED, Huan LIU, Mu Lan LI, Shao Feng HONG, Hai Bo TAN ...
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 643-651
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/13
    ジャーナル フリー
    Astroviruses are the principal causative agents of gastroenteritis in humans and have been associated with diarrhea in other mammals as well as birds. However, astroviral infection of animals had been poorly studied. In the present study, 211 rectal swabs collected from cattle and water buffalo calves with mild to severe diarrhea were tested for bovine astrovirus (BAstV) by RT-PCR. Results: 92/211 (43.6%) samples were positive for BAstV, at a rate of 46.10% (71/154) in cattle and 36.84% (21/57) in water buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial and full-length of 25 ORF2 amino acid sequences obtained in this study classified the Guangxi BAstVs isolates into five subgroups under the genus of Mamastrovirus, genotype MAstV33, which suggested that the water buffalo was a new host of this genogroup that previously included only cattle and roe deer. Despite the origin of the host, the Guangxi BAstV isolates were closely related to the BAstV Hong Kong isolates (B18/HK and B76-2/HK), but highly divergent from the BAstV NeuroS1 isolate previously associated with neurologic disease in cattle in the U.S.A. Nucleotide sequence-based characterization of the ORF1b/ORF2 junction and corresponding overlapping regions showed distinctive properties, which may be common to BAstVs. Our results suggested that cattle and water buffalo are prone to infection of closely related astroviruses, which probably evolved from the same ancestor. The current study described astroviruses in water buffalo for the first time and is thus far among the largest epidemiological investigations of BAstV infection in cattle conducted in China.
  • Akira HASHIMOTO-GOTOH, Takahiro MATSUKI, Takayuki MIYAZAWA
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 733-737
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/26
    ジャーナル フリー
    Here, we report a first study of virus removal by a novel membrane filtration system, named the “Pore Diffusion”. The “Pore Diffusion” manipulated the direction of circulating flow from vertical to parallel to the membrane, thereby achieved to alter the trans-membrane pressure as low as possible. We compared the viral activity between before and after filtration by both infectivity assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Among 4 “Pore Diffusion” modules tested, the big module with average pore size of 80 nm showed the highest log reduction value of viral activity. Our study shows the possibility of “The Pore Diffusion” to filtrate viruses from bioproducts without increasing the trans-membrane pressure, so that the filtration process can be carried out effectively and economically.
Wildlife Science
  • Tsukasa OKANO, Katsuhi NAKATA, Yumiko NAKAYA, Takashi NAGAMINE, Manabu ...
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 637-642
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Ryukyu long-furred rat, Diplothrix legata, is a large rodent distributed only on Amami-ohshima Island, Tokuno-shima Island and Okinawa-jima Island, Japan. This animal is endangered as a result of deforestation, predation by introduced carnivores and mortality caused by vehicles. We performed theriogenological examinations of 32 male and 25 female Ryukyu long-furred rats carcasses collected from wild populations on northern Okinawa-jima Island from December 2005 to September 2013. Adult males had remarkably large preputial glands. Seminiferous diameter of adult was significantly small (136 ± 28 µm, n=8) from April to August. Numerous spermatozoa were observed from September through February, and seminiferous diameter was significantly large (216 ± 27 µm, n=12) during this time in adults; testes length changed in a similar pattern. These findings indicate that the mating season may occur from September through February. Size (body length) at sexual maturity was estimated to be >560 mm in both sexes. From observation of corpora lutea and placental scars, litter size was estimated to range from 2 to 12 (average=6, n=4). These results provide fundamental knowledge that will be beneficial for in situ and ex situ conservation of this rare species.
  • Gábor Árpád CZIRJÁK, Lóránd Béla KÖBÖLKUTI, Miklós TENK, Attila SZAKÁC ...
    2015 年 77 巻 6 号 p. 701-703
    発行日: 2015年
    公開日: 2015/07/01
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2015/02/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    A natural hybrid of Vipera ammodytes × Vipera berus was presented having low body weight, seizures and generalized swelling of the cephalic region. Based on the history of the case and clinical examination, hemorrhagic stomatitis of traumatic origin was diagnosed. The snake was kept in a terrarium with wood chips as a substrate, and the material had induced trauma in the oral mucosa which was further complicated with Salmonella Arizonae and Morganella morganii co-infection, abscessation and osteomyelitis. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of bacterial infection in European snake hybrids and one of a few case reports in European snakes. Although wood chips are an inexpensive substrate, based on our findings, they should be avoided when keeping and breeding European vipers.
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