Changes in the somal growth and dendritic patterns of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were studied in early chick embryos and post-hatching chicks by means of the retrograde axonal transport labeling with DiI. Branching patterns of the dendrites were relatively uniform on E8 (embryonic day 8) and became more complicated on E11. Variety of the branching pattern became plainly abundant after E14. On the other hand, somata of RGCs continued to grow until E14, corresponding the appearance of the central-peripheral gradient of the somal size. After E14, RGCs elaborated on the formation of the dendritic patterns as found in chick retina, and simultaneously the growth of somal sizes almost ceased.
The oral vaccination against Fowlpox was investigated via drinking water containing the F132-c strain of Fowlpox virus to be effective even though the vaccine virus-titer was 104 TCID 50/dose each time. When the virus-titer of the F132-c strain was 104-5 TCID50/dose per single drinking water vaccination, 90% or more of chickens were not protected, however, they were protected when vaccinated twice via drinking water. A weak immune response occurred by a slight infection after the first vaccination, and due to memory cells, a booster could work well after the second vaccination. These results suggest the possibility of reducing both the amount of virus required for a vaccine via drinking water and the labor cost in the field.
It has recently been suggested that the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand SDF-1 (CXCL12) promote metastasis of various cancers in humans. Since feline mammary tumors also metastasize to distant organs frequently, we used real-time quantitative PCR to examine the expression of feline CXCR4 (fCXCR4) in ten feline mammary tumor cell lines and seven feline mammary tumor tissues, and also the expression of feline SDF-1 (fSDF-1) in various organs. Cell lines derived from metastatic regions expressed more fCXCR4 than those derived from primary tumors. Mammary tumor tissues overexpressed more fCXCR4 than normal mammary tissues. Organs with high levels of fSDF-1 expression represent common sites of metastasis. Migration assays using the feline mammary tumor cell line NAC were also performed to test the activity of TN14003 and TC14012, antagonists of human CXCR4, to antagonize fCXCR4 expressed on NAC cells. TN14003 and TC14012 inhibited migration of NAC cells. We conclude that fCXCR4 may be a therapeutic target for feline mammary tumors.
Mammary tumors are common in cats. As mutations in human Brca2 confer an increased risk of breast cancer, the full-length cDNA of the feline homologue of Brca2 was sequenced to obtain a basis for studying the relationship between its function and susceptibility to mammary tumors. The feline Brca2 cDNA is 10 kb long, and encodes 3,371 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of feline Brca2 shares low homology with the Brca2 of other mammals, e.g., 53% homology with the murine protein. Analysis of the expression pattern of the feline Brca2 gene revealed that, as previously reported for other mammals, it is transcribed in various tissues, including the mammary gland.
Circulating thyroglobulin autoantibody (TgAA) was analyzed using the Western immunoblot for determination of the dominant epitopes recognized by TgAA on tryptic peptides of canine thyroglobulin (cTg) in hypothyroid dogs. TgAA was measured in hypothyroid dogs, non-hypothyroid dogs with skin diseases and clinically normal dogs. Five of the 7 hypothyroid dogs, 1 of the 8 dogs with skin diseases and 1 of the 4 normal dogs were positive for TgAA. Four of the 5 TgAA-positive hypothyroid dogs were Golden Retrievers, and 3 of them showed high antibody titers. The sera of TgAA positive-dogs reacted to several peptides, and their patterns varied from sample to sample. Sera from 3 dogs with high titers of TgAA reacted broadly to high molecular weight peptides ranging from 45 to 90 kDa. These Western immunoblot patterns of the sera were disappeared after pretreatment with sufficient amount of intact cTg. All serum samples of both TgAA positive dogs and negative controls reacted to low molecular weight peptides ranging from 15 to 20 kDa. These immunoblot patterns of the sera were not disappeared even after pretreatment with sufficient amount of intact cTg. These findings show the possibility that the epitopes recognized by TgAA depend upon individual dogs with hypothyroidism and these autoantibodies recognize conformational epitopes on the cTg molecule.
Torasemide is a new loop diuretic that combines the effects of furosemide and spironolactone. There are no reports on the effects of torasemide in cats and dogs. This study compared the diuretic effects of furosemide and torasemide in cats and dogs. Cats with pressure overload cardiac hypertrophy were given oral placebo, torasemide 0.3 mg/kg, or furosemide 1 mg/kg or 3 mg/kg. Control and mitral regurgitation dogs were given oral placebo, torasemide 0.2 mg/kg, and furosemide 2 mg/kg for 7 days. Urine samples were obtained at baseline and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hr after each drug dose. Urine volume and urine Na+ and K+ were measured. Both furosemide and torasemide increased urine volume 1 hr after administration. Furosemide caused a dose-dependent increase in urine volume that peaked at 2-3 hr in cats and dogs. The diuretic effect of furosemide disappeared 6 hr after administration, while that of torasemide peaked 2-4 hr after administration and persisted for 12 hr in cats and dogs. In MR dogs, torasemide for 7 days significantly decreased urine potassium excretion. Plasma aldosterone increased with torasemide, whereas there was no change with furosemide. In conclusion, about 1/10 concentration of torasemide was as potent as furosemide and had a longer diuretic effect in cats and dogs. These data suggest that torasemide is useful for treating congestive heart failure or edema in cats and dogs.
A novel PCR assay was developed in order to examine the prevalence of Haemobartonella felis (H. felis) in Japanese domestic cats and which was able to differentiate of the Ohio strain and the California strain of H. felis. Blood samples from a total of 21 cats suspected of having haemobartonellosis were examined employing a novel PCR assay and demonstrated positive results in 18 cats which was confirmed by cytological examination of blood smears. Four out of 18 positive cats (22%) were infected with the California strain, whilst the other 12 cats (67%) were infected with the Ohio strain and two animals (11%) were infected with both strains. As most of the cats with moderate to severe anemia were infected with the Ohio strain, it is suggested that the most prevalent strain of H. felis in Japanese domestic cats might be the Ohio strain. In the present study, it was thought that molecular detection and characterization of H. felis may provide valuable information regarding the severity and prognosis of this illness.
The feline cardiac and serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and chymase activities were determined and compered in dogs, and hamsters. In all three species, cardiac chymase activity exceeded ACE activity; however, there were some differences. In cats, left ventricular ACE and chymase activities (0.15 ± 0.01 and 0.59 ± 0.1 mU/mg-protein, respectively) were lower than in dogs (0.42 ± 0.05: p<0.01 and 2.0 ± 0.4 mU/mg-protein: p<0.01) and hamsters (0.93 ± 0.06: p<0.001 and 2.1 ± 0.2 mU/mg-protein: p<0.01); in contrast, serum ACE activities was higher in cats (12.7 ± 1.0 mU/ml) than in dogs (5.9 ± 0.6 mU/ml: p<0.001). The relative contribution of chymase (cats: 84.0 ± 5.1%, dogs: 81.4 ± 3.4%, and hamsters: 72.6 ± 5.6 %) to ANG-II formation in the heart was greater than that of ACE in these animals (cats: 10.9 ± 4.1%, dogs: 11.5 ± 3.6%, and hamsters: 17.2 ± 0.8%). These species-specific differences suggest that the efficacy of renin-angiotensin system modulating agents may differ among species.
A 6-month-old male golden retriever was presented with fever, bloody-watery diarrhea and mild cough. Parvovirus and Isospora canis infection was confirmed and successfully treated. Two weeks later, the dog had severe cough and mucopurulent nasal discharge. Aspergillus niger was cultured from endotracheal washings on blood agar at 37°C. Treatment with itraconazole for about 10 weeks resolved the clinical signs.
Heartworm caval syndrome (CS) occurred in three dogs under 2 years of age. A 23-month-old dog was recovered by surgical and medical treatments, but the other 2 dogs (15 and 21 months old) died. Necropsy demonstrated 12 heartworms in the 15-month-old dog and 8 worms in the 21-month-old dog. Histopathologically, pulmonary arterial embolism caused by dead worms and thrombi were observed in these cases. The findings suggested that CS could develop regardless of canine age and worm burden if pulmonary arterial embolism related to worm death or thrombus formation were induced.
Wild rodents (58 Apodemus speciosus, 29 A. argenteus and 7 Microtus montebelli) were surveyed for endoparasites in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, from October to December 1995 and from April to October 1996. Two trematodes (Echinostoma macrorchis, Plagiorchis muris), 4 or more cestodes (Hymenolepis diminuta, Raillietina coreensis, Cladothyridium spp., Cysticercus fasciolaris), 12 nematodes (Carolinensis minutus, Eucoleus sp., Heligmosomoides kurilensis, H. protobullosus, H. speciosus, Heterakis spumosa, Rhabditis (Pelodera) orbitalis, Rictularia cristata, Syphacia emileromani, S. frederici, S. montana, Trichuris sp.) and 3 protozoans (Giardia sp., Trichomonas sp., Trypanosoma sp.) were identified. The two species of Apodemus were similar to each other, but they were extremely different from M. montebelli in parasite fauna.
Three canine gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) were examined. Histopathologically, the tumor mass in the jejunum (Case 1) consisted of the proliferation of epithelioid cells with abundant eosinophilic or vacuolated cytoplasm. Gangliocyte-like or multinucleated giant cells were scattered. The tumor cells exhibited neural natures mimicking human gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumors, which were immunopositive for several neuronal markers. Another jejunal mass (Case 2) was composed by a solid proliferation of spindle-shaped cells, arranging in interlacing fascicles and occasional storiform pattern. The tumor seemed to be classified undifferentiated GISTs, that showed no apparent neural or muscular features by ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examinations. In the pyloric mass (Case 3), the spindle cells having eosinophilic processes and elongated nuclei were arranged in sheets. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed muscular natures as regards alpha smooth muscle actin and desmin expression.
To determine the effects of propofol and sevoflurane on hemodynamics, acid-base balance and uterine activity in pregnant animals, a prospective experimental study was designed by use of ten pregnant goats. Propofol was intravenously administered at a bolus dose of 5 mg/kg and then infused a rate of 0.3 mg/kg/min for 5 min. Following the induction, the animals were incrementally inhaled 2.7 and 4.1% of end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane each for 30 min, and then recovered. The maternal and fetal heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (BP) and acid-base balance, the intrauterine pressure (IUP), and the uterine blood flow (UBF) were measured. Following the pre-anesthetic data, the parameters were measured 7 times throughout the anesthetic and recovering periods. The propofol infusion induced 1.37 times of HR increase and produced decrease in PO2 and a relevant metabolic acidemia in the mother, with no effect in the fetus. Sevoflurane reduced BP in the fetus from 30 (2.7%) to 60 (4.1%) min of inhalation. The uterine contractions disappeared throughout sevoflurane inhalation, and then recurred within 15 min after the cessation of sevoflurane. Propofol injection increases HR, and induces a moderate hypoxemia and metabolic acidemia associated with the suppressed ventilation for pregnant goats, with less effect on the fetal hemodinamics. Sevoflurane causes minimal change in maternal hemodynamics, but induces significant hypotension in the fetus and reduction of uterine activity. These data may be useful in making anesthetic choices combined with analgesia for Caesarian section in goats.
Permanent pacemakers are commonly used in veterinary practice and can have a dramatic effect on the treatment of heart block. A Labrador Retriever dog suffering from exercise intolerance secondary to third degree atrioventricular block was treated with a new pacemaker system. A steroid-eluting screw-in type lead that has the advantage of being more fixed to the myocardial wall without increasing the pacing threshold was used. The heart rate was regulated with an acceleration sensing pacemaker generator that included several automatic modulation systems. Nineteen months after implantation, the dog has a normal level of activity. The present case suggests that this pacemaker design may offer important advantages for canine patients.
Complement-mediated cytotoxicity for porcine islet cells (PICs) was evaluated using sera of six animal species. Then soluble complement receptor type-1 (sCR1) as an anti-complement agent was added to those sera, and the changes in 50% hemolytic unit of complement serum (CH50) and cytotoxic effect of those sera on PICs were examined. All the sera except for that of pig showed cytotoxicity. However, the extent of toxicity was considerably different between species. In the rat and human serum, sCR1 significantly reduced CH50 and cytotoxicity, however in the dog serum, sCR1 had no suppressive effects. These results may suggest that complement contribute to humoral cytotoxicity for PICs as a main factor, and the compatibility of complement with PICs differs between animal species.
A 10-year old male mongrel dog was presented to the University Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a two-month history of episodic syncope. Twenty-four hr Holter electrocardiographic (ECG) recording revealed frequent episodes of advanced atrioventriculer block with long periods of ventricular asystole. The cause of syncope was determined to be Adams-Stokes syndrome exhibited bradyarrhythmia. After the animal failed to respond to medical therapy, permanent transvenous pacemaker implantation was performed. Postoperative Holter ECG showed 100 beat per min programmed pacemaker rhythm, which indicated successful capture of the artificial pacing. The dog recovered smoothly from the operation and syncopal episodes completely disappeared. Six months after the surgery, no complications were observed and the dog's quality of life has dramatically improved.
The effects of acepromazine-butorphanol (AB), midazolam-butorphanol (MB) and medetomidine (Med) on the induction dose of propofol and their compatibility with propofol were evaluated in client-owned dogs. All premedications induced good to excellent sedation and the induction dose of propofol was considerably reduced. Of the tested premedicants, Med induced the deepest sedation and the most potent dose-sparing effect. Induction of anesthesia was excellent to good in all dogs except for one dog premedicated with MB. Most dogs premedicated with AB or MB showed temporary apnea. Although other adverse effects such as bradycardia or hypotension may also occur, premedication with MB, AB or Med is a valuable technique for the induction of anesthesia with propofol in dogs in a clinical setting.
The effects of twisting and type (single- or double-lumen) of aspiration needle on the efficiency of transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pick-up (US-guided OPU) were investigated in cattle. The first study using slaughterhouse ovaries revealed that twisting of the needle during follicle aspiration improved the oocyte recovery rate without deleterious effects on the attachment of cumulus layers. Vacuum pressure affected the oocyte recovery and cumulus attachment, regardless of the needle type. The needle type did not affect the oocyte recovery or cumulus attachment with an optimized vacuum pressure. In the second study, US-guided OPU was performed in live cows using two types of needles with a vacuum pressure of 75 mmHg. The needle type did not affect the oocyte recovery or cumulus attachment of the recovered oocytes. The results revealed that twisting of the needle is effective in follicle aspiration, and suggested that a single-lumen needle is as useful as a double-lumen needle for US-guided OPU in cattle.
Testes of 15 wild adult male raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procynoides) obtained from September 2000 to April 2001 were studied to clarify seasonal changes in spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis. There were marked seasonal variations in the testis weight and size with values relatively low in September and highest in March. Spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were observed in September, while spermatogonia, spermatocytes and round spermatids were present in January, and all types of spermatogenic cells including mature spermatozoa were found in the mating season (February and March). The number of spermatogenic cells reached their peak values in February and March. In addition, steroidogenic enzymes were immunolocalized using polyclonal antisera raised against bovine adrenal cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc), human placental 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 βHSD), porcine testicular 17α-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (P450c17), and human placental aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom). P450scc and P450c17 were identified in Leydig cells and spermatids in February, whereas these enzymes were present only in Leydig cells in September. 3βHSD was found in Leydig cells in September and February with more intense staining in February. The localization of P450arom changed seasonally: no immunostaining in September; more extensive immunostaining in Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, and elongating spermatids in February. These results suggest that seasonal changes in the testis weight and size of wild male raccoon dogs are correlated with changes in spermatogenesis. Seasonal changes in testicular steroidogenesis suggest that the synthesis of androgen and estrogen reaches its peak in the mating season.
Twenty-one wild male Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) were captured in the summer-autumn of 1998-2000 in the vicinity of Neo Village, Gifu Prefecture. Testes were measured, and testicular samples were biopsied and observed histologically. Four steroidogenic enzymes, i.e., cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD), 17-α hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (P450c17), and aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) were immunolocalized. Serum testosterone concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Testis size changed little from 1-3 years of age, increased rapidly at 4 years, and attained its peak at 5 years. Serum testosterone concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 1.78 ng/m l, and the mean ± standard deviation was 0.43 ± 0.48 ng/ml. Age of sexual maturation in wild male Japanese black bears was estimated to be 3-4 years. Seasonal changes in spermatogenesis were obvious; active in June, July and August, degenerated by September. Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and germ cells have the capability of synthesizing androgen, and Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, spermatids and spermatogonia have the capability of synthesizing estrogen in Japanese black bears.
The effects of two Peruvian folk medicines, Lepidium meyenii Walp and Jatropha macrantha, on mouse sex steroid hormones and embryo implantation were investigated. Progesterone levels increased significantly in mice that received L. meyenii Walp, while testosterone levels increased significantly in mice that received L. meyenii Walp as well as in those that received both L. meyenii Walp and J. macrantha. However, there were no marked changes in blood levels of estradiol-17β or the rate of embryo implantation.
A sensitive and specific in situ amplification technique is needed to elucidate the dynamics of rabies virus in the body during the long incubation period after infection. To overcome the disadvantage of using the traditional reverse transcription (RT)-PCR in in situ studies, an isothermal nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) technique was developed for detection of the rabies virus gene. The NASBA technique involves the use of 4 enzymatic activities to produce multiple RNA copies of the target sequence by means of double-strand cDNA intermediates under an isothermal condition without thermocycling. The amplified cDNA intermediates from the genomic RNA in the rabies virion and the total RNA in the infected cells in NASBA reaction were analyzed by Southern hybridization assays. The specific amplified products of the rabies viral gene with the expected length were detected after 8 hr of incubation in NASBA using both of the RNAs as templates. The NASBA system used in this study was less sensitive than the general RT-PCR technique. This may have been because we employed Southern hybridization for the amplified cDNA intermediates, not many RNA copies, to evaluate the NASBA results. In conclusion, we successfully amplified the rabies viral gene in the NASBA reaction under an isothermal condition. The unique character of this technique would make it particularly valuable for in situ studies not only on rabies virus but also on other RNA viruses.