The absorption and the transportation of intestinally administrated bovine lactoferrin (LF) were immunohistochemically and physiochemically investigated in the small intestine of growing pigs. At the apical halves of the small intestinal villi, bovine LF was absorbed by transcytosis as small vesicles through villous columnar epithelial cells. The presence of bovine LF-positive membranes of transcytotic vesicles suggests that the absorption was mediated by LF-binding factors on the epithelial cell membranes. Almost all of the absorbed bovine LF was demonstrated to be transported via the lymphatics and the portal vein into the systemic circulation. The LF-concentration in systemic circulation was significantly higher at 1 hr following intestinal administration of bovine LF. Bovine LF-positive lymphocytes also were transferred into the systemic circulation from intestine via the lymphatics and the portal vein.
This study was carried out to clarify the role of lymphocyte subpopulations and Babesia-specific antibody on the treatment of clindamycin in dogs infected with B. gibsoni. Ten beagle dogs were divided into two groups: an untreated group (5 dogs) and a clindamycin-treated group (5 dogs), which was administered clindamycin at 25 mg/ kg body weight, per os, q 12 hr from 7 days to 21 days post-infection (PI). On the acute stage of infection, clindamycin treatment resolved anaemia and other clinical findings. There were no significant differences between treated and untreated dogs either in parasitemia levels or Babesial IgG antibody levels. However, morphological changes that indicated degeneration in the majority of parasites were observed. The numbers of CD4+ showed a significant increase in treated dogs, especially after treatment. On the chronic stage, CD4+ cells maintained high level both of the treated and untreated dogs. Although parasitemia maintained low level, their relapses were occurred on the 49th day PI in treated dogs and on the 42nd and 63rd PI in untreated dogs. A rapid humoral antibody response was observed in treated dogs, however, lower humoral antibody responses in untreated dogs after relapses. The antibody levels of treated dogs were significantly higher than those of untreated dogs. These results suggested that clindamycin might not eliminate rapidly parasites from peripheral blood, but damage parasites, which might stimulate efficiently humoral and cellular immunity against Babesia infection, and result in an improvement of clinical conditions.
Prior to pre-exposure treatment of cats with two mouse-cat chimeric antibodies, FJH2 and F1D7, having neutralizing activity to feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) and cat calicivirus (FCV), respectively, these chimeric antibodies were labeled with 125I and administered to cats to examine their blood kinetics. Concentrations of the both administered chimeric antibodies in the blood reached maximum at the 48th hour post-administration, and the level was 34% for FJH2 and 54% for F1D7. Then the concentration levels declined gently, and decreased afterwards to 8.2% for FJH2 and 25% for F1D7 on the 20th day post-administration. The blood half-lives of FJH2 and F1D7 were 8.3 days and 10.7 days, respectively. In order to examine effectiveness in pre-exposure treatment of cats with these chimeric antibodies, cats were administered on the 15th day prior to the challenge infections with FHV-1 and FCV by subcutaneous route with 0.5 ml/kg of an FJH-F1D7 mixture being adjusted to contain each chimeric antibody of 10 mg/ml. The cats that received the pre-exposure treatment with the cocktail, showed obvious reductions in manifestations of symptoms caused by those viral infections. The protective effectiveness of the pre-exposure treatment against these viral challenge infections was almost equal to that of the treatment given at right after these challenge infections.
A comparison of the expression of surface membrane antigens between dendritic cells (DC) derived from Peyer's patch macrophages (DPP-DC) of non-infected and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infected mice was performed. C57BL/6J mice aged 6-8 weeks of both sexes were infected orally with a 0.5 ml suspension containing 2 × 104 bradyzoites of the Beverley strain of T. gondii, sacrificed on day 8 and DC generated using discrete Peyer's patch macrophages (DPP-Mø) as progenitor cells. When a comparison of the expression of surface membrane antigens between the antigen presenting cells (APC) obtained from discrete Peyer's patches of non-infected and T. gondii infected mice was carried out, no significant differences were observed in the macrophage progenitor and DC populations expression of F4/80, DEC-205, CD11c, CD80 (B7-1) and CD34. However, a significant decrease in MHC class II antigen levels and a down regulation of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 (B7-2) were noted. B7-1 appeared to be the dominant co-stimulatory ligand, whereas B7-2, which was down regulated during T. gondii infection, had a weak expression. Taken together, these results may help clarify the role of DC in the complex network regulating surface membrane antigens, as well as, their capacity for antigen uptake, processing and presentation during toxoplasmosis.
It is well known that chicken B cells develop in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), which is categorized as gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Chicken GALT also includes Peyer's patch (PP) and cecal tonsil (CT). The relationship between these tissues in GALT during B cell development is currently unknown. In this study, we conducted comparative examination of PP, CT and BF development during embryogenesis using immunohistochemical staining. On day 13 of embryogenesis (E13), accumulation of MHC class II+ cells was observed in the intestine. Thereafter, Bu-1+ cells and IgM+ cells appeared, and their number continuously increased at the same sites where MHC class II+ cells were present. Similar results were obtained in the CT. The locations of embryonic PP were limited to two sites; near the Meckel's diverticulum and the ileocecal junction. Anlage of bursal follicles first appeared at E13 and developed thereafter. Immigration of Bu-1+ cells to bursal follicles began at E13, and the number of Bu-1+ cell subsequently increased. When the follicle of BF was eliminated from the embryo by treatment with testosterone, development of PP and CT were observed. We concluded therefore that the development of PP and CT start during late embryogenesis at the same time as the follicle of BF, and that appearance of surface IgM+ cells in PP and CT is independent form the development of the follicle of BF.
Telomerase is a kind of reverse transcriptase which synthesizes and elongates telomeres. Telomerase activity is detected in many naturally occurring tumors and its expression appears to play an important role in the immortalization of tumor cells. In this study, cDNA encoding the feline telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene was cloned partially from a feline lymphoma cell line. The clone obtained in this study was 237 bp long including a reverse transcriptase motif 2, and was shown to have amino acid sequence similarity of 81.0% and 58.2% with human and mouse TERT cDNAs, respectively. TERT mRNA expression was detected in telomerase-positive cells (FL74, FT-1, 3201, FKNp, FONp, and FYMp), and was not detected in telomerase-negative cells (normal fibroblasts and CRFK). TERT mRNA was detected in various normal tissues including the spleen, pancreas, stomach, cerebrum, testis, bone marrow, lymph node and thymus, and relatively high-level expression was observed in the small bowel and large bowel. No expression of TERT mRNA was detected in the liver, adrenal gland, urinary bladder and lung. The TERT cDNA clone and the results obtained in this study will be useful for further investigation of feline tumors.
To investigate the hemodynamic effects on seven anesthetized dogs with experimentally-induced mitral insufficiency, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) in sustained release form (EV151) was administered at different dosages (0, 2, 8 and 16 mg/kg). The drug administration resulted in altered pulmonary arterial wedge pressure (preload), and cardiac output and total systemic resistance (afterload). Arterial pressure increased in the control group and in animals receiving 2 mg/kg, but decreased in animals 1-2 hr after receiving 8 and 16 mg/kg dosages. Cardiac output increased in animals receiving 2, 8 and 16 mg/kg dosages, with concomitant decreases in total systemic resistance. ISDN caused mild vasodilation at 2 mg/kg and severe vasodilation at 8 and 16 mg/kg. Future experiments on non-anesthetized dogs may be of benefit.
One hundred and ninety cases of rabbits, seen at animal hospitals in Saitama and Tokyo, Japan from 1998 to 2001, with BUN values greater than 27 mg/dl were analyzed regarding their underlying and/or complicating diseases and outcomes. Gastrointestinal disorder (54 cases) was the most common disease, followed by overgrowth of molar teeth and then liver disturbance. The total mortality was 48.9% within three months, and cases showing complications such as liver disturbance or bacterial infection showed highest mortality. Cases with higher BUN values showed even higher mortality, although mortality varied depending on the complications. Therefore, the prognosis of rabbit cases with high BUN values should be evaluated based on findings from blood chemistry, together with the seriousness of the underlying and/or complicating disease.
This paper deals with 16 cases presented from April to December 2001 and diagnosed clinically as rabbit syphilis, because they showed distinct lesions around the nose and/or mouth, responded to chemotherapy, and the "Rapid Plasma Reagin" test was positive. Twelve cases exhibited initial symptoms and four were relapses. Lesions around the genitalia and/or anus as well as the nose and/or mouth were seen in 8 cases, and 6 cases indicated sneezing. Fifteen cases were successfully treated with oral administration of chloramphenicol, and one was treated with long-acting penicillin by intramuscular injection. The mean age of onset was 8.8 months. As none of these cases had any mating history, the disease was likely to be maternally transmitted.
The complete coding region sequence of equine muscle-type phosphofructokinase (ePFKM) was obtained from skeletal muscle of a thoroughbred horse. The deduced amino acid sequence of ePFKM showed 97%, 96%, 96%, 96% and 95% identity to canine, human, mouse, rabbit and rat PFKM, respectively. The amino and carboxyl terminal halves of ePFKM presented a structure of tandem repeat, as other mammalian PFKMs. As the amino acid residues constituting various ligand-binding sites were also conserved, it is thought that ePFKM has enzymatic activity similar to PFKM in other mammals.
The development of sucking pressure was investigated with an artificial nipple in 16 male and female rat pups on postnatal days 4, 7, 10, 14, and 18. The rat pups refused to suck on the artificial nipple on postnatal day 14 or day 18 thus negative sucking pressure had to be calculated by regression analysis. As a result, the mean maximum intra-oral negative sucking pressure on day 18 was calculated to be -160.1 mmHg in the male and -103.4 mmHg in the female. Based on these results, the maximum level of negative pressure of the automated experimental rat milker was set at -160 mmHg. The automated experimental milker for rat is able to collect milk from lactating mothers by alternating negative and atmospheric pressures through two solenoid valves and a vacuum pump attached to a microcomputer. Mother rats were milked with the automated experimental milker on postpartum days 4, 7, 10, 14 and 18 of a single lactation period. The maximum mean milk yield with this machine was 3.18 ± 1.37 g, obtained on day 14 of the lactation period. This quantity is considerably lower than previously reported values obtained by measuring differences in body weight of the offspring and mother rat before and after suckling. It is necessary to further optimize this system, but the milk yield in the present study is adequate for chemical analysis.
Chimeric simian and human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) are useful tool for investigating AIDS pathogenesis and for development of vaccine. We constructed a SHIV-vpr vector (designated as SHIV-3sj) by replacing vpr region with restriction enzyme sites. SHIV-3sj was designed to express inserted gene along with its viral replication. Five cytokine genes were inserted into SHIV-3sj, and ability of viral replication and expression of the inserted genes were examined. The short insert including RANTES and IL-5 resulted in the successful expression from SHIV-3sj, while the construct having longer genes including IL-2, IL-6 and IL-12p35 failed to become replication competent. These results suggest that the length of the insert is an important factor for the replication ability of SHIV-3sj vector.
The viability and infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) oocysts, detected in water samples collected from river water in Hokkaido, were investigated using Severe Combined Immunodeficient (SCID) mice. The water samples collected from September 27 through October 10, 2001 by filtration using Cuno cartridge filters were purified and concentrated by the discontinuous centrifugal flotation method. From 1.2 × 10 5 liters of the raw river water, approximately 2 × 104 oocysts were obtained and designated as Hokkaido river water 1 isolate (HRW-1). Oocyst identification was carried out using microscopic and immunological methods. Six 8-week-old female SCID mice were each inoculated orally with 1 × 10 3 oocysts. Infection was successfully induced, resulting in fecal oocyst shedding. Oocysts were then maintained by sub-inoculation into SCID mice every 3 months. Infectivity was evaluated by making comparisons with two known C. parvum stocks, HNJ-1 and TK-1, which were bovine genotypes detected in fecal samples from a cryptosporidiosis patient and young cattle raised in Tokachi, Hokkaido respectively. The oocyst genotypes were determined from a small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) gene by polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. No significant differences were observed in the average number of oocysts per gram of feces (OPG) in any of the isolates. Our data indicates that the C. parvum oocysts detected in the sampled river water were of C. parvum genotype 2. Moreover, our data on the continued isolation, detection and identification of the C. parvum isolates is consistent with the available epidemiological data for the Tokachi area.
In the present study, we investigated plasma levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) in seven Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) infected with Plasmodium coatneyi. Concentrations of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were significantly elevated in the severe phase; the levels were maximally increased up to six times and three times those before infection, respectively. We subsequently examined kinetic profiles of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 concentration in plasma obtained from two infected monkeys. Both infected monkeys had markedly increased levels of these adhesion molecules when they exhibited severe clinical signs correlated with rapid increase in parasitemia. These results suggest that the elevation of levels of sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 is a critical step in the pathogenesis of severe malaria in vivo.
PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the mini-exon gene revealed that four strains isolated from a sloth (Choloepus hoffmanni), a squirrel (Sciurus granatensis) and two sandflies (Lutzomyia hartmanni) in Ecuador were indistinguishable from Endotrypanum monterogeii. Another strain isolated from Lu. hartmanni showed the high sequence similarity to E. schaudinni. Since three of these strains have been previously identified as Leishmania (Viannia) equatorensis, the results demonstrate that L. (V.) equatorensis is genetically closely related to the genus Endotrypanum. The present study also indicates that Endotrypanum species are distributed in arboreal animals and sandflies in Ecuador, and that mini-exon gene amplification is useful for epidemiological studies of Leishmania and Endotrypanum in the New World.
Thirty-three cases of enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL) and 14 cases of sporadic bovine leukosis (SBL) were examined by immunohistochemistry using 6 monoclonal antibodies against leukocyte differentiation molecules of bovine leukocytes. There were 17 cases of B-1a cell type, 10 cases of B-1b cell type and 6 cases of B-2 cell type in EBL, and 5 cases originating from B cells (B-2 cell type) and 9 cases originating from immature T cells in SBL. The average age for the EBL cases of B-1a cell type was 8.6 years, B-1b cell type was 6.5 years, and of B-2 cell type was 4.5 years. In cases of SBL, immature T cell type patients were younger than B-2 cell type ones. The lymphoma originating from B cells differed from that originating from T cells in morphology. In T cell tumors, the nucleus of tumor cells was round, the edge of the cytoplasm obvious, and tumor cells were sporadically present and proliferated. When compared with T cells, the region among B cells was obscure. But, there was no relation between phenotype and the histologic classification of tumor cells. In EBL, beyond the lymph node, tumors of B-1a and B-1b types had developed in the heart and abomasum, and those of the B-2 type tended to occur in liver. In SBL, B-2 type and T type cells formed tumors in the liver, kidney, thymus, and one case of T-cell type tumor formed on the skin. We would like to propose a new classification of bovine leukosis as EBL, calf type B-cell lymphoma, juvenile T-cell lymphoma and skin type T-cell lymphoma.
A deformed liver characterized by remarkable ductular proliferation was encountered in a 6-month-old pig and examined histopathologically. The most conspicuous histopathologic change was a mild to severe ductular proliferation in the interlobular areas without any degenerative changes of cholangiolar epithelial cells or hepatocytes. Fibrotic changes and reconstruction of the lobule were not found. Morphological evidence of intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholestasis was lacking. Other characteristics were deformity with displacement of the gall bladder, irregular shape and size of lobules, and structural abnormality of large-sized vessels. The severe ductular proliferation was considered to be due to structural malformations of the excretion channel of bile.
Xenotransplantation of porcine pancreatic endocrine (PE) cells in a diffusion chamber, a bioartificial endocrine pancreas (Bio-AEP), was conducted to total pancreatectomized dogs. Six pancreatectomized dogs were divided into two groups of 3 dogs each. In three dogs of the control group, exogenous insulin was administered twice a day for 30 weeks to maintain fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels within the normal range. The remaining three dogs were implanted with Bio-AEPs (implantation group), in addition to daily insulin administration. In the implantation group, Bio-AEPs containing 1.3 to 1.8 × 107 cells per kg of body weight of the recipient were implanted without fixation into the abdominal cavity. In the control group, exogenous insulin requirements did not decrease during the experimental period, whereas it significantly decreased for a certain period (3, 11, 17 weeks) after implantation in all implanted dogs. In the implantation group, laparotomy was performed after FBG and the exogenous insulin requirement increased again and Bio-AEPs were removed. Two Bio-AEPs were completely destroyed, and the remaining one was encapsulated by thin fibrous tissue. In this dog, effusion was present within the capsule, but the Bio-AEP was not destroyed. Histopathologically, the necrosis, presumably caused by hypoxia, of the PE-cells was observed on transmission electron microscopy. In conclusion, Bio-AEP could function for a certain period after implantation in this study. However, more preclinical researches should be needed to apply this technique for the treatment of diabetic dogs.
Propofol was used as an induction agent of general anesthesia in 77 dogs and 64 cats, all client owned, for a variety of surgeries/treatments or diagnostic procedures. The mean intravenous doses of propofol required to achieve endotracheal intubation in dogs and cats were 6.5 ± 1.4 mg/kg and 10.1 ± 2.8 mg /kg, respectively. Most of the animals could be induced to anesthesia smoothly by the administration of propofol with a high incidence of apnea. Propofol is a clinically valuable anesthetic induction agent in both dogs and cats, however, care must be taken for apnea.
Spotted seals (Phoca largha) and related crossbreeds maintained at Kamogawa Sea World breed seasonally from the end of January to middle of March. For contraception in these animals, the effect of a single administration of a contraceptive synthetic luteal hormone for dogs, proligestone (PRG), was investigated. The animals tested were 10 seals aged 4-24 years old, and a total of 35 trials were performed over five years. PRG was administered in 23 trials during January, which was one month before the estimated estrus, and in 12 trials during December of the previous year, which was two months before the estimated estrus. The dose of PRG was 5 mg/kg in 32 trials and 10 mg/kg in 3 trials. The effect of the contraception was judged by the presence or absence of delivery. Among 23 animals treated in January, 2 animals treated with 5 mg/kg PRG became pregnant, but the contraception was successful in the other 21 animals. Contraception was successful in all 12 trials treated with 5 mg/kg PRG in December. Overall, contraception was successful in 94.3% (33/35). Therefore, a single administration of 5 mg/kg PRG in December may be an effective method of contraception for seals.
The number of spermatozoa required to obtain conception by intratubal insemination in dogs was examined. Three groups consisting of 5, 8 and 8 dogs received 0.5 × 10 6, 2.0 × 106 and 4.0 × 106 spermatozoa, respectively, into each uterine tube. No conception occurred in the 5 animals inseminated with 0.5 × 106 spermatozoa, but conception occurred in 6/8 (75.0%) and 3/8 (37.5%) dogs inseminated with 2.0 × 106 and 4.0 × 10 6 spermatozoa, respectively. Among the pregnant animals, three aborted (33.3%) and the mean number of newborns was small, 2.5 ± 0.5 (SE). One acardiacus anceps was observed with normal fetus in one animal with a Caesarean delivery.