Atlanto-occipital fusion in a Japanese Brown calf was examined morphologically, paying special attention to skeletal changes. At the craniovertebral junction, the basal occipital bone fused to the cranial extremity of the ventral arch of the atlas with the rudiment of the atlantal centrum. The dens was not formed at the axis. These changes suggest that a hypocentrum and a centrum of the atlas derived from the first cervical sclerotome had failed to separate the occipital base from the proatlantal sclerotome including the apical element of the dens. Although a developmental disturbance at the cervical and thoracic vertebrae was also associated, critical neurological signs such as ataxia and paralysis were absent.
The proximal straight tubules of the female mouse kidney exhibit heavy periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining in their brush borders and numerous cytoplasmic granules. In the present study, the female DBA/2Cr mouse kidney was examined, using various fixatives (formalin, PFA, PLP, Zamboni's, Bouin, or Carnoy solution) and various staining methods (HE, PAS, alcian blue, periodic acid methenamine-silver (PAM), toluidine blue, azan, or Congo red). Under azan and PAM, the staining pattern of the brush border was similar to that of PAS, and few effects of the fixative were observed. Cytoplasmic granules were clearly detected with PAM as well as PAS. However, these granules were not detected with Carnoy solution. Furthermore, distribution of granules differed between PAS and PAM.
This study was carried out to describe the arterial supply of Meckel's diverticulum (MD) in geese, using 36 adult healthy geese of both sexes, 50 to 52 weeks of age. The arterial supply of MD was classified into three types, In the first type, MD was supplied by a very distinct branch from the cranial mesenteric artery in 21 geese. In the second type, it was supplied by one terminal branch from the cranial mesenteric artery in 9 geese. In the third type, it was supplied both by one branch from the jejunal artery and by terminal branch from the cranial mesenteric artery in 6 geese. Based on the these types, we found significant differences (p≤0.01) in the length of MD between type I and II. The blood supply of the third type was observed more frequently in the male than in the female. Results from this study may contribute to the anatomical knowledge of arterial supply of MD in the geese.
The structure of isotype-specific regions of classes I, II, III, IVa and IVb of canine β-tubulin was characterized by 3'-RACE and the expression of these isotypes in canine tissues was examined by ribonuclease protection assay (RPA). Furthermore, a malignant mammary tumor-derived osteosarcoma-like cell line was established and the altered expression of β-tubulin isotypes in taxol-resistant sublines was analyzed. The deduced amino acid sequences in isotype-specific regions corresponding to classes I, II and IVb were identical to those of humans and mice, but those in classes III and IVa showed slight differences among species. RPA revealed that classes I and IVb were widely distributed, but classes II, III and IVa were restricted to the brain. Because RPA could clearly distinguish the expression of class IVa from that of class IVb, it was thought to be more useful than northern blot for analysis of β-tubulin isotype expression. In vitro, taxol-resistant sublines displayed a significant increase in class IVa as compared with taxol-sensitive cells, suggesting that altered expression of class IVa was associated with taxol resistance in these cell lines.
An acute open angle glaucoma of the right eye was diagnosed in an 8-year-old male Yorkshire terrier which was presented with anorexia, depression, and trembling. Abnormal findings of the right eye on admission included elevated intraocular pressure (IOP; 40 mmHg), the presence of fibrin and flare in the anterior chamber, and immature cataract. Morphological abnormalities of the iridocorneal angle were not detected, and an open angle was seen in the eye. Although an elevated IOP was observed at one year after admission, lowering IOP (≤ 24 mmHg) was maintained with medical therapy using dichlorphenamide (DCPA) and timolol maleate, DCPA alone, or no-treatment for 1973 days. This case suggests that lower IOP can be maintained with medical therapy alone for a long period in a patient with open angle glaucoma.
A chemical characteristic of the feces of diarrheal piglets permits differentiation among piglets receiving antibiotic treatment and those with colibacillosis or dyspepsia. A high concentration of lactic or succinic acid was observed in the diarrheic feces of piglets receiving antibiotic treatments and those with dyspepsia; however, no lactic or succinic acids were detected in piglets with colibacillosis. There was, however, little difference in the total concentration of organic acids among the three types of diarrheal illnesses. A quantitative analysis of lactic and succinic acids in diarrheic feces might provide a means for rapidly differentiating between colibacillosis and non-pathogenic diarrheas in piglets.
A detailed comparison of the accessory cell activities was carried out among murine peritoneal cavity macrophages (PEC-MΦ), peritoneal cavity macrophages stimulated with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) plus interleukin 4 (IL-4), the most popular cytokine combination widely used to generate dendritic cells (DC) and peritoneal cavity macrophage-derived DC (PEC-DC) using a two-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). All the cell types used efficiently induced statistically significant naïve T cell proliferation at all culture time points and responder:stimulator ratios used. However, marked differences were noted in the magnitude of the proliferative responses. These variations may be attributed to the intensity of expression of MHC class II glycoproteins, as well as the actual numbers of MHC class II+ cells.
Plasma lipid peroxide levels were examined in cats. Plasma lipid peroxide levels in 3 of 4 clinical cases which had been fed raw fish were higher than those in normal cats. When healthy cats were put on a raw fish diet in controlled conditions, a remarkable increase in plasma lipid peroxide was observed. This increase occurred within 1 to 3 weeks in cats without obvious clinical disorders. We also showed that a continuous raw fish diet is necessary to cause the increase, but the increase was transient and restored in spite of a continuous raw fish diet, indicating the development of an unidentified antioxidant process. Our results clearly indicate that intake of foods high in polyunsaturated fatty acid can induce oxidative stress in cats.
Changes in subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymphocyte blastogenesis reaction were observed after ozonated autohemoadministration (OAHA) in calves. Ten healthy calves were used in this study. After OAHA, CD8+ cells, CD14+ cells and WC1+cells increased (p<0.05). The level of lymphocyte blastogenesis stimulated by PHA decreased after OAHA. A significant increase in serum IL-6 activity was observed in OAHA calves. These results suggested that OAHA induced immunological changes in calves.
To compare the effects of two dietary protein sources, fish meal (FM) and corn gluten meal (CGM), fecal moisture content, nitrogen balance and urinary excretion were examined in adult cats. The dietary protein source did not cause a significant difference in daily food intake, water intake, urine volume, dry matter digestibility or urinary nitrogen excretion, but fecal moisture content was lower (P<0.02) in the CGM group. The HCl-insoluble fraction of urinary sediment tended to be higher in the CGM group (P<0.10), although urinary pH was similar in the two groups. These results suggest that CGM is comparable with FM in respect to nutritional value and the urine acidifying effect, but FM may be preferable to CGM for the prevention of constipation and struvite urolithiasis in cats.
To investigate the effects of repeated atropine injection on heart rate (HR) variability in resting Thoroughbred horses, two μg/kg of atropine as parasympathetic nervous blockade was injected intravenously every 6 min to a total of 8 μg/kg after intravenous administration of 0.2 mg/kg of propranolol as sympathetic nervous blockade. We recorded electrocardiograms and obtained the HR, then evaluated variation in HR from the power spectrum in terms of low frequency (LF, 0.01-0.07 Hz) power and high frequency (HF, 0.07-0.6 Hz) power. Administration of atropine decreased parasympathetic nervous activity in a dose-dependent manner, affecting first the LF power, then the HF power and finally HR. These responses may provide valuable information for evaluating autonomic nervous activity in Thoroughbred horses.
ICGN is a partially inbred strain of mice with nephrotic syndrome caused by spontaneous glomerular lesion. It has been reported that the albuminuria in ICGN mouse was controlled by at least a single autosomal recessive gene (nep). In this study, we mapped the nep locus by linkage analysis of backcross progeny between ICGN and MSM mice using DNA pooling method. The linkage analysis revealed that the nep locus was localized on the distal part of chromosome 15.
Between September 13th and November 18th in 1999, four ball pythons, Python reginus kept in the same display, showed anorexia and died one after another. At necropsy, all four snakes had severe hemorrhagic colitis. Microscopically, all snakes had severe necrotizing hemorrhagic colitis, in association with ameba-like protozoa. Some of the protozoa had macrophage-like morphology and others formed protozoal cysts with thickened walls. These protozoa were distributed throughout the wall in the large intestine. Based on the pathological findings, these snakes were infested with a member of Entamoeba sp., presumably with infection by Entamoeba invadens, the most prevalent type of reptilian amoebae.
During the study on the mechanism of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, we observed that a long incubation (4 hr) with doxorubicin reduced the maximal negative inotropic effects of a muscarinic receptor agonist, carbachol. The mechanism responsible for this doxorubicin-induced reduction of the efficacy of carbachol was examined in isolated guinea pig hearts. In isolated left atrial muscle preparations, 1 hr incubation with 100 μM doxorubicin caused a parallel right-ward shift of the concentration-response curves for carbachol, but a longer (4 hr) incubation with this agent (30, 100 or 200 μM), caused a significant reduction of the magnitude of the negative inotropic effect of carbachol in addition to the concentration-dependent parallel right-ward shift. The 4-hr incubation with these concentrations of doxorubicin also reduced the maximal negative inotropic effect of an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, R-phenylisopropyl adenosine (R-PIA), without affecting the potency of this agonist. Doxorubicin (1 to 100 μM) reduced [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) binding in a concentration dependent manner, but failed to alter [3H]R-PIA binding. The decrease in the magnitude of the maximal negative inotropic effect by doxorubicin was caused by changes in the muscarinic system at steps common to the transduction of muscarinic and adenosine A1 receptor mechanisms.
Migratory responses of hemocytes to Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain D3 in the alimentary tracts of an estuarine neritid gastropod, Clithon retropictus, and a related marine neritid, Nerita albicilla, were examined under the scanning electron microscope. After ingesting the strain, active responses were seen at the esophagus, stomach and anterior intestine of adult C. retropictus and at the middle and posterior intestines of adult N. albicilla. When the alimentary tracts were isolated from the gastropod and incubated in vitro with strain D3, active response was induced at the most parts of the tract of the adult gastropods and at the stomach and the anterior intestine of juvenile C. retropictus. The responding hemocytes were confirmed to be granulocytes in the semi-thin sections of the tract of adult C. retropictus. The poor hemocyte responses at the middle and posterior intestines of juvenile C. retropictus might support the colonization of the organism there.
To evaluate a hypothese that use of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for early treatment of pneumonia would improve their prognosis by reducing bacterial numbers and excessive numbers of neutrophils in the lung, initial experiences with BAL in the diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia were performed in 36 racehorses that became ill within 24 hr of long distance travel (1,200-1,600 km, 26-32 hr) by road. Comparisons were made of the outcomes of the 36 horses and those of 42 horses (81.0% recovered, 50.0% returned to racing) treated for transport associated pneumonia without BAL. The total amount of BAL fluid injected during hospitalization varied from 700 to 3,700 ml and the duration of antibiotic treatments ranged from 5 to 40 days. Clinical symptoms after lavages showed good results with no side effects. None of the horses required thoracic drainage. Horses treated with BAL required shorter period of antibiotic therapy, a greater percentage recovered (100%, 36/36) and a greater percentage returned to racing (77.8%, 28/36). Eight (22.2%) never raced because of lameness or other considerations.
A 3-month-old male Japanese cat with feline parvovirus infection, showing central and cervical nerve abnormalities, was diagnosed as hydrocephalus and syringomyelia by use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The cat was maintained clinically by medical treatment even though he could not stand. The MRI scans obtained about 5 months later showed that the ventricles had increased in size and the cervical syrinx had extended into the thoracic spinal cord. Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt was performed. One week after surgery, neurological conditions had improved. At the postoperative MR images, the ventricles had decreased in size and the syrinx in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord could no longer be seen. The cat was still alive and was able to walk well.
Studies were conducted in Korean native cattle to determine the age and body weight at puberty, and to determine the postpartum anestrus intervals based on plasma progesterone profiles, rectal palpation, ultrasonography and estrus observation. Korean native cattle reached puberty at 344 days of age and at 188 kg body weight as determined by plasma progesterone profiles, but estrous behavior was not detected until 3 months later, at a body weight of 215 kg. Prolonged postpartum anestrus occurred in 40% of smallholders cows, where animals were tethered and fed hay and rice straw, whereas its incidence was only 6.8% in a well managed herd that was grazed and housed. Plasma progesterone profiles were used to monitor ovarian activity postpartum in standard fed cows (n=44) and restricted fed cows (n=20). In standard fed cows 81.8% showed luteal activity by 50 days postpartum, compared to 55% in restricted fed cows. Approximately 40% of cows in both groups had shown observable estrous behavior by this time. This study indicates that one or more ovulations had occurred before pubertal heifers and postpartum cows showed overt estrous behavior. It was concluded that improved management and feeding practices should result in improved reproductive performance.
Age-related changes in immunoreactive inhibin (ir-inhibin) levels and the relationship among ir-inhibin, gonadotropins and testosterone were examined in 53 Holstein bull calves from neonates to 8.6 months old. Serum levels of ir-inhibin, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone, as well as ir-inhibin levels in testicular extracts, and testicular sizes were measured. All hormones were measured by specific radioimmunoassays. The concentrations of ir-inhibin in serum and testicular tissue were high in neonatal calves and tended to decrease with age. In contrast, serum concentrations of gonadotropins did not show any age-related changes within the experimental period. Serum testosterone levels and testicular sizes (length, width and weight) were positively correlated with age. Furthermore, a positive immunostaining to antiserum for the inhibin α-subunit was immunocytochemically observed only in Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules from neonates to calves less than 6 months old. These results indicate that the immature bovine testis produces and secretes high levels of ir-inhibin and that the Sertoli cells are a major source of ir-inhibin in prepubertal bull calves.
In 3 adult female cheetahs, induced-superovulation treatment was conducted, by means of 200 IU of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and 100 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) 80 hr after PMSG. The administration of PMSG created a sharp increase in the estradiol-17β concentration, resulting in 232 pg/ml 8 hr later in one specimen out of three. The hCG administration showed an increase in the progesterone concentration of 2.29 ng/ml 46 hr later. In addition, after direct observation of the ovary surface by laparoscopy, 5 follicles in the right ovary over 2 mm in diameter, and 7 corpora lutea (5 in the right ovary and 2 in the left) were found. It is assumed that ovulation can be induced with hCG after 80 hr on PMSG during a cheetah's diestrus or proestrus.
Japanese domestic cats were surveyed for circulating antibodies to the p10 and p24 proteins of the Borna disease virus (BDV) by Western blotting. Twenty-four of 52 cats (46.2%) with ataxia and other neurologic symptoms of unknown cause were positive for antibodies to BDV p10 and/or p24. In contrast, cats without neurological symptoms gave a significantly lower prevalence of anti-BDV antibodies to p10 and/or p24 (36 of 152 cats, 23.7%). Thirty specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats tested as controls were uniformly negative to BDV p10 and p24 antigens. These results suggest that BDV may play a role in ataxia in cats. Additionally, our results suggest that it is necessary to use both p10 and p24 as antigens to detect circulating antibodies to BDV in cats.
Brain samples from different animal species including humans: five vampire bats, 14 cattle, 12 dogs, 11 cats, two horses, one pig, one sheep and three humans collected from various geographical regions of Brazil were found to be positive for rabies by means of the fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and the mouse inoculation test (MIT). The brain samples were retested for rabies by means of the reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with 2 primer sets (P1/P2 and RHN1/RHNS3), which amplified full or partial regions on the nucleoprotein (N) gene of the rabies virus, respectively. Brain samples from five vampire bats, 13 cattle, one horse and one sheep failed to yield PCR products when the RHN1/RHNS3 primer pair was used, but all brain samples successfully yielded the products when the P1/P2 primer pair was used. These results suggest that Brazilian rabies virus isolates could be principally divided into two populations according to genetic difference.