The development of a PCR assay based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequence was carried out for the identification of Staphylococcus intermedius. Sixty-six strains of S. intermedius, 70 of Staphylococcus aureus and 2 of Staphylococcus hyicus were examined for the assay. The 16S rDNA, of which the PCR target fragment makes up 901 bp corresponding to the sequence data of the gene, was detected in all strains of S. intermedius, but it was not detected in any strains of either S. aureus or S. hyicus. These results suggest that the PCR allows a simple and precise identification of S. intermedius.
As a part of the elucidation of the pathogenesis of anemia in Theileria sergenti infection, oxidized-erythrocyte membrane proteins (OEMPs) collected from T. sergenti-infected calves were examined. The amount of OEMPs were seen to increase with the progress of the anemia and showed a maximum value around the crisis period of the infection. The increase of OEMPs coincided with band Nos. 1, 2, 2.1, 3, 4.1, 5, 6, and 7. The majority of them was located at the Triton X-100 un-extractive phase, and was confirmed as cytoskeletal proteins. This evidence indicates the enhancement of erythrocytic oxidation, and suggests that it might be one of the aggravating factors of anemia in T. sergenti infection.
Chitosan, a polymer of D-glucosamine, is a polysaccharide derived from the chitin found in the exoskeleton of shellfish, such as shrimp or crabs. The effects of chitosan has been recognized that chitosan-fed farm animals demonstrated higher weight gains but less incidence of diseases than the unfed ones. However, these beneficial effects has not been elucidated clearly. In this study, we examined the modulatory effect of chitosan and D-glucosamine on the expression of porcine cytokines in vitro. Porcine spleen cells were cultured in the presence of chitosan and D-glucosamine, and the effects of chitosan on the cytokine mRNA expression were evaluated. Expressions of IL-2 and IFN-γ were increased in the chitosan-treated porcine spleen cells. Expressed cytokines in the D-glucosamine-treated cells were IL-2, IFN-γ, and IL-12 p40 subunit. In particular, IFN-γ was expressed more efficiently, and D-glucosamine was more effective for expressing the cytokine gene. These results suggest chitosan as well as D-glucosamine could induce the expression of cytokines as Th1 subset such as IL-2, IFN-γ.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the practicability of using the metabolic profile test (MPT) as a preventive tool for periparturient disease of dairy cows. The MPT was assessed in 79 dairy herds with high incidence of periparturient disease and 76 healthy herds of cows producing more than 8,500 kg 305-day milk yield. The changes in metabolic profiles were also assessed in 17 dairy herds at two times, the first at high incidence of periparturient disease and the second after reduced incidence and improved feeding management. In the herds with high incidence of periparturient disease, low blood values of hematocrit, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, calcium and magnesium were observed in the dry period. These values correctly diagnosed malnutrition as the cause of periparturient diseases. Following feeding management changes, there was a low incidence of periparturient disease and the metabolic profiles were normal showing that feeding management had improved. We concluded that the MPT is a useful tool for assessing feeding management and periparturient diseases of dairy cows.
Concentrations of trace elements (As, Al, Pb, Cd, Hg, Se, Si, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni and Mn) in the mane hair obtained from 9 female and 15 male healthy racing Thoroughbred horses aged 2-5 years were analyzed by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) method. No significant differences between the female and male horses were observed in the mean concentrations of those minerals. Significantly positive correlations with age were observed in Cd (r=0.546, p<0.01) and Mo (r=0.733, p<0.001). Significantly negative correlations with age were observed in Hg (r= -0.726, p<0.001), Mn (r= -0.450, p<0.05) and Fe (r=-0.642, p<0.01). This reference range of trace elements in the mane hair of racing horses should be used to assess disease and the nutritional status in equine practice.
A spayed female mixed cat (case 1) and its female offspring, the result of a pairing between case 1 and its male sibling, were diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). A pedigree survey revealed that the prevalence of HCM was at least 12.5% in the family, which was considered to be significantly higher than that in a hospital-based population (approximately 1.6%). Thus, this finding seems to support the suspected occurrence of familial HCM in this group of related cats.
The correlation between the serum hydroxyproline concentration and serum activity levels of TRAP and BALP was examined in 41 cows. The correlated coefficient (r) was 0.6391 for TRAP and 0.3147 for BALP, respectively. Judging from the significant correlation to the serum hydroxyproline concentration, serum TRAP activity is an index for bone metabolism in cows. Serum TRAP activity was therefore measured in 205 healthy cows (2-9 years old) in order to observe the changes in bone resorption with aging and milk production. TRAP levels differed slightly between group A (≤4 yrs) and B (5 yrs≤) at the same stage of lactation. The activity levels rose slightly at the height of lactation stage and during the dry stage.
It is known that physical disruption of cell contacts induces apoptosis of thymocytes. When thymocytes from LEC and WKAH rats were incubated in vitro at 37°C for 0-6 hr and then the proportion of apoptotic cells was determined using a flow cytometer, it was found that the percentages of apoptotic thymocytes from both LEC and WKAH rats increased with incubation time and that the proportion of apoptotic cells from LEC rats was significantly higher than that from WKAH rats at each incubation time. The fact that cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, did not show significant inhibitory effects on induction of apoptosis of thymocytes indicates that induction of apoptosis during in vitro cultivation did not require de novo protein synthesis. When thymocytes from LEC and WKAH rats were X-irradiated in vitro at 4 and 8 Gy, the percentages of radiation-induced apoptotic cells increased with post-incubation time after X-irradiation in both LEC and WKAH rat thymocytes and the proportions of apoptotic cells from LEC rats were significantly higher than those from WKAH rat cells at 2 and 4 hr post-incubation after X-irradiation. When thymocytes from LEC and WKAH rats were X-irradiated in the presence of cycloheximide, the induction of apoptosis was substantially inhibited, indicating that radiation-induced apoptosis of thymocytes from LEC and WKAH rats required de novo protein synthesis. The present results showed high sensitivities of thymocytes of LEC rats to induction of apoptosis during in vitro cultivation and by X-irradiation.
The efficacy of agarose in preventing VX2 carcinoma cell leakage was evaluoted and the results were compared with two traditional methods. Forty-five rabbits were divided into 3 groups: Group 1, VX2 tumor cells were injected directly into the liver and no special procedure after removal of the needle; Group 2, the puncture site was gently compressed, using an alcoholic cotton gauze, for three minutes; Group 3, 0.2 ml of heated liquid agarose was injected to seal the aperture after injection of VX2 cells. The leakage rates were 80%, 53.3% and 6.6% for group 1, group 2 and group 3, respectively. We consider agarose is a useful material in preventing the leakage in the establishment of VX2 liver tumor models.
Babesia gibsoni infected erythrocytes were collected from the blood of an experimentally infected dog. The parasite isolated could be continuously cultivated in vitro, with an average parasitemia of 18.2 ± 2.4% on day 3 of culture, in RPMI-1640 medium supplemented with 7.5% normal dog serum in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2 at 37°C. The parasites in the original culture were morphologically similar to those found in the peripheral blood of dogs, however, on the 4th generation of subculture, the large oval parasites, erythrocytes including many parasites and extracellular parasites were frequently observed. The B. gibsoni isolate was injected to the dog to test its infectivity after maintained in vitro for 738 days at the 214th subculture. The cultivated parasite did not cause a severe clinical sign in the dog.
Ticks were collected from 94 sika deer (Cervus nippon) hunted in the western part of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan from August to November 1999, and March to July 2000. Haemaphysalis longicornis and H. yeni were the dominant species from April to August, while H. flava and H. megaspinosa were dominant in October, November and March. This is the first report of H. yeni in the mainland of Japan. Small numbers of H. kitaokai, Amblyomma testudinarium and Ixodes ovatus were also recorded.
To investigate the liver tumorigenic sensitivity to various carcinogens in heterozygous p53 deficient [p53 (+/-)] CBA mice and their wild-type littermates [p53 (+/+) mice], 71 p53 (+/-) and 74 p53 (+/+) CBA mice (male, 6-12 weeks of age) were given diet containing 4,000 or 0 ppm flumequine (FL) for 26 weeks or a single intraperitoneal injection of 5 mg/kg body weights dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) at start of the study in Exp. 1, diet containing 6,000 or 0 ppm di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) for 26 weeks in Exp. 2, or diet containing 12,000, 6,000 or 0 ppm phenolphthalein (PhP) for 26 weeks in Exp. 3. All surviving animals of these groups were killed after completion of treatment of the test substances for 26 weeks. In the FL groups, the incidences of hepatocellular altered foci in p53 (+/-) mice, the multiplicities of those in p53 (+/-) and p53 (+/+) mice were significantly increased as compared to the corresponding control groups. The incidences and multiplicities of altered foci in the DMN groups were higher than those in the corresponding control groups in p53 (+/-) and p53 (+/+) mice, but no significant differences were indicated between the groups. There were no significant differences in the incidences, multiplicities and proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling indices of altered foci in the FL or DMN groups between p53 (+/-) and p53 (+/+) mice. There were no significant differences in the incidences and multiplicities of altered foci between the DEHP or PhP and control groups. The present results suggest that p53 gene knocked out heterozygously does not enhance the chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in CBA mice.
A 21-month-old Thoroughbred colt showed continuous diarrhea and developmental retardation for 7 months, and was thereafter subjected to euthanasia for necropsy and laboratory examinations. At necropsy, the cecal and colonic mucosae were diffusely rough and hyperemic. Histopathologically, the mucosa and submucosa were edematous and were infiltrated by numerous lymphocytes and macrophages. Meanwhile, three morphological types of Brachyspira antigen-containing spirochetes were found to be numerous in the crypts and in the mucus layer over the epithelium in the cecal and colonic lesions. They were frequently observed in intercellular gaps and in the cytoplasm of degenerative epithelial cells, and in the lamina propria, particularly in cavities around blood vessels. These invasive intestinal spirochetes might be one of pathogens inducing colitis and diarrhea in horses.
An anterior mediastinal cystic lesion in an 11-year-old mongrel dog was examined. The dog showed dysbasia and vomiting due to megaoesophagus, and anterior mediastinal round mass lesion, approximately 35 mm in diameter, was found by X ray. Based on clinical examinations, the dog was diagnosed as acquired myasthenia gravis and was successfully controlled by anticholinesterase treatment for approximately 4 months. The dog died of thermic stroke and was necropsied. Grossly, fatty tissues with cysts containing yellowish fluid and white nodules were found in the anterior mediastinal area. Histopathologically, multiple cysts, neoplastic tissues, and atrophic thymus were found within the examined tissues. The cysts were lined by thin wall consisting of ciliated long cuboidal and non-ciliated round cells and were filled with eosinophilic colloidal fluid. Some extended cysts contained neoplastic foci within their lumen and walls. The neoplastic tissues consisted of mixed population of large epithelial cells with abundant clear cytoplasm and large oval nuclei, and lymphocytes. Immunohistochemically, proliferating epithelial cells were intensely positive for keratin and cytokeratin, and more than half number of infiltrating lymphocytes were intensely positive for CD3 suggesting T cells. All these findings indicate the neoplastic lesion is thymoma and multiple cysts are considered as thymic or brachial cleft cysts.
To test the hypothesis that parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression locally in bone, the expression of IL-6 mRNA was examined by in situ hybridization after a subcutaneous injection of human PTH [1-84] (225 μg/kg) in 4-week old rats. Whereas IL-6 mRNA was not detected at the basal status, it was transiently detected in a subpopulation of stromal cells in the intertrabecular region of the metaphyses from 1/2 to 1 hr after PTH injection. Contrastingly, IL-6 transcripts were not detected in other cell populations at any time points examined. Since IL-6 is a known activator of osteoclasts, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that PTH stimulates the local IL-6 synthesis in stromal cells to indirectly activate osteoclasts.
Six live horses with various stages of acute to chronic superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendinitis were examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In each case, MRI findings were compared to the corresponding ultrasonographic (USD) and histologic findings, to establish the usefulness of MRI. In the acute cases, lesions characterized by hemorrhage were well defined as high signal intensity on MRI and hypoechoic regions on USD. Chronic tendon fibrosis was slightly hyperechoic and difficult to distinguish from the normal tendon tissue around the original injury by using USD. In contrast, MRI visualized the chronic lesion as a low intensity signal, which could be distinguished from the black background of the normal SDF tendon tissue. This study clearly demonstrated MRI was the better imaging modality for the objective detection of chronic scar tissue in live horses. These findings, from living horses, suggest an advantage of MRI in the clinical application to diagnose tendinitis in cases where there is chronic scar tissue that is difficult to discern on USD.
A 5-month-old male Great Pyrenees with symptoms of convulsions, circling, and a head tilt was referred to the Animal Medical Center of Nihon University. On a magnetic resonance image (MRI), a cyst in the posterior fossa was noted and a part of the cyst enhanced by gadoteridol. Based on MRI and clinical findings, the patient was tentatively diagnosed with a cyst formation tumor, and an operation to open the cyst and remove the part enhanced by contrast was performed. Postoperatively, the clinical course was good. Pathologically, the removed tissue was diagnosed as a gliosis with cyst formation.
Cross sections of the testes and the caput, corpus and cauda epididymides removed from 12 dogs were stamped on glass slides, and the sperm on the slides were stained with 6 different FITC-lectins (Con A, DBA, PNA, PSA, SBA, and WGA) to examine the characteristics of the surface glycoproteins (GPs) on canine epididymal sperm. The corpus epididymal sperm were washed three times by centrifugation, and their lectin-binding characteristics were investigated. The washed sperm from the corpus and cauda epididymides were incubated for 24 hr, and the fertilizing capacity of the sperm was evaluated by calculating the percentages of actively motile sperm (%MO), hyperactivated sperm (%HA), and acrosome-reacted sperm (%AR), and the number of canine zona-pellucida (ZP)-binding sperm. The testicular sperm did not stain with SBA lectin, but the SBA lectin fluorescence was observed on the surface of the enitire heads of the caput epididymal sperm. Although all of the entire heads or acrosomal regions of the corpus epididymal sperm stained with all 6 FITC-lectins, the heads and acrosomal regions of the cauda epididymal sperm did not stain with DBA or SBA lectins. Washing the sperm from the corpus epididymis resulted in loss of the fluorescence of the FITC-DBA and -SBA lectins. The mean %MO, %HA, %AR, and ZP-binding number of the cauda epididymal sperm after 24 hr of incubation were higher than the values for the corpus epididymal sperm. All of the mean values for the washed sperm from the corpus and cauda epididymides were higher than the values for the unwashed sperm from the corpus and cauda, and with the exception of %AR, the values from the washed sperm from the corpus epididymis were significantly higher (P<0.05, 0.01). The results indicate that DBA- and SBA-lectin-binding GPs on the surface of canine epididymal sperm are associated with the fertilizing capacity and may be decapacitation factors.
Fecal progesterone content was measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) in the sika doe (Cervus nippon). The total recovery rate of fecal progesterone by twice extraction with diethylether was about 60%. The displacement curve of TR-FIA with serial doses of fecal extract (0.156-5.0 mg feces) was closely parallel to that of the reference standard. Fecal progesterone content was correlated with that of plasma (r=0.829, n=16), but the values were 100-fold higher in feces than in plasma. Fecal progesterone content periodically changed during the breeding season suggesting the estrous cycle in the doe. The fecal progesterone content was higher between the estruses, and decreased after estrus. The time between the onset of estrous signs and the lowest fecal progesterone content was 1-2 days suggesting the time required for hepatic metabolism and intestinal passage. Fecal progesterone content was also decreased around the time of vaginal discharge. The discharge took place within a few days, suggesting a short luteal phase. Not of all decreases in fecal progesterone values were preceded by estrous behavior or vaginal discharge. Fecal progesterone content was further increased in pregnancy rather than in the preceding estrous cycle and the levels were maintained up to term. These results suggest that fecal progesterone measurement is a useful tool for non-invasive analysis of luteal function in the sika doe. The TR-FIA kit, designed for the human hospital market, was shown to be successfully utilized for fecal assay in the sika doe with minor modifications.
To evaluate the immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antibody, conventional pigs in PRRSV-positive and -negative commercial farms were examined. Antibody development patterns in ELISA and IFA tests were compared in 3 week old piglets experimentally infected with the PRRSV. The virus was detected from 2 days post infection (PI) and then the antibody titers and S/P ratios rose by both methods. A total of 208 serum samples were collected from 4 PRRSV-negative farms and 210 samples from PRRSV-positive farms, and were tested for the PRRSV antibody by IFA and ELISA. The titer of 64 should be set as the cut-off point in IFA for field sera. Similarly, the cut-off S/P ratio should be set at 0.4 in ELISA. A high degree of correlation was observed between antibody titers by the two methods in these 418 samples, with a correlation coefficient of 0.84. The coincidence rate between the two tests was 84.7% (354/418). In non-coincident cases, ELISA was able to detect the antibody with a low titer in the serum samples which were negative in IFA but from PRRSV positive farms. ELISA was more sensitive than IFA to detect PRRSV infected animals or farms.
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) attached poorly and penetrated into a mouse cell line, BALB 3T3/A31, but a recombinant BHV-1/TF7-6, which expresses pseudorabies virus (PrV) gB and gC genes, did attach and penetrated into cells more efficiently. In this study the gene green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been integrated into genome of BHV-1/TF7-6 and its parental line of BHV-1. When the mouse mesenteries were incubated in vitro and infected with BHV-1/TF7-6/GFP, strong fluorescence was observed while BHV-1/GFP infection hardly demonstrated fluorescence, suggesting that BHV-1 recombinant expressing PrV gB and gC can infect mouse tissue cells more efficiently than the parental BHV-1 does. When BALB/c mice were inoculated with purified BHV-1/TF7-6 or its parental BHV-1, the former induced lower level of anti-BHV-1 immunogloblin G (IgG) than the latter did. When sub-classes of anti-BHV-1 IgG were analyzed, it was found that mice immunized with BHV-1/TF7-6 or the parental BHV-1 demonstrated the same level of IgG2a. Since anti-BHV-1 IgG1 level was lower in mice inoculated with BHV-1/TF7-6, the IgG2a:IgG1 ratio was higher in BHV-1/TF7-6 inoculated mice than in the parental BHV-1 inoculated ones. These results indicate that BHV-1/TF7-6 induces type 1 predominant immune to BALB/c mice.
The immediate early (IE) gene of canine herpesvirus (CHV), homologue of the infected cell protein 4 (ICP4) gene of herpes simplex virus 1, is transcribed as a 4.9kb mRNA during IE phase. The IE gene was further transcribed as a 4.8kb mRNA through early (E) and late (L) phases of productive infection. Transcription of the 4.8kb mRNA initiated from downstream of the TATA box in an intron which was spliced out during IE phase. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the IE promoter was turned off during L phase at a permissive temperature. We, thus, propose to redesignate the IE gene of CHV as CICP4 gene.