The stomach of the Pacific white-sided dolphin is divided into three parts: forestomach, proper gastric gland portion, and pyloric chamber. The histological features of the dolphin stomach are similar to those of terrestrial mammal stomachs, although the distribution of glycoconjugates in mucosal cells of the dolphin stomach is unknown. To learn about glycoconjugates in cetacean gastric mucosa, the glycoconjugate distribution in the mucous epithelium of the Pacific white-sided dolphin was studied using 21 lectins. Among the lectins tested, GSL-I and DBA specifically labelled the superficial layer of the forestomach epithelium. GSL-I, SBA, RCA-I, VVA, GSL-II, DSL, LEL, STL, s-WGA, WGA, PNA, and Jacalin labelled the luminal surface of the chief cells in the proper gastric gland. GSL-I, SBA, RCA-I, DSL, LEL, STL, s-WGA, PNA, and LCA labelled tubular structures in the cytoplasm of parietal cells. The surface portion of the pits in the pyloric chamber strongly reacted with RCA-I, GSL-II, WGA, PNA, LCA, PHA-L, and UEA-I, whereas the neck portion reacted weakly. Although lining one tubular portion, individual secretory cells in the pyloric gland displayed a heterogeneous reaction. This is the first report on the lectin histochemistry of a cetacean stomach and reveals GSL-I and DBA as specific marker lectins for the cornified stratified squamous epithelium cells of the Pacific white-sided dolphin. The stomachs of cetaceans and terrestrial mammals have similar histological features and mucous glycoconjugate content.
Young calves are known to be formed with laminar bone in long-bone cortex during growing periods and the osteon formation begins later. Previously, we reported that an 11-year-old giant Holstein cow with dermal dysplasia showed a delayed osteon formation. An 8.5-year-old cow, born from the giant Holstein cow, also showed some dermal dysplasia and the outer-half layer of the child almost retained laminar bone similar to that of the mother, although the body weight was approximately normal. The mother had formed the inner circumferential lamella and the child was going to form the inner circumferential lamella, but their outer circumferential lamellas were not formed yet in both of them, when compared with a 12-years-old cow as a control of the mother. Therefore, we suggest on long-bone formation pattern that the child resembled the mother rather than the control, and that the child had more or less succeeded to the mother genes of delayed osteon formation as well as dermal dysplasia which seemed to be genetic collagen disorder, although there were mild gene appearances.
Our previous studies demonstrated that prenatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) treatment disrupts steroidogenesis but induces high-level expression of androgen receptor (AR) mRNA to inhibit the disruption of spermatogenesis. This study examined which prenatal DES treatment influenced hepatic microsomal enzymes, CYP3A1, CYP2B1/2, CYP2C11, UGT2B1 (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B1), and IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1), in male rat offspring. DES treatment decreased the mRNA expression levels of CYP3A1 and CYP2B1/2, but did not alter the expression of CYP2C11. At 6 weeks, DES treatment increasd the mRNA expression levels of UGT2B1 and IGF-1. These results suggest that prenatal DES treatment alters two hepatic enzymes (CYP3A1 and CYP2B1/2) and IGF-1 mRNA expression levels to counteract the low level of testosterone, but this disrupted UGT2B1 mRNA expression reduces the testosterone level.
An experimental infection study was performed using pigeons reared for racing or meat production in Japan and clade 2.2 and 2.3.2 isolates of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus to evaluate the possible role of pigeons in virus transmission to poultry. In experiment 1, when 20 pigeons were intranasally inoculated with high or low viral doses, no inoculated pigeon exhibited clinical signs for 14 days. Drinking water and almost all swab samples were negative for virus isolation. Virus isolation was positive in 3 oral swab samples from 2 pigeons from day 2 through 4 postinoculation, but viral titers of positive samples were extremely low. Immunohistochemical analysis for virus detection was negative in all tissue samples. Along with seroconversion in a limited number of pigeons postinoculation, these results suggest that pigeons have limited susceptibility to the virus used for experimental infection. In experiment 2, when uninoculated chickens were housed with virus-inoculated pigeons, all pigeons and contact chickens survived for 14 days without exhibiting any clinical signs. According to serological analysis, the chickens did not exhibit seroconversion after close contact with inoculated pigeons. Our data suggest that the risk posed by pigeons with respect to the transmission of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus to poultry would be less than that for other susceptible avian species.
Avibacterium (Haemophilus) paragallinarum (A. paragallinarum) is a causative agent of infectious coryza in chickens and is classified into three serovars by agglutination tests. In an effort to identify the serovars easily, PCR and PCR-RFLP were employed. As the target gene for PCR, the hypervariable region of HMTp210, which encodes the HA antigen, was used. PCR using primer sets around the hypervariable region amplified 0.8, 1.1 and 1.6 kbp fragments for serovars A, B and C, respectively. Alternatively, the 1.6 kbp fragments were amplified with another primer pair encompassing the hypervariable region and was subjected to digestion with Bgl II, which resulted in the detection of serovar-specific digestion patterns. These results indicate that PCR and PCR-RFLP using the hypervariable region of HMTp210 are alternative methods to identify the serovar of A. paragallinarum.
A total of 170 fresh fecal samples (healthy; n=137, diarrheic; n=33) were collected from pet rabbits. By using PCR and formol-ether concentration method, a total 13/137 healthy rabbit feces were positive for L. intracellularis, 6/137 for Salmonella, and 13/137 for Eimeria. On the other hand, a total 17/33 diarrheic rabbit fecal samples were positive for L. intracellularis, 10/33 for Salmonella, and 21/33 for Eimeria. From these results, more than 20% of clinically normal and 97% of diarrheic rabbits were positive for single or concurrent infection of three pathogens. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the prevalence of the microorganisms L. intracellularis, Salmonella and Eimeria in pet rabbits.
Mycobacteria isolated from epizootics of farmed fishes in western Japan were examined for the first time using multigenotypic analysis. By analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes (ITS) region and the partial 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB genes, M. pseudoshottsii was identified as the causative agent in these infections. Prior to this study, only M. marinum has been known as the causative agent of lethal mycobacterial disease in marine fishes in Japan.
The present study assesses the oxidative burst activity from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) from bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cows. Fifteen clinically healthy cows were divided into serologically positive cows without any hematological alteration, serologically positive animals with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) and healthy serologically negative cows. The oxidative burst activity from the PMNLs was evaluated by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate as a probe. PMNLs from each cow were incubated with heat-killed Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) to stimulate oxidative burst activity. The results of the present work showed no significant difference in the oxidative burst activity without any stimulus and elicited by S. aureus. Conversely, a decrease in the oxidative burst index induced by E. coli in PMNLs was observed in BLV-infected cows.
We examined the use of external measurements and relative fat deposition of adult feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) to develop relative indices of body fat deposition in post-growth feral raccoons. From March 2006 to March 2010, 288 adult raccoon carcasses (110 males, 178 females) collected in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, which were determined to be 24 months old, were subjected to external measurements of body weight (BW), girth measurement (GM), and body mass index (BMI). To assess relative body fat deposition, we visually classified abdominal subcutaneous fat into three grades (Visible Fat Index [VFI]: I-III). Significant differences in the means of BW (both sexes:P<0.01), GM (females: P<0.05, males: P<0.01), and BMI (both sexes: P<0.01) were detected between seasons. Notably, the means of BW, GM, and BMI (all, both sexes: P<0.01) differed significantly between VFI grades. However, by discriminant analysis with BW, GM, and BMI as independent variables, we obtained a significant discriminant function (both sexes: P<0.01) for distinguishing VFI I from higher VFI grades, but no significant equation was obtained for distinguishing between VFI II and VFI III. Based on the obtained structure matrix of discriminant analysis, BMI was the most valuable component for the discrimination of VFI grades. Thus, we conclude that BMI is a suitable complementary index for assessing relative body fat deposition of adult feral raccoons in Kanagawa Prefecture and may be generalizable to populations in other areas.
The effect of experimental hyperlipemia on insulin sensitivity was evaluated in seven healthy cats. Serum triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) higher when lipid-heparin was administered (2,894 ± 1,526 mg/dl and 4.54 ± 0.70 mEq/l, respectively) than when saline was administered (70 ± 42 mg/dl and 0.22 ± 0.08 mEq/l, respectively). A glucose clamp test revealed that the mean glucose infusion rate when lipid-heparin was administered (5.80 ± 0.67 mg/kg/min) was significantly (P<0.05) lower than when saline was administered (8.52 ± 1.83 mg/kg/min). These results suggest that experimental hyperlipemia induced insulin resistance in the healthy cats.
To clarfity whether polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) oxidation is involved in the mechanism of acetaminophen (APAP)-induced apoptotic cell death, the production and localization of PUFA oxidation markers Nε-propanoyl-modified lysine, Nε-hexanoyl-modified lysine, 4-hydroxyhexenal-modified histidine and crotonaldehyde-modified lysine were evaluated in the development of APAP-induced liver injury. The immunoexpression of these markers in the liver was examined up to 24 hr post-APAP intraperitoneal injection in rats (1 g/kg body weight). The histopathological changes in the liver appeared 3 hr after APAP injection and became exacerbated with time. Proapoptotic protein Bax immunoreactivity was first detected in the degenerative hepatocytes 3 hr after the injection and areas positively immunostained for Bax reached a peak level at 6 hr, and then decreased at 12 and 24 hr. There was a significant increase in the TUNEL-positive rate at 12 and 24 hr. Immunohistological expression of all these oxidation markers was first detected in the degenerative hepatocytes 3 hr after the injection, and earlier than the occurrence of hepatocyte apoptosis. Immunohistochemical expression of these markers were observed in almost all degenerative hepatocytes 3-24 hr after APAP injection. Areas positively immunostained for these markers reached a peak level at 6 hr, and then decreased at 12 and 24 hr. The results thus suggest that the generation of PUFA oxidation markers may be the signature of early events preceding the induction of liver cell apoptosis and thus useful for early detection of oxidative stress-related liver cell injury.
Seventeen cases of lymphoid neoplasms in swine were investigated and divided into eight histological types. Cases 1-3 were precursor B lymphoblastic leukemias, which occurred in three piglets from the same dam. Cases 4 and 5 were diagnosed, respectively, as a precursor B lymphoblastic lymphoma and a thymic B cell lymphoma, because there were cytological differences between the lymphomas. These five cases of immature B cell malignancies expressed CD79a and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT). Mature B cell lymphomas were divisible into follicular (case 6), diffuse centroblastic (case 7) and intestinal large B cell (cases 8-11) lymphomas. Unlike in case 7, the neoplastic cells in cases 8-11 showed cytological features intermediate between centroblasts and immunoblasts. The mature lymphomas were characterized by positive immunolabeling for CD79a and cytoplasmic immunoglobulins. A case of thymic γδ T cell lymphoma (case 12) were positive for CD3, CD5, WC1 and TdT. Instead of TdT, perforin was expressed in γδ T cell lymphomas (cases 13-17), whose histological characteristics were epitheliotropism, homing into T cell zones of lymphatic tissues, and cytological atypia and pleomorphism. In the present study, lymphoid neoplasms could be classified into discrete histological types, some of which were considered to be specific for swine.
One female newborn piglet showed prominent thickening of both forelimbs and died soon after birth. Histopathologically, thin and woven trabeculae of bone was extending out from the edge of cortical bone in the affected forelimbs, and diagnosed as congenital hyperostosis. The extent of radially proliferated trabeculae was most prominent in radioulna. Many round- to spindle-shaped cells were observed in periosteum, which were considered to be osteoblasts. Around the periosteum, the mesenchymal proliferation was extensive with abundant mucus, and cartilaginous metaplastic changes were observed mainly around the radioulna and humerus. Dilatation of vessels with fibrin deposition in vessel walls was often observed, which were considered to reflect the localized circulatory disturbance.
Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, and the main route of infection in humans is inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Although oral transmission by contaminated raw milk or dairy products is also a possible route of human infection, there have been few studies investigating the presence of C. burnetii in dairy products. We developed a new method of extracting DNA from cheese and detecting C. burnetii DNA in cheese samples with a nested PCR assay. The limit of detection was 6.0 × 102C. burnetii particles per gram. We subsequently used this method to examine the presence of C. burnetii in cheese at commercial markets in Tokyo from June 2005 to December 2008. Twenty-eight of 147 cheese samples were found to be positive for C. burnetii DNA. However, when we assessed the viability of C. burnetii by inoculating mice with DNA-positive samples, all of the samples were found to be negative. Thus, the viability of C. burnetii appears to have been lost in these cheese samples.
To evaluate the diversity of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) genes among food-producing animals, 48 isolates of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from rectal samples of broilers, layers, beef cattle and pigs, at the slaughterhouse level. ESBL-carrying E. coli were isolated from 60.0% of individual broiler rectal samples, 5.9% of layers, 12.5% of beef cattle and 3% of pigs. One ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from a broiler. The ESBL-positive E. coli isolates from broilers harbored various ESBL genes: blaSHV-12, blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-14, blaCTX-M-15 and blaCTX-M-44. The plasmid DNAs were analyzed by restriction patterns. Homogeneous band patterns were yielded in those of K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolates harboring the blaCTX-M-2 gene from different farms. No genetic relation between the 2 CTX-M-14 ESBL-producing strains was found by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, although 2 plasmids in these strains, obtained from different broiler farms, were similar to each other. This study provides evidence that the proliferation of CTX-M-producing E. coli is due to the growth of indigenous CTX-M-producing strains and the possible emergence of strains that acquired CTX-M genes by horizontal transfer in different broiler farms. CTX-M-producing coliforms in broilers should be controlled due to the critical importance of cephalosporins and the zoonotic potential of ESBL-producing bacteria.
The numbers of tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells were evaluated in an immunohistochemical manner in 140 canine spontaneous mammary gland tumor (MGT) tissues. As a result, we found a statistically significant increase in the number of intratumoral T lymphocytes (23.2 ± 23.8) in the malignant MGT group (n=51) compared with the benign MGT group (14.0 ± 16.0, n=89; P<0.05). Moreover, the high T lymphocyte infiltration in the malignant group correlated with poor prognosis in multivariate analysis (P<0.05). This study indicated the relationship between increased infiltrating T lymphocytes and canine MGT malignancy.
Behavioral effects induced by intravenous administration of morphine at 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 μg/kg and fentanyl at 5, 10, 20, and 40 μg/kg were evaluated in dogs and cats. In dogs, fentanyl and morphine depressed activity and level of consciousness in a dose- dependant manner. In cats, higher doses of fentanyl stimulated activity temporarily, but excitement, so-called "opioid mania," was not observed. Morphine induced distinctive behavioral changes characterized by sitting with fixed staring, and "opioid mania" was not observed in cats.
In order to contribute to conservation of the endangered Kiso horse, we clarified their genetic information using 31 microsatellite DNAs, and genotyped 125 horses, 83% of the existing breed. First, we clarified the current status of the horses. The horses were confirmed to have experienced rapid loss of population causing a bottleneck, and their effective population size was much smaller than their census size. Moreover, the number of alleles (6.3), observed heterozygosity (0.674), and expected heterozygosity (0.662) were in the same range as other endangered horses all over the world. Therefore, although their inbreeding level was not so severe (Fis: -0.017), the Kiso horse is surely one of the endangered. Second, we obtained genetic information of individuals. This information allowed us to understand the genetic distance of individuals, and might help in development of a reproductive strategy concerning the genetic distance between the mating pairs. Moreover, there appeared to be 4 subpopulations of Kiso horse, and this result was in good agreement with their historical background. Third, we confirmed that the parentage test for identification using the 31 microsatellite DNAs was highly reliable (probability of exclusion: 0.999999993). This identification increases the reliability of stud certification, and is also helpful for effective management. Understanding the genetic diversity within the population and the relationships among individuals is important to ensuring effective management for maintenance of genetic variation, and this study may help in conservation of the endangered Kiso horse.
The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of key parameters (donor parity, milk production, post-parturient day, season and milk recording data) associated with efficiency of embryo recovery (ER) in Holstein cattle. Elite Holstein cows and heifers were selected for ER, while Holstein heifers were used as recipients. The numbers of transferable embryos (TEs) produced were not significantly different when analyzed in terms of donor parity, milk production, postparturient day and season. However, the numbers of TEs were significantly increased when the milk protein (%; P)/fat (%; F) ratio was over 0.95 and/or the milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was between 12 and 18 dl/ml. The results from ET showed no differences in pregnancy rates among Holstein heifers receiving other types, developmental stage codes and quality grades of embryos. The mean interval from ER to artificial insemination was 60.6 days. Moreover, 19 offspring that had milk recording data showed a similar milk yield performance to that of the donor cows. In conclusion, this study showed that in Holstein cows, embryos were recovered and transferred and resulted in production of viable calves. Furthermore, P/F ratio and MUN could be candidate indicators for selection of high-efficiency donor cows.
A Beagle dog (3 years old) that ejaculated high percentages (mean ± SE: 29.1 ± 1.2%) of sperm with a knobbed acrosome abnormality and a low number of sperm and that also had a low plasma testosterone (T) level was given 10 subcutaneous injections of 1 μg of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-A) at 3-day intervals. The plasma T level and number of sperm increased 12-14 weeks after the first injection. Although the percentages of sperm with knobbed acrosome abnormality did not change after the GnRH-A therapy, the number of sperm and percentage of actively motile sperm increased after the therapy, and a bitch gave birth to 5 healthy puppies after intravaginal artificial insemination with fresh semen collected 14 weeks after the first injection.
The objective of this study was to investigate immunoreactivity of the c-kit receptor in the oviduct of Rana chensinensis during the prehibernation period. Histological examination of oviducts was performed during the prehibernation period. The sections of oviduct were immunostained by the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method using rabbit polyclonal antisera raised against the rat c-kit receptor and PCNA. Total proteins were extracted from oviducal tissues and used for Western blotting analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of the c-kit receptor and PCNA in the oviduct tissues during the prehibernation period. Also, positive signals for the c-kit receptor and PCNA by Western blotting were observed in oviduct tissues during the prehibernation period. These results suggested that the c-kit receptor might play a regulatory role in oviducal hypertrophy in the brown frog, Rana chensinensis.
To investigate effects of Babesia infection on drug metabolism, we intraperitoneally inoculated B. microti into ICR mice and measured the expression and activity of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A, a major drug-metabolizing enzyme. Twelve days after infection, CYP3A11 mRNA, CYP3A protein and activity and mRNAs of nuclear receptors, which participate in CYP3A expression, were significantly reduced. These results suggest that B. microti infection suppresses CYP3A-dependent drug metabolism. Additionally, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 2 mRNAs were induced in the infected mouse liver. Since TNF-α is one of the potent mediators that induce NOS2 and repress CYP3A transcription, the possible involvement of TNF-α in this downregulation of CYP3A was discussed.
Truncated recombinant nucleocapsid proteins (trNs) that lack N-terminally located cross-reactive epitopes of four Murinae rodent-associated hantaviruses, Seoul virus (SEOV), Thailand virus, Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus, were produced by using a baculovirus expression system. ELISA with the trNs as antigens enabled serotyping of immune sera from rats experimentally inoculated with the corresponding hantaviruses with cut-off OD values of 60% of those of whole N of HTNV. The trN-based ELISA could serotype 12 out of 13 sera obtained from wild rodents (Rattus norvegicus) naturally infected with SEOV using the 60% cut-off value. These results indicate that screening with whole N followed by serotyping with trNs using a cut-off OD value of 60% of that of whole N is a useful method for serological surveillance of Murinae-associated hantavirus infection among rodents.
Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is one of the type I interferon-inducible proteins. Addition of ISG15 known as ISGylation is an ubiquitin-like posttranslational modification. Coexpression of ISG15 and ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1-like protein (UBE1L) is required to induce ISGylation. Previously, we identified feline ISG15 gene and found that the capsid protein of feline immunodeficiency virus was ISGylated in vitro by treatment with feline interferon-ω. In this study, we cloned feline UBE1L (FeUBE1L) gene to further study the mechanism of the antiviral activities induced by ISGylation. Sequencing analysis revealed that active sites of FeUBE1L were highly conserved. These data suggest that FeUBE1L has an enzymatic activity. Further, expression of FeUBE1L was induced in feline cell lines by treatment with feline interferon-ω and ovine interferon-τ.
Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), a novel gammaretrovirus in humans, was found in patients with prostate cancer (PC) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). However, there has been controversy whether XMRV is directly associated with human diseases. In this study, we developed a LacZ marker rescue assay using human embryonic kidney 293T cells and a focus assay using a feline fibroblastic sarcoma-positive leukemia-negative QN10S cells. XMRV induced prominent foci in QN10S cells and the viral titer determined by the focus assay was as high as that by the LacZ marker rescue assay. Because the focus assay is simple and sensitive, it will be useful for monitoring infectious XMRVs in CFS and PC patients and virological studies for XMRV.