The apoptosis process in rat esophageal epithelium was investigated using enzyme-immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. As a result, Fas and Fas-L were expressed in the epithelial cell membrane and cytoplasm from the stratum spinosum (SS) to the stratum granulosum (SG). No TNF-R1 show immunopositivity in the cell membranes. TNF-α and caspase-8 were not observed in any layer. Caspase-10, cleaved caspase-3, XIAP and DNase-1 were found in the epithelial cytoplasm from the SS to the SG, whereas Bid, Apaf-1 and cleaved caspase-9 were detected only in the SG. Cytochrome c was observed as cytoplasmic granular positivity from the stratum basale (SB) and altered into homogeneous immunopositivity in the SG. Bcl-2 and Bcl-X immunopositivity was detected in cytoplasm from the SB to the SG. Immunoreactions of Bak in the cytoplasm and Bax beneath the cell membrane were observed from the upper portion of the SS with increasing intensity toward the SG. In the sites with the hyperproliferation of indigenous bacteria, TNF-R1, TNF-α and caspase-8 were detected in the SG and the immunopositive intensities of Bid, Apaf-1 and cleaved caspase-9 were altered to be strong. Prominently swollen cells and decreased mitochondria were ultrastructurally confirmed in the uppermost layers of stratum corneum. These findings suggest that the Fas-Fas-L-interaction initially induces apoptosis through a mitochondria-independent pathway and secondarily through a mitochondria-dependent pathway, leading to eventual epithelial cell death in the rat esophageal epithelium. The bacterial stimuli probably enhance the mitochondria-dependent pathway through the TNF-R1-TNF-α interaction.
Expression patterns of sugars on the mucosal surface of the uterus in pregnant mice were investigated by using 21 kinds of lectins. In the uterine mucosa, the GlcNAc group tended to express a positive reaction before pregnant day 10, but the glucose/mannose group generally expressed a positive reaction after pregnant day 10. On the other hand, the fucose group expressed a negative reaction during all periods in pregnancy. These findings were almost the same on both the mesometrial side and anti-mesometrial side of the uterus. These differences of sugar expression probably reflect the functional change of the mucosa during pregnancy and the alteration of sugar expression may give a chance for pathogens to infect in the uterus with limited periods.
From April 1994 to March 2001, monitoring tests (surveillance) for contamination of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) at commercial egg farms and farm traceback inspections for cases of SE foodborne illness were carried out in the Himeji Livestock Hygiene Service Center jurisdiction of Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. SE vaccination was not performed before the outbreak of SE-associated foodborne illness, and SE contamination of a farm was recognized. In the surveillance, the year average percentages of identified SE-positive farms were 6.1% in farms with floor feeding in an open-type henhouse (F-OH) and 12.7% in farms with cage feeding in a windowless-type henhouse (C-WH), but 0% in farms with only cage feeding in an open-type henhouse (C-OH). The highest identified proportion of SE-positive farms among all styles of farms was found (4.3%) in April 1997-March 1999. Farm traceback inspections were performed in 2 of 7 farms feeding by F-OH and in 5 of 9 farms feeding by C-WH in this period. Easier contamination with SE was found for C-WH or F-OH than for C-OH. Ninety percent of the birds (3,632,000 birds at 70 farms) are fed at these easier contamination farms by C-WH (89% of birds in 13% of farms) or F-OH (1% of birds at 10% of farms). Integrated sanitary requirements and SE vaccinations are especially necessary on farms feeding by F-OH or C-WH. Since 1999, these countermeasures have been performed, and SE foodborne illnesses and affected patients in Hyogo Prefecture have gradually decreased.
Antimicrobial administration is essential for the control and treatment of diseases in animals, but the emergence and prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a significant concern during animal production. Here we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. aureus from diseased food-producing animals and molecularly characterized the methicillin-resistant and fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates. A total of 290 S. aureus isolates obtained from cattle (n=246), swine (n=16), and chickens (n=28) between 2003 and 2009 were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility against 9 antimicrobials using an agar dilution method. Resistance to penicillin (PC) was most frequently found (24.8%), followed by oxytetracycline (OTC, 10.0%), dihydrostreptomycin (4.1%), erythromycin (EM, 3.1%), enrofloxacin (ERFX, 2.1%), and kanamycin (1.7%). The PC resistance rate was significantly higher in swine than in cattle (P<0.01) and chickens (P<0.01). The resistance rates to OTC, EM and ERFX were significantly higher in swine and chickens than in cattle (P<0.05). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was recovered from milk derived from a cow with mastitis in 2003; sequence type 8, SCCmec type IV and spa type t024. In the six ERFX-resistant strains isolated after 2003, amino acid substitutions in ParC with/without GyrA were detected. As the prevalence of MRSA and FQ-resistant S. aureus in the animals should be noticed, continuous monitoring is necessary to control resistance to clinically important antimicrobials in S. aureus from food-producing animals.
Pasteurella multocida causes various respiratory disease symptoms in pigs, including atrophic rhinitis and pneumonia. In the present study, 69 strains of P. multocida were isolated from 443 pigs with respiratory clinical symptoms at 182 farms located throughout South Korea from 2009 to 2010. A multiplex capsular PCR typing assay revealed that 69 strains of P. multocida isolated in this study had the biosynthetic locus of the capsules of either serogroup A (47 strains, 68.1%) or serogroup D (22 strains, 31.9%). The 22 strains positive for serogroup D-specific primers were divided into four clusters and the 47 strains positive for serogroup A-specific primers were divided into 12 clusters according to the results of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. P. multocida strains in the present study were susceptible to most of the antimicrobial agents used. An analysis of antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene pattern combined with RAPD indicated that a certain P. multocida strain appeared to be genetically identical, implying the persistence of the strain within a single farm.
Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay is a simple, rapid and specific detection method and has been used for detection and identification of different Campylobacter species. In this study, we develop a LAMP assay specific for detection of a particular clone (clone SA) of Campylobacter jejuni, associated with the vast majority of recent sheep abortions in the U.S. Using a set of specific primers for C. jejuni IA3902 (a clone SA isolate) and genomic DNA or boiled cell extract as template, the target DNA was amplified at 63°C for 50 min in a water bath. A positive reaction was identified visually as white precipitate or fluorescence under UV, and confirmed by gel electrophoresis. Detection limit of the assay was comparable to that of conventional PCR. The LAMP was shown to be specific for detection of clone SA when tested on a number of C. jejuni strains of different genetic backgrounds. Applicability of the LAMP assay for specific detection of clone SA was demonstrated in animal tissues experimentally infected with IA3902 or genetically diverse C. jejuni strains. Since clone SA is the predominant cause of sheep abortions in the U.S. and is a zoonotic pathogen, the LAMP assay may be a valuable detection tool in future epidemiological studies.
The objective of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of Arcobacter spp. isolated from various sources. Seventy Arcobacter spp. isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 13 antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by using the agar disc diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated sheep blood. The antibiotics tested included enrofloxacin, erythromycin, streptomycin, gentamycin, rifampin, tetracycline, ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid, danofloxacin, amoxycillin-clavulonic acid, cefuroxime-sodium, neomycine. Although all the arcobacters tested were susceptible to gentamycin, resistance to three or more antibacterial agents (especially, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cefuroxime-sodium and rifampin) was observed. A. butzleri isolates were found to be resistant to amoxycillin+clavulonic acid, nalidixic acid and ampicillin, at the rate of 20%, 44.28% and 78.57% respectively. In conclusion, gentamycin, streptomycin and tetracycline may be suitable antibiotics for the treatment or control of disease caused by Arcobacter spp. in veterinary and human medicine.
Second malignancies are frequent complications in human patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the clinical details and outcome of this phenomenon were unclear in their canine counterparts. Here, we report a dog with high-grade lymphoma concurrent with T-cell CLL. A 10-year-old male golden retriever presented with lymphadenopathies. The lymph nodes contained large-sized lymphocytes, raising suspicion of high-grade lymphoma. Meanwhile, small lymphocytic lymphocytosis in the peripheral blood was consistent with CLL. Interestingly, molecular biological analyses revealed that CLL cells were of the T-cell type, whereas lymphoma cells were of the B-cell type. Chemotherapy using the L-VCA short protocol was effective for 155 days, but the dog died on day 194 after diagnosis, despite rescue therapies.
In the present study, we have developed an allele-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (ASP-PCR) for genotyping a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of swine Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) (C406G), which is related to the prevalence of pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. We also compared the allele frequency among several pig breeds of Japan and the Czech Republic. Allele-specific primers were constructed by introducing 1-base mismatch sequence before the SNP site. The swine TLR2 C406G mutation was successfully determined by the ASP-PCR using genomic DNA samples in Japan as previously genotyped by a sequencing method. Using the PCR condition determined, genomic DNA samples from pig blood obtained from 110 pigs from 7 different breeds in the Czech Republic were genotyped by the ASP-PCR. The genotyping results from the ASP-PCR were completely matched with the results from the sequencing method. The allele frequency of the swine TLR2 C406G mutation was 27.5% in the Czech Republic and 3.6% in Japan. The C406G mutation was only found in the Landrace breed in Japan, and was almost exclusively found in the Landrace breed in the Czech Republic as well. These results indicated the usefulness of ASP-PCR for detecting a specific SNP for swine TLR2.
In this study, the pathophysiologic and immunologic parameters from a 24-hr of canine endotoxemia model by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion were evaluated. For that, twelve healthy beagles received a continuous 24-hr IV infusion of low dose LPS (10 μg/kg/h, from Escherichia coli serotype O111:B4) dissolved in saline. Complete blood counts and serum biochemical analysis as well as histopathologic examination were performed to assess pathophysiologic changes such as neutrophil migration and organ injury. To evaluate immunologic parameters, the concentrations of plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 were determined, and neutrophil activation was also evaluated based on cell surface expression of CD11b using flow cytometry analysis. As results, systemic signs of endotoxemia including fever, vomiting, and hemorrhagic diarrhea were observed within short time after LPS infusion. Severe leukopenia and increased fluorescent intensity of CD11b on neutrophils were observed at 3 hr while percent positive of CD11b was the maximum at 12 hr during the experiment. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) concentrations increased markedly, and organ damage was confirmed on histopathologic examination. Plasma TNF-α peaked at 3 hr and decreased rapidly, while the concentrations of IL-6 and IL-10 increased gradually until 6 hr and decreased thereafter. Using this canine endotoxemia model, we were able to determine the kinetics of pathophysiologic and immunologic parameters over a period of 24 hr. This study will enhance our understanding of their mechanisms underlying canine sepsis.
Escherichia coli(E. coli) isolated from the uterus of a Thoroughbred mare with bacterial endometritis was used to evaluate the effect of progesterone (P4) on the immune response of mares. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from 10 nonpregnant clinically healthy adult mares (range, 4-12 years) during diestrus, four Thoroughbreds and six Hokkaido native horses. Cell proliferation and expression of cytokine mRNA, including interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10, of PBMCs stimulated with E. coli and P4 were examined in vitro. P4 was shown to have significantly inhibited E. coli induced proliferation and expression of IFN-γ in PBMCs. These results indicate that P4 inhibits the immune response to E. coli in mares.
To establish a method to predict postpartum diseases using prepartum back fat thickness (BFT), the peripartum BFTs of 54 healthy multiparous cows before calving, which were diagnosed with postpartum displacement of the abomasum (DA), clinical ketosis or subclinical ketosis were compared with those of healthy cows from 8 weeks before the expected calving date to 8 weeks after calving. The peripartum BFTs of the cows with DA or clinical ketosis were significantly higher than those of healthy cows. The peripartum BFTs of the cows with subclinical ketosis were not significantly higher than those of the healthy cows.
A 5-year-old female Chihuahua was presented for acute collapse. Laboratory examinations showed markedly elevated levels of hepatobiliary enzymes. Empiric antibiotic therapy for bacterial infection of the liver was ineffective. The clinical signs worsened with the development of hyponatremia with hypoosmolality and elevated urine sodium levels. The dog was suspected of having acute cholangiohepatitis associated with an immune-mediated disease. Subsequently, it was diagnosed with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) on the basis of the specific disease criteria. Further tests showed normal function of the adrenal and thyroid glands, and MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis did not show any intracranial diseases. Immunosuppressive therapy and water restriction resolved the clinical signs and improved the SIADH in this dog. This case indicates that SIADH can occur concurrently with suspected immune-mediated liver disease in dogs.
A 7-year-old, 1.76 kg Maltese dog presented with a 4-year history of a chronic pustular lesion and a wet cough. Erosive lesions were seen at the left thoracic wall. Radiology and computed tomography (CT) revealed a bronchocutaneous fistula connecting from the left cranial bronchus to the skin. On definitive surgery, a long wooden toothpick was observed within this tract, and clinical signs resolved after retrieval of the foreign body. Three-dimensional CT was useful to identify the characteristics of the bronchocutaneous fistula. However, the wooden foreign body was not apparent on CT. Here, we report the clinical, clinicopathological and diagnostic imaging findings of a chronic bronchocutaneous fistula caused by a foreign body in a dog.
An 8-year-old intact female dog presented with a sudden onset of unilateral hindlimb paralysis of 3 days duration. Based on the history and results of physical, neurological, and histopathological examinations, and blood work, an arterial thrombosis was suspected as a complication of the hypercoagulability from a malignant mammary gland tumor. Thermography provided evidence of the unilateral femoral thrombus. Initially, thrombolysis with streptokinase administered by intravenous infusion was ineffective. Thereafter, the direct delivery of streptokinase to the site of thrombus was attempted. The approach was curative. These results suggest that thermography could describe the site of the arterial thrombus, and local intra-arterial administration of streptokinase may be an effective therapy for the canine arterial thrombosis complicated by malignant mammary gland tumor.
A five-year-old male Java sparrow (Padda oryzivora) was examined because of the appearance of a purple spot approximately 1 mm in diameter on the right metatarsal pad. Seven months later, the spot spread to the entire right leg, and the bird died. At necropsy, multiple neoplastic masses on the right leg reached up to the pelvic cavity. There was one similar mass on the right kidney and multiple red spots on the liver. Histopathological examination revealed that neoplastic cells proliferated solidly or formed abundant irregular blood vessels. Watanabe silver staining revealed that neoplastic cells were surrounded by argentophil fibers. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for anti-human von Willebrand factor antibodies. This is the first report of hemangiosarcoma in a finch.
A subcutaneous tumor in the left inguinal region was present in an 11-year-old female bloodhound. Histopathologically, the tumor showed invasive growth and extensive necroses, and it was composed of spindle-shaped, elongated, and stellate neoplastic cells accompanied by occasional giant cells arranged in fascicular, herringbone, or irregular storiform patterns with abundant production of collagen fibers. The cytoplasm of most tumor cells was positive for vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and calponin, but was negative for desmin, smoothelin, and S-100. Furthermore, most of the tumor cells were negative for Iba1 while some tumor cells were weakly positive. Thus, this tumor was diagnosed as a high-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma according to the diagnostic criteria for human myofibroblastic sarcomas.
An adult male Japanese giant salamander (Andrias japonicus) died accidentally, and necropsy showed a white mass (23 × 15 mm) in the left kidney and hepatorrhexis with hemoperitoneum. Histologically, the renal mass was mainly composed of immature nephroblastic tumor cells. In the tumor tissue, a trabecular pattern lined by oval to polygonal tumor cells with a rich interstitium, solid growth and a few tubular structures was observed. Nephroblastic tumor cells were strongly positive for vimentin and weakly positive, and epithelium-like tumor cells were strongly positive for cytokeratin. However, antibody for Wilms’ tumor protein 1 did not react with the salamander’s cells. On electron microscopy, a desmosome junction was observed between tumor cells. This is the first report of nephroblastoma in a Japanese giant salamander.
We examined the effects of photodynamic hyperthemal therapy (PHT), which is a combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and hyperthermia (HT), on the apoptosis and cell cycle progression of murine melanoma B16F10 cells. The percentage of apoptotic cell was determined by flow cytometry using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) double staining. The cell cycle analysis was performed by PI staining with flow cytometry. The expression of cyclins and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were examined by a Western blotting analysis. PHT induces death in B16F10 cells, and PHT-mediated apoptosis occurred acutely and persistently in vitro. Our study demonstrated that PHT using indocyanine green (ICG) and near infrared (NIR) light source induces apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in the B16F10 cells.
Regenerative medicine using bone marrow cells is an attractive therapy for the cure of patients with severe liver disease. Here, we show the therapeutic potential of canine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in mouse models of CCl4-induced chronic liver dysfunction. We used two different models for xenotransplantation, nude mice and cyclosporine A (CSA) immunosuppressed mice. Serum parameters from a standard liver panel were not improved following transplantation. However, fibrotic liver lesions with severe inflammation were decreased in CCl4-treated CSA mice following BMSC transplantation. Effective migration of transplanted canine BMSCs was limited to persistently injured liver in CCl4-treated CSA mice, where they may be effective in resolving inflammatory fibrotic lesions. These results suggest that canine BMSCs are an effective cell source for liver regeneration.
Autologous bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) infusion therapy improves the hepatic fibrosis. To investigate the mechanism of remission, we evaluated the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 activity in canine BMSCs and the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on their expression. The activity and the gene expression of MMPs were analyzed by gelatin zymography and quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. The specific gelatinase bands were indicative effect of MMP-2 and -9 in canine BMSCs. MMP-2 expression seemed to be increased by TNF-α and IL-1β while MMP-9 was enhanced by TNF-α and IL-6. These results suggested that remissive effect on liver fibrosis might be partly attributable to the MMP-2 and -9 activity in BMSCs under the inflammatory condition.
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of propofol and thiopental on the plasma oxidant-antioxidant profile in dogs undergoing surgery at doses used to induce anesthesia. The plasma total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels increased significantly with time in both groups, whereas the plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) levels decreased with time in both groups. The OSI was significantly higher at the end of surgery than before induction of anesthesia in both groups. The TOS and OSI change ratio of propofol group were significantly lower than that of thiopental group. In conclusion, our findings show that propofol has antioxidant effects in dogs. Further studies need to be conducted to demonstrate the exact mechanism of oxidative stress due to anesthesia and surgery in dogs.
A six-year-old intact female Maltese dog weighing 3.8 kg presented with a history of mild lameness and swelling on both forelimbs. Radiographic and computed tomographic views revealed an extensive periosteal reaction in all four limbs and a large round mass on the right middle lung lobe. A total lobectomy was performed and pulmonary adenosquamous carcinoma was histologically confirmed. A diagnosis of hypertrophic osteopathy (HO) secondary to a lung tumor was made. Periosteal proliferation decreased significantly after surgery; however, there was evidence of dyspnea, mass recurrence, and periosteal reaction three months post-operatively. This is the first case report of pulmonary adenosquamous carcinoma with HO in a dog in which we describe clinical, imaging, surgical, and histological findings.
Due to the long parturition period of raccoons, we assumed that age at first conception of late born females was later than that of early born females. From March 2005 to September 2008, 201 females estimated to be younger than 24 months were separated into early- and late-born groups on the basis of their estimated birth month (to the nearest 2 months), and parous status and body mass index (BMI) were examined. Age at first conception of late-born females (over 18 months old) was estimated to be later than that of early-born females (over 12 months old). The average BMI in early-born individuals at 12 months old might have affected their ability to conceive because of body fat deposition.
Antioxidant and oxidative stress effects of prooxidants are generally dose-dependent, and these effects depend on the prooxidant species and cell type. However, the cellular response to oxidant challenge is a complicated interplay of events involving cellular expression of phase II detoxification enzymes and cellular metal metabolism. This study demonstrates the effect of tert-butylhydroquinone (t-BHQ)-induced oxidative stress on MDCK cells. Cell toxicity tests were carried out using the crystal violet (CV) assay with the following prooxidants: t-BHQ, diethyl maleate (DEM), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), diquat (DQ) and β-naphthoflavone (β-NF). Except for β-NF, these prooxidants showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity besides the most potent t-BHQ cytotoxicity. Only t-BHQ and DEM caused significant time-dependent expression of ferritin protein as an antioxidant, which segregates Fe2+, causing the Fenton reaction. t-BHQ and DEM increased formation of lipid peroxidation, but DQ showed a tendency to decrease lipid peroxidation levels. In XTT assay, even when substantial cell death was observed in the CV assay, t-BHQ appeared to increase cell viability by enhancing XTT reduction, likely through the production of NADPH. Although curcumin, which induces cytoprotective phase II enzymes and chelates metal irons, decreased cell viability, it inhibited t-BHQ cytotoxicity. These results indicate that t-BHQ exhibits strong cytotoxicity against MDCK cells, an effect mitigated by curcumin, and that t-BHQ-induced oxidative stress activates the pentose phosphate pathway.